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Author: Witold Pahl
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 11-23
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201401
PDF: ksm/19/ksm201401.pdf

Streszczenie:

Słowo „mandat” (z łac. mandatum, tłum. zlecenie) oznacza pełnomocnictwo udzielone osobie sprawującej funkcję pochodzącą z wyboru, a także przypisane jej obowiązki. Innymi słowy przez pojęcie to należy rozumieć stosunek polityczno-prawny zachodzący między podmiotem, sprawującym funkcję z wyboru (np. posłem, senatorem), a wyborcami, obejmujący udzielone przez wyborców pełnomocnictwo do reprezentowania ich w sprawowaniu władzy państwowej.

Author: Akylbek. L. Saliev
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 24-30
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201402
PDF: ksm/19/ksm201402.pdf

Streszczenie:

There are considered legal proceedings rapprochement examples of the nomadic population of Turkestan with the all-Russion court and the legislation.

the nomadic population russification legal proceeding Turkestan

Author: Robert Andrzejczyk
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 31-43
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201403
PDF: ksm/19/ksm201403.pdf

Streszczenie:

This article takes up topic rarely covered in Polish economic history i.e. compensations for nationalization and pre-IIWW debts to natural and legal persons from selected countries. During the 1948–1971 period Polish Government signed 12 bilateral indemnity agreements.

Based on these agreements Polish government transferred to the governments of foreign states lump-sum compensations to satisfy the claims of entities referred to above (exceptions: Norway – mutual compensation agreement offsetting claims, France – indemnization in the form of hard coal deliveries). Selection of these countries was done based on economic interests of Poland after IIWW (e.g. perspectives of export of hard coal). Historical source material for this article is note titled “Capitalist countries claims against Poland for pre-IIWW and IIWW debts as well as claims that arose out of Polish laws affecting foreign property after liberation.” Note is dated 19th March 1954 and was addressed to the Polish Minister of Finance. Document is kept in the Central Archives of Modern Records (AAN) in Warsaw, archival collection of the Ministry of Finance, Minister’s Office file, No 2/24.

public debt compensation indemnity agreements nationalization

Author: Andrzej Sepkowski
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 55-62
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201404
PDF: ksm/19/ksm201404.pdf

Streszczenie:

The search for salvation is an obviously important component of the quest. For many people in this essentially individualistic culture, it is a preoccupation that virtually eclipses the idea of social justice, the other central dimension of the search. At the very least, the pursuit of salva-tion offers a point of entry. Definitions of salvation are diverse and often incopmatible. In American civil religion everyone had a right to pass through the zone of abundance, and in time, it was thought, everyone would. As the goal of general abundance was approached the major social problems of discrimination, poverty, unemployment, divisive material inequalities and environmental stress would become manageable. Some people might define abundance itself as the promised land: others might move on from material satiety to new psychological and spiritual frontiers.

Author: Kazimierz Pierzchała
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 63-73
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201405
PDF: ksm/19/ksm201405.pdf

Streszczenie:

Convicted of dangerous (status “N”):

1) Subjective criteria. The embedded person is identified as a “N”, whose behawior at the offence, personal conditions, the type and size of the negative consequences of crime, motivations, the way of proceeding during the stay in prison, the degree of demoralization carry important social threat or serious danger to the plant.

2) Subject criteria, referring to the type of crime committed by the embedded person (crime with particular cruelty or use of firearms). The list of offenses is open.

The status “N” can also be obtained for especially reprehensible behavior during previous imprisonment. The list of offenses is closed (he was the perpetrator of rape, grievous bodily harm, or abused inmates).

category humanization parliamentary act convicted of dangerous beast embedded prisoners rehabilitation

Author: Krzysztof Broński
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 74-87
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201406
PDF: ksm/19/ksm201406.pdf

Streszczenie:

In the nineteenth century the monopoly of salt industry functioned throughout the Habsburg monarchy. This monopoly acknowledged the underground salt for state ownership. Until the early 1890s the sale of salt took place on free-market principles. Recognizing the need to control the prices of salt as an important article of first necessity, Galician autonomous government decided to organize salt trade themselves. Under the agreement of 1892 with the Austrian government the sale of salt was organized by the National Department. The National Parliament had also set up a special Commission which oversaw the activities of the National Department regarding the sale of salt. The responsibility of the National Department was also to sell kainite (fertilizer salt). At the end of the nineteenth century there functioned 280 stores and 3500 agencies of salt trade under the National Board of Salt in Galicia. Therefore, domestic authorities in Galicia managed to organize the sale of salt at low prices, which was of great importance for the poverty – stricken community of the region. Despite many efforts, the attempts to obtain the right to mine salt under the control of Galician autonomous authorities’ board were unsuccessful.

the sale of salt National Department the Habsburg monarchy salt industry Galicia

Author: Mirosław Kłusek
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 88-97
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201407
PDF: ksm/19/ksm201407.pdf

Streszczenie:

Official Hans Frank, not counting indexes includes 24 volumes of diaries and 11 volumes of minutes. Entries were conducted from 24 October, 1939 to April 3, 1945. It can be a great source of historical research into the German occupation during World War II. However, using the Journal, we must not forget the conditions under which arose and how it was given character – propaganda showing the construction of a new order in the East. Also be aware that the issues were not top secret protocols.

the German occupation Hans Frank General Government World War II

Author: Łukasz Tomasz Sroka
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 98-109
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201408
PDF: ksm/19/ksm201408.pdf

Streszczenie:

The presence of Jews in the representations of Galician cities was both one of the results of the introduction of their equal rights, and its consolidation. Jews present in municipal governments took care about matters relevant not only for their community. They engaged in key projects directed at all citizens, regardless of faith and nationality. The voting system (due to the specific division into circles and curiae) preferred the richest and the best-educated. In consequence, the Jewish community was commonly represented in city councils by those coming from families of assimilated representatives of intelligentsia, merchants and bankers. Obviously, the greatest percentage of white-collar employees could be observed in bigger cities, being seats of courts, barrister’s chambers, notary offices, secondary schools and higher education institutions. Therefore, from that time on, their voice could be heard in the public space and had to be taken into account.

Lviv Krakow municipal government Galicia the Jews

Author: Dariusz Piotr Kruk
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 109-119
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201409
PDF: ksm/19/ksm201409.pdf

Streszczenie:

Most of the nineteenth-century historians from Cracow did not pay particular attention to Jewish residents. Cracow in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century was an economically developing city. The new investments had been taken and purchased, so that Cracow was seen as a modern and friendly city for its inhabitants.

In 1848–1914 a new model of entrepreneur was created in Galicia. Some entrepreneurs from Cracow were taking innovative actions and focusing on development. The enterprises have been transformed in such areas as the ownership, production and organization. The large group of entrepreneurs among the Cracow inhabitants constituted the Jewish population. The subject of this article is to outline the characteristics of the activities of Jewish entrepreneurs in Cracow.

organization structure economic institutions entrepreneur Entrepreneurship innovation

Kontynuuj czytanie

Author: Arkadiusz Machniak
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 120-135
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201410
PDF: ksm/19/ksm201410.pdf

Streszczenie:

During years 1944 to 1956 the communist repression apparatus has kept under surveillance every aspect of civilian life of Przeworsk’s community. There were not people, professions or business entities which could stay out of interest of. Special attention was directed to people who were connected with former Polish Armed Forces on the West and military structures which acted in occupied Poland (f. e. Homeland Army). In the area of interest communist’s security services added inhabitants of Przeworsk city who had private connections with foreigners, listened west radio broadcast or stated negative opinions about communist’s party.

Also economic problems in the Przeworsk’s nationalized industry were assessed as planned by enemies of communist system and in order to weaken socialist economy. However, analysis of the documents which were made by communist repression apparatus stated that inhabitants of Przeworsk were not connected with the alleged activity of foreigner intelligence services or harmed city nationalized industry.

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