• facebook

The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Turkish foreign policy towards the Western Balkans

Author: Jan Niemiec
Institution: Jagiellonian University in Kraków
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8593-451X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 201-228
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223510
PDF: npw/35/npw3510.pdf

The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Turkish foreign policy towards the Western Balkans

The scientific aim of this paper is to analyse and evaluate actions taken by Turkey’s leading politicians with regard to the Western Balkan states (i.e. Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the Justice and Development Party came to power in 2002, Turkey has attempted to increase its international influence through diplomatic, economic and cultural measures. Western Balkans region, with which Turks have historical and ethnic ties, is one of the key areas in AKP’s doctrine. Adopting image theory in international relations as the theoretical foundation, this research examines implementation of Turkish foreign policy in the Western Balkans in times of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic. By employing available original Turkish sources (academic publications, public reports, press releases), the main objectives of Turkey’s political strategy towards the region have been determined. Detailed analysis of official statements and speeches of Turkish policy-makers was also fundamental for this study. In this context, the values and symbols to which the AKP government refers in its activities in the Western Balkans have been identified. Based on content analysis, comparative analysis and political discourse analysis, this research seeks to explain the rationale of Turkish actions in recent months. As a conclusion, future prospects for Turkey’s involvement in the Western Balkans have been presented and discussed.

Влияние пандемии COVID-19 на внешнюю политику Турции в отношении Западных Балкан

Научная цель этой статьи — проанализировать и оценить действия, предпринятые ведущими политиками Турции в отношении западно-балканских государств (т. е. Албании, Боснии и Герцеговины, Косово, Черногории, Северной Македонии и Сербии) во время пандемии COVID-19. С тех пор как в 2002 году к власти пришла Партия справедливости и развития, Турция пыталась усилить свое международное влияние с помощью дипломатических, экономических и культурных мер. Регион Западных Балкан, с которым турки имеют исторические и этнические связи, является одним из ключевых направлений доктрины ПСР. Принимая теорию имиджа в международных отношениях в качестве теоретической основы, это исследование изучает реализацию внешней политики Турции на Западных Балканах во время пандемии коронавируса SARS-CoV-2. Используя доступные оригинальные турецкие источники (академические публикации, публичные отчеты, пресс-релизы), были определены основные цели политической стратегии Турции в отношении региона. Детальный анализ официальных заявлений и выступлений турецких политиков также имел основополагающее значение для данного исследования. В этом контексте были определены ценности и символы, на которые ссылается правительство ПСР в своей деятельности на Западных Балканах. Основанное на контент-анализе, сравнительном анализе и анализе политического дискурса, это исследование призвано объяснить причины действий Турции в последние месяцы. В заключение были представлены и обсуждены будущие перспективы участия Турции в делах на Западных Балканах.

REFERENCES:

  • Abdula, F. (2020). Anadolu Ajansı. TBMM Başkanı Şentop Kuzey Makedonya’da. Retrieved from: https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/dunya/tbmm-baskani-sentop-kuzey -makedonya-da/2083637.
  • Akgün, S. (2012). Kosova Türklerinin Tarihten Bugüne Kimlik Mücadelesi. Karadeniz Araştırmaları, 34, 11–36.
  • Aksoy, H.A. (2020). Turkey and the Corona Crisis: The Instrumentalization of the Pandemic for Domestic and Foreign Policy. Barcelona: European Institute of the Mediterranean.
  • Aktürk, Ş. (2020). Turkey’s Grand Strategy as the Third Power: A Realist Proposal. Perceptions: Journal of International Affairs, 2(25), 152–177.
  • Alexander, M.G., Levin, S., Henry P.J. (2005). Image theory, social identity, and social dominance: Structural characteristics and individual motives underlying international images. Political Psychology, 1(26), 27–45.
  • Ankara Sanayi Odası (2020). Bosna Hersek’den Türkiye İle Ticaret Hacmini 1 Milyar Dolar’a Çıkarmak İçin İşbirliği Çağrısı, Retrieved from: https://www.aso.org.tr/ bosna-hersek-den-turkiye-ile-ticaret-hacmini-1-milyar-dolar-a-cikarmak-icin-isbirligi-cagrisi-2696.
  • Atalay, O. (2021). Stratejik Düşünce Enstitüsü. Balkanlarda Zamanın Ruhu Arnavutlar ve Kosova İlişkilerimiz. Retrieved from: https://www.sde.org.tr/analiz/ balkanlarda-zamanin-ruhu-arnavutlar-ve-kosova-iliskilerimiz-analizi-25197.
  • Aydın, F. (2020). Türkiye’nin İnsanî Diplomasi Örneği: Kovid-19 Salgını Karşısında Uluslararası Dayanışma. Ankara: TASAV Dış Politika ve Güvenlik Araştırmaları Merkezi.
  • Aydıntaşbaş, A. (2020). The Turkish Sonderweg: The New Turkey’s role in the global order. İstanbul: İstanbul Politikalar Merkezi.
  • Baba, G. (2018). Turkey’s Multistakeholder Diplomacy: From a Middle Power Angle. In: E. Parlar Dal (ed.). Middle Powers in Global Governance: The Rise of Turkey (75–96). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Balkans News. (2020). Serbia: Vučić and Erdogan discuss political cooperation and investments. Retrieved from: https://balkans.news/2020/09/25/serbia-vucic-erdogan- -discuss-political-co-operation-investment/.
  • Balkans News (2021). Northern Macedonia: Sekerinska, Akar sign five-year military-economic agreement. Retrieved from: https://balkans.news/2021/08/18/northern-macedonia-sekerinska-akar-sign-five-year-military-economic-agreement/.
  • Bermek, S. (2019). The Rise of Hybrid Political Islam in Turkey: Origins and Consolidation of the JDP. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Bilali, R. (2010). Assessing the Internal Validity of Image Theory in the Context of Turkey-U.S. Relations. Political Psychology, 2(31), 275–303.
  • Boulding, K. (1959). National Images and International Systems. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 2(3), 120–131.
  • Büyük, H.F. (2020). Balkan Insight. Turkey Seeks to Boost Presence in Montenegro. Retrieved from: https://balkaninsight.com/2020/02/11/turkey-seeks-to-boost-presence- -in-montenegro/.
  • Cela, A. (2020). Albania and the Influence of Outside Actors. In: B. Rausch, M. Dzurinda, W. Fasslabend (eds.). The Strategic Role of External Actors in the Western Balkans (5–16). Brussels: Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies.
  • Cenić, S. (2022). International Politics and Society. Could Bosnia and Herzegovina disintegrate?. Retrieved from: https://www.ips-journal.eu/topics/democracy-and-society/ could-bosnia-and-herzegovina-disintegrate-5635/.
  • Chaban, N., Elgström, O., Gulyaeva, O. (2017). Russian Images of the European Union: Before and after Maidan. Foreign Policy Analysis, 13, 480–499.
  • Cihangir-Tetik, D. (2021). Turkey’s Activism and Actorness in the Western Balkans. In: E. Kuşku-Sönmez, Ç. Üstün (eds.). Turkey’s Changing Transatlantic Relations (237–265). Lanham: Lexington Books.
  • Crnovrsanin, S., Talha Öztürk, M. (2020). Anadolu Ajansı. Türkiye’nin Sancak bölgesi için gönderdiği tıbbi yardımlar Sırbistan’a ulaştı. Retrieved from: https://www.aa.com.tr/ tr/dunya/turkiyenin-sancak-bolgesi-icin-gonderdigi-tibbi-yardimlar-sirbistana-ulasti/1899542.
  • Cuka, F., Aliju, D. (2021). Anadolu Ajansı. Türkiye’nin Arnavutluk’ta açtığı hastane Türk-Arnavut dostluğunu pekiştirecek. Retrieved from: https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/ dunya/turkiyenin-arnavutlukta-actigi-hastane-turk-arnavut-dostlugunu-pekistirecek/2262513.
  • Çağaptay, S. (2019). Erdogan’s Empire: Turkey and the Politics of the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris.
  • Çetinkaya, B., Yüzbaşıoğlu, N. (2021). Anadolu Ajansı. Kosovo ‘needs’ Turkey’s support for global recognition, membership. Retrieved from: https://www.aa.com.tr/en/europe/ kosovo-needs-turkey-s-support-for-global-recognition-membership/2280778.
  • Davutoğlu, A. (2001). Stratejik Derinlik: Türkiye’nin Uluslararası Konumu. İstanbul: Küre Yayınları.
  • Demirtaş, B. (2017). Reconsidering Turkey’s Balkan Ties: Opportunities and Limitations. In: P. Gözen Ercan (ed.). Turkish Foreign Policy: International Relations, Legality and Global Reach (129–150). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Dursun-Özkanca, O. (2019). Turkey–West Relations: The Politics of Intra-alliance Opposition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ekinci, D. (2015). Turkish Decision-Making and the Balkans: Implications of Role Theory. In: H. Işıksal, O. Örmeci (eds.), Turkish Foreign Policy in the New Millennium (365–392). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Edition.
  • Gibas-Krzak, D. (2017). Political, Economic and Cultural Influences of Neo-Ottomanism in Post-Yugoslavian Countries: An Analysis Illustrated with Selected Examples. Studia Środkowoeuropejskie i Bałkanistyczne, 26, 89–101.
  • Gilliam, J., Van Wie, R. (2022). Brookings Institution. Interim security insights and implications from the first two months of the Russia-Ukraine war. Retrieved from: https:// brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/FP_20220512_ukraine_war_gilliam_van_wie.pdf.
  • Government of Montenegro. (2021). Krivokapić, Erdogan: The future of relations between Montenegro and Turkey is in richer economic cooperation. Retrieved from: https:// gov.me/en/article/krivokapic-erdogan-the-future-of-relations-between-montenegro-and-turkey-is-in-richer-economic-cooperation.
  • Gül, K., Crnovrsanin, S. (2020). Anadolu Ajansı. Türkiye yeni yatırımlarla Bosna Hersek’teki beyin göçünü engellemek istiyor. Retrieved from: https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/ dunya/turkiye-yeni-yatirimlarla-bosna-hersekteki-beyin-gocunu-engellemek-istiyor/1998440.
  • Hamit, D. (2021). Anadolu Ajansı. Turkey condemns Kosovo’s opening embassy in Jerusalem, Retrieved from: https://www.aa.com.tr/en/turkey/turkey- -condemns-kosovos-opening-embassy-in-jerusalem/2175805.
  • Hamit, D., Aliyev, J. (2022). Anadolu Ajansı. Overcoming Bosnia crisis demands international cooperation: Turkish president. Retrieved from: https://www.aa.com.tr/en/ politics/overcoming-bosnia-crisis-demands-international-cooperation-turkish-president/2477737.
  • Hänsel, L., Feyerabend, F.C. (2018). The influence of external actors in the Western Balkans: A map of geopolitical players. Berlin: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e.V.
  • Haugom, L. (2019). Turkish foreign policy under Erdogan: A change in international orientation?. Comparative Strategy, 3(38), 206–223.
  • Herrmann, R.K. (2003). Image Theory and Strategic Interaction in International Relations. In: D.O. Sears, L. Huddy, R. Jervis (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology (285–314). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Herrmann, R.K. (2013). Perceptions and Image Theory in International Relations. In: L. Huddy, D.O. Sears, J. Levy (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology (2 ed.) (334–363). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Herrmann, R.K., Fischerkeller, M.P. (1995). Beyond the Enemy Image and Spiral Model: Cognitive-Strategic Research after the Cold War. International Organization, 3(49), 415–450.
  • Herrmann, R.K., Voss, J.F., Schooler, T., Ciarrochi, J. (1997). Images in International Relations: An Experimental Test of Cognitive Schemata. International Studies Quarterly, 3(41), 403–433.
  • Holsti, O.R. (1962). The belief system and national images: a case study. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 3(6), 244–252.
  • Jaćimović, D., Deichmann, J.I., Tianping, K. (2022). Challenges of Enlargement in the Western Balkans. Brussels: Trans European Policy Studies Association.
  • Kleiner, T.M. (2012). National Image and Trustworthiness: The Role of Cultural Values in the Creation of Trust between European Nations. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 3(8), 223–234.
  • Kosovo Prime Minister Office. (2021). Prime Minister Kurti held discussions with the Kosovo-Turkey Chamber of Commerce regarding opportunities for investment in Kosovo. Retrieved from: https://kryeministri.rks-gov.net/en/prime-minister-kurti-held-discussions-with-the-kosovo-turkey-chamber-of-commerce-regarding-opportunities-for-investment-in-kosovo/.
  • Koukoudakis, G. (2013). Greek-Turkish Rapprochement and Turkey’s EU Membership Quest: Turning Rhetoric into Reality. Turkish Policy Quarterly, 2(12), 157–165.
  • Kurtuluş, B. (2020). Turkey’s Foreign Policy in the Balkans: Soft Power in a Conflict Region. In: P. Yürür, A. Özkan (eds.). Conflict Areas in the Balkans (211–222). Lanham: Lexington Books.
  • Kutlay, M., Öniş, Z. (2021). Turkish foreign policy in a post-western order: strategic autonomy or new forms of dependence? International Affairs, 4(97), 1085–1104.
  • Lami, B. (2020). Tirana Observatory. A Trajectory of Turkey’s Foreign Policy in Western Balkans. Retrieved from: https://tiranaobservatory.com/2020/07/13/a-trajectory-of-turkeys-foreign-policy-in-western-balkans/.
  • Lika, I. (2020). Turkey’s Corona Diplomacy in the Balkans. Ankara: SETA.
  • Lucarelli, S. (2007). The European Union in the Eyes of Others: Towards Filling a Gap in the Literature. European Foreign Affairs Review, 12, 249–270.
  • Madhi, G. (2021). “Our brother Erdogan” – From official to personal relations of political leaders of Albania and Kosovo with the Turkish President. Praha: Prague Security Studies Institute.
  • Muhasilović, J. (2018). Turkey’s Faith-based Diplomacy in the Balkans. Rising Powers Quarterly, 3, 63–85.
  • Nuroğlu, H.N., Nuroğlu, E. (2019). Turkey and Germany in the Balkans: Competing with Each Other?. Insight Turkey, 2(21), 211–236.
  • Özdamar, Ö. (2016). Domestic Sources of Changing Turkish Foreign Policy Toward the MENA During the 2010s. In: J. Kaarbo, C. Cantir (eds.). Domestic Role Contestation, Foreign Policy, and International Relations (89–104). Routledge: New York.
  • Özkan, B. (2021). Anadolu Ajansı. Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan, Kuzey Makedonya Başbakanı Zoran Zaev’i kabul etti. Retrieved from: https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-kuzey-makedonya-basbakani-zoran-zaevi-kabul-etti/2264983.
  • Özkeçeci-Taner, B. (2012). From Allies to Frenemies and Inconvenient Partners: Image Theory and Turkish-Israeli Relations. Perceptions: Journal of International Affairs, 3(17), 105–129.
  • Öztop, F.A. (2016). Türk Dış politikası Yapım Sürecinde Karar Birimlerinin Etkileri. İstanbul: Gündoğan Yayınları.
  • Öztürk, A.E. (2020). Turkey’s Soft Power in Southeast Europe during the AKP period. In: Ch. Hagemann (ed.), Southeast Europe in Focus. External Actors Series: Turkey (29–45). München: Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft e.V.
  • Progonati, E. (2015). Rol Teorisi Bağlamında Türkiye’nin Kosova Politikasının İncelenmesi. In: E. Efegil (ed.). Türkiye’nin Çatışma Bölgelerine Yönelik Dış Politikasının Analizi (261–300). İstanbul: Gündoğan Yayınevi.
  • Rašidagić, E.K., Hesova, Z. (2020). Development of Turkish Foreign Policy Towards the Western Balkans with Focus on Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croatian International Relations Review, 26(86), 96–129.
  • Republic of North Macedonia – President. (2021). President Pendarovski meets with the Turkish President Erdogan in Antalya. Retrieved from: https://pretsedatel.mk/ en/president-pendarovski-meets-with-the-turkish-president-erdogan-in-antalya/.
  • Republic of Serbia Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2021). Selaković: Relations between Serbia and Turkey at the highest level in modern history. Retrieved from: https://www.mfa.gov.rs/en/press-service/statements/selakovic-relations-between -serbia-and-turkey-highest-level-modern-history.
  • Sazak, S.C., Kurç, Ç. (2018). From Zero Problems to Zero Friends? The Past, Present, and Future of Turkey’s Role in Regional Security Cooperation. New York: The Century Foundation.
  • Silverstein, B. (1989). Enemy Images: The Psychology of US Attitudes and Cognitions Regarding the Soviet Union. American Psychologist, 6(44), 903–913.
  • C. Cumhurbaşkanlığı (2020). TOKİ’nin yapacağı konutlar Türkiye-Arnavutluk dostluğunun nişanesidir, Retrieved from: https://www.tccb.gov.tr/haberler/410/123310/-toki- -nin-yapacagi-konutlar-turkiye-arnavutluk-dostlugunun-nisanesidir-.
  • C. Cumhurbaşkanlığı (2021a). Arnavutluk’ta altyapı ve turizm alanlarında yatırımlarımızı artırmayı planlıyoruz, Retrieved from: https://www.tccb.gov.tr/ haberler/410/123475/-arnavutluk-ta-altyapi-ve-turizm-alanlarinda-yatirimlarimizi-artirmayi-planliyoruz-.
  • C. Cumhurbaşkanlığı (2021b). Bosna Hersek ile ticaret hacmimizi kısa zamanda 1  milyar dolara çıkarmayı hedefliyoruz, Retrieved from: https://www.tccb.gov. tr/haberler/410/125280/-bosna-hersek-ile-ticaret-hacmimizi-kisa-zamanda-1- milyar-dolara-cikarmayi- hedefliyoruz-.
  • C. Cumhurbaşkanlığı (2021c). Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan, Bosna Hersek Devlet Başkanlığı Konseyi Üyesi Dodik ile bir araya geldi. Retrieved from: https://www.tccb.gov. tr/haberler/410/132388/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-bosna-hersek-devlet-baskanligi- -konseyi-uyesi-dodik-ile-bir-araya-geldi.
  • C. Cumhurbaşkanlığı (2021d). Türkiye, Karadağ’a en fazla yatırım yapan ilk 10 ülke arasında yer alıyor. Retrieved from: https://www.tccb.gov.tr/haberler/410/130204/- -turkiye-karadag-a-en-fazla-yatirim-yapan-ilk-10-ulke-arasinda-yer-aliyor.
  • C. Cumhurbaşkanlığı (2022). Arnavutluk’la bir milyar dolarlık ticaret hacmi hedefimize kısa sürede ulaşalım istiyoruz, Retrieved from: https://www.tccb.gov.tr/ haberler/410/134363/-arnavutluk-la-bir-milyar-dolarlik-ticaret-hacmi-hedefimize-kisa-surede-ulasalim-istiyoruz-.
  • C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı (2021). Türkiye ile Arnavutluk ortak miras için iş birliği yapacak, Retrieved from: https://basin.ktb.gov.tr/TR-288873/turkiye-ile-arnavutluk- -ortak-miras-icin-is-birligi-yapa-.html.
  • C. Ulaştırma ve Altyapı Bakanlığı (2021). Türkiye ve Sırbistan arasında ulaştırma alanında iş birliği adımı, Retrieved from: https://www.uab.gov.tr/haberler/ turkiye-ve-sirbistan-arasinda-ulastirma-alaninda-is-birligi-adimi.
  • Talha Öztürk, M. (2021). Anadolu Ajansı. Turkey, Montenegro agree to boost inter- -parliamentary cooperation. Retrieved from: https://www.aa.com.tr/en/europe/ turkey-montenegro-agree-to-boost-inter-parliamentary-cooperation/2456078.
  • Terzi, Ö. (2016). The Influence of the European Union on Turkish Foreign Policy. New York: Routledge.
  • Tosun, M. (2022). Anadolu Ajansı. Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan: Bosna Hersek’teki krizin aşılması için uluslararası camia birlikte hareket etmeli. Retrieved from: https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/gundem/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-bosna-hersekteki-krizin-asilmasi-icin-uluslararasi-camia-birlikte-hareket-etmeli/2477477.
  • Turan, C. (2021). Yunanistan – Arnavutluk İlişkilerinde Mevcut Sorunlar Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. Balkan ve Yakın Doğu Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 7, 78–87.
  • Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi. (2022). TBMM Başkanı Şentop, Uluslararası Balkan Üniversitesi’nin iftarına katıldı. Retrieved from: https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/Haber/ Detay?haberSiraNo=154095.
  • Tzifakis, N. (2021). The Geopolitics of Pandemic-related Assistance to the Western Balkans. Barcelona: European Institute of the Mediterranean.
  • Uğur Ekinci, M. (2022). Türkiye-Balkan Ülkeleri İlişkileri. In: N. Miş, B. Laleoğlu, M. Yeşiltaş, C. Duran Uzun, M. Tatlıyer, H.M. Boyraz (eds.). 2021 Türkiye’de (120–129). İstanbul: Turkuvaz Haberleşme ve Yayıncılık A.Ş.
  • Vračić, A., Joseph, E.P., Ivanovic, T. (2017). Turkey in the Western Balkans: A Waning Interest. In: S. Toperich, A. Ünver Noi (eds.). Turkey and Transatlantic Relations (183–200). Washington: Center for Transatlantic Relations.
  • Vuksanović, V., Tzifakis, N. (2021). Middle East Institute. Erdoğan eyes an opening in the Balkans. Retrieved from: https://www.mei.edu/publications/erdogan-eyes- -opening-balkans.
  • Wódka, J. (2019). Polityka zagraniczna średniej potęgi: Turcja jako studium przypadku. Warszawa: Instytut Studiów Politycznych Polskiej Akademii Nauk.
  • Yavuz, M.H. (2020). Nostalgia for the Empire: The Politics of Neo-Ottomanism. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Yeşiltaş, M. (2014). Turkey’s Quest for a “New International Order”: The Discourse of Civilization and the Politics of Restoration. Perceptions: Journal of International Affairs, 4(19), 43–76.

Republic of Turkey Western Balkans COVID-19 pandemic regional diplomacy foreign policy Турецкая Республика

Wiadomość do:

 

 

© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart