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2022

Spis treści

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 3-6
DOI Address: -
PDF: npw/32/npw32toc.pdf

SPIS TREŚCI / CONTENTS / ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Międzynarodowy Dzień Kobiet - relikt socjalizmu czy symbol walki o równouprawnienie płci?

Author: Krystyna Leszczyńska-Wichmanowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1459-9280
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 9-30
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223201
PDF: npw/32/npw3201.pdf

International Women’s Day - a relic of socialism or a symbol of the struggle for gender equality?

March 8 as International Women’s Day is the consequence of the work of labor movements in North America and Europe. The holiday, established in 1910 during the 8th Congress of the Second International in Copenhagen, was to promote the idea of women’s rights and build support for universal suffrage of women. The first celebration of the International Women’s Day was held on 19 March 1911 in Western Europe to commemorate the 1848 March Revolution. In Russia, and then the USSR, it was decided to organize it on the anniversary of women’s participation in the demonstration in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) on 8 March (23 February - according to the Julian calendar) 1917. In the interwar period in Poland (on the initiative of the PPS) Women’s Day was celebrated on 19 June, commemorating the abolition of slavery in the United States. In 1972, the UN General Assembly, on the wave of efforts to change its policy towards women, proclaimed 1975 the International Women’s Year. Until 1977 - when the UN General Assembly recognized 8 March as the International Day of Women’s Rights and International Peace, which could be celebrated on a day chosen according to the tradition of a given country - this holiday was mainly celebrated in socialist countries.

8 марта борьба за гендерное равенство International Women’s Day 8 March Women’s Day in Poland International Women’s Year Women’s Rights and International Peace Day fight for gender equality women’s rights human rights

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Public and cultural diplomacy in European cities and states’ branding

Author: Szymon Ostrowski
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3529-0365
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 31-43
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223202
PDF: npw/32/npw3202.pdf

Public and cultural diplomacy in European cities and states’ branding

Article “Public and cultural diplomacy in cities’ branding” is a try to set ideas of city diplomacy and idea of branding into theory of international relations. Also, analysis of two West-European and two East-European cities is a chance to analyze chances and threats that both states and cities can encounter during a process of brand building. The main questions that article is answering are “Can cities use their resources and connections to make public and cultural diplomacy?” and “What influence on that process has factor of being a city in post-soviet country or former Soviet Satellite state?” It can be said that cities are able to brand and rebrand itself and they are more flexible than states that cannot run away from some aspects of its identity. In case of difference between western and post-soviet states, the difference is none. In research, numerous rankings, articles and analyses were used as a primary sources in order to characterize how different are images of Italy, Germany, Hungary and Ukraine. Also, paper tries to determine, what is relation between states brand and branding of its cities.

брендинг города city diplomacy city branding softpower cultural diplomacy мягкая сила public diplomacy nation branding international relations

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Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - a Lethal Weapon of Tomorrow for Terrorists

Author: Aleksander Olech
Institution: Baltic Defence College
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3793-5913
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 44-60
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223203
PDF: npw/32/npw3203.pdf

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - a Lethal Weapon of Tomorrow for Terrorists

Terrorism has been used as a form of combat for centuries. Over the years, the tools used by terrorists have evolved. While attacks with cold weapons still take place, nowadays terrorists also use explosives, machine guns, guided missiles and increasingly often drones. The present growth of the arms market has led to terrorist groups being heavily militarized, as they can successfully acquire modern weapons and subsequently use them in their attacks. This state of affairs has directly affected the security of states and societies, and subsequently became a principal subject of discussion on international security forums. Contemporary global terrorist threats also harness artificial intelligence that supports weaponized robots, missiles, as well as clusters of killer drones. This narrative arose a few years ago, indicating that terrorists may have a vastly greater array of options at their disposal because they may cooperate with some states that would back them up. The chance for terrorist organisations to gain access to artificial intelligence technologies only increased due to the global competition surrounding it. Due to this potential spreading, terrorists will have a chance to operate weapons supported by AI. These events then merge into a deeply concerning scenario which conceivably may have to be confronted. The threat of terrorist organisations possessing and using swarms of drones does not seem to be very distant.

технологии technology терроризм artificial intelligence безопасность terrorism security drones

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Belt and Road Initiative vs. Baltic Sea Region. The perspectives of the container transport market in Poland

Author: Aleksandra Bartosiewicz
Institution: University of Łódź
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6464-9277
Author: Paulina Szterlik
Institution: University of Łódź
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1792-4691
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 61-81
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223204
PDF: npw/32/npw3204.pdf

Belt and Road Initiative vs. Baltic Sea Region. The perspectives of the container transport market in Poland

Poland is a key element of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). It is also an active container shipping participant in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). The aim of the article is to determine whether further development of the BRI is a threat for the Polish BSR container shipping, and vice versa. The main tools used to achieve the objectives mentioned above include a literature review, logical reasoning and statistical analysis. The results of a survey on the importance of chosen factors for the further development of the BRI in Poland, as well as the SWOT analysis of these factors are also part of the proposed study. The performed research shows that such factors as expansion of deep water infrastructure, the increase of seaport transhipment potential or competitiveness of the BSR are among biggest threats to the future of the BRI in Poland. At the same time, it seems that in the near future, the further development of the BRI will not significantly affect the container shipping in the BSR.

контейнерные перевозки BSR maritime logistics BRI container transport

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Udział Parlamentu Europejskiego w procesie kształtowania ukraińskiego prawa wyborczego

Author: Marta Labuda
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5327-9426
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 82-95
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223205
PDF: npw/32/npw3205.pdf

European Parliament’s participation in the process of shaping Ukraine’s electoral law

The article is an attempt to look at the process of shaping Ukraine’s electoral law in terms of the European Parliament’s initiatives. The research aim is to demonstrate the influence of the European Parliament in this regard. The research was based on a qualitative methodology with the use of institutional and legal analysis and critical analysis of strategies. The research showed that the European Parliament was the main initiator of changes in Ukraine’s electoral law after the entry into force of the Association Agreement. European Parliament significantly contributed to the reforms’ implementation and made Ukraine one step closer to the European Union.

реформы election law Украина reforms European Parliament Ukraine

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AUKUS - czy „małe NATO” Indo-Pacyfiku ograniczy chińską ekspansję morską?

Author: Rafał Ciastoń
Institution: Akademia Sztuki Wojennej
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9581-2914
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 96-107
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223206
PDF: npw/32/npw3206.pdf

AUKUS - will the Indo-Pacific “little NATO” limit Chinese maritime expansion?

On September 15, 2021, the United States of America, United Kingdom and Australia signed the trilateral defense agreement (AUKUS). The first two countries are to help Australia build attack nuclear submarines (SSN). It is clear that the purpose of the agrement is to further restrict the influence of the PRC in the region. The agreement was immediately criticized by People’s Republic of China. Voices of criticism or concern also came from other directions, such as from some ASEAN countries, European allies of the USA or India. The following article is an attempt to answer the question: to what extent will the establishment of AUKUS strengthen the regional position of the United States in the maritime dimension and contribute to limiting the expansion of China.

cointainment Chinese maritime expansion Indo - Pacific People Liberation Army Navy AUKUS сдерживание

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Uwarunkowania instytucjonalno-prawne rozwoju przedsiębiorstw społecznych w Chinach: przepisy krajowe i lokalne programy pilotażowe

Author: Ewa Radomska
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9503-534X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 108-128
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223207
PDF: npw/32/npw3207.pdf

Institutional and legal conditions for the development of social enterprises in China: the national provisions and the local pilot schemes

The aim of the article is to assess the institutional and legal conditions for the development of social enterprises in China by analyzing the current national provisions, indirectly relating to these entities, the local pilot schemes and the accreditation systems of social enterprises operating within them, as well as to formulate recommendations to decisionmakers concerning further necessary measures for the development of social enterprises. The analysis carried out has drawn several key conclusions. China is at an early stage in the implementation of institutional and legal solutions which are important for the development of social enterprises. There are no national laws and policies regulating the status and functioning of these entities. The national provisions on non profit law and company law relate indirectly to social enterprises. A complementary set of rules is needed to take account of the hybrid organisational form of social enterprises. In addition, a comprehensive assessment of the existing institutional and legal arrangements implemented under local pilot schemes (in Chengdu, Shunde-Foshan, Shenzhen, Beijing) is needed. They provide the basis for national legislation and policies relating to social enterprises. Insufficient understanding of the concept and the importance of social entrepreneurship by decision-makers at the government level can be considered problematic.

Пекин social enterprise pilot schemes accreditation systems Chengdu ShundeFoshan Shenzhen Beijing Китай China

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Aktywizacja polityczno-ekonomiczna Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej w wybranych państwach Azji Środkowej jako odpowiedź na rozpoczęcie kolejnego etapu transformacji

Author: Krystian Pachucki-Włosek
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4527-5441
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 129-154
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223208
PDF: npw/32/npw3208.pdf

Political and economic activation of the Republic of Poland in selected Central Asian countries as a response to the beginning of the next stage of transformation

The main objective of the article is to present the political-economic relations between the Republic of Poland, the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Uzbekistan in 1991-2021. Fundamental research problems concern the issue of increasing partnership intensity. Ther main research questions are as follows: Is there a correlation between the transformation and reform measures undertaken by the authorities of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan and the growing interest in deepening relations by the Republic of Poland?; Has the announcement of further liberalisation measures in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan influenced the intensification of cooperation in political and economic aspects?; How has the perception of Poland by political dissidents in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan changed over three decades? The primary research tools used in the paper were source and quantitative analysis. Statistical data, official announcements of state institutions and press articles were used as the material for the source analysis. Sorting them out, then analyzing them, allowed drawing conclusions. The quantitative analysis was used to assess the frequency of meetings of state leaders or parliamentary groups, changes in the volume of Polish exports and imports with the countries in question, and the increase in the number of Polish companies operating in the Kazakh and Uzbek markets.

политическое сотрудничество экономическое сотрудничество Узбекистан Польша Казахстан political cooperation Uzbekistan economic cooperation Kazakhstan Poland

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Wybrane aspekty rozwoju gospodarczego Azji[recenzja książki Wybrane aspekty rozwoju gospodarczego Azji]Selected Aspects of Asia’s Economic Development [book review Wybrane aspekty rozwoju gospodarczego Azji]

Author: Lech Wyszczelski
Institution: Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2063-4281
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 157-162
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223209
PDF: npw/32/npw3209.pdf

Selected Aspects of Asia’s Economic Development [book review Wybrane aspekty rozwoju gospodarczego Azji]

Избранные аспекты экономического развития Азии [рецензия книги Wybrane aspekty rozwoju gospodarczego Azji]

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Wieloaspektowość bezpieczeństwa Azji i Pacyfiku jako element ładu międzynarodowego [recenzja książki Współczesne bezpieczeństwo regionu Azji i Pacyfiku. Wybrane aspekty]

Author: Marzena Mruk
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3529-0365
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 163-168
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223210
PDF: npw/32/npw3210.pdf

The multifaceted security of Asia and the Pacific as an element of the international order [book review Współczesne bezpieczeństwo regionu Azji i Pacyfiku. Wybrane aspekty]

Многогранная безопасность Азиатско-Тихоокеанского региона как элемент международного порядка [рецензия книги Współczesne bezpieczeństwo regionu Azji i Pacyfiku. Wybrane aspekty]

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Russia’s problem with North Caucasian terrorism [book review Terroryzm północnokaukaski. Źródła, przejawy i przeciwdziałanie zjawisku]

Author: Kamil Pietrasik
Institution: Asia-Pacific Society
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8579-0659
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 169-173
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223211
PDF: npw/32/npw3211.pdf

Проблема России с северокавказским терроризмом [рецензия книги Terroryzm północnokaukaski. Źródła, przejawy i przeciwdziałanie zjawisku]

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Spis treści

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 3-6
DOI Address: -
PDF: npw/33/npw33toc.pdf

SPIS TREŚCI / CONTENTS / ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Systemic Geopolitical Analysis in the research of power distribution in Eastern Europe

Author: Erwin Metera
Institution: Political Science Alumni Association of the University of Warsaw
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9003-5810
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 9-20
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223301
PDF: npw/33/npw3301.pdf

Systemic Geopolitical Analysis in the research of power distribution in Eastern Europe

The article presents Systemic Geopolitical Analysis, which as a scientific method can be an important tool for studying the distribution of power in Eastern Europe, supporting the assumptions of structural realism with an element of quantitative research. This region, as a place where spheres of influence and the ensuing economic and potentially military conflicts meet, is an area where the knowledge of the most precise distribution of power may be a crucial element in the analysis of the genesis of conflicts, the shifts in power distribution during their course, as well as in the prediction of future flashpoints. Being the first attempt to correlate Systemic Geopolitical Analysis with the issue of conflicts in Eastern Europe, the paper contains a hypothesis that Systemic Geopolitical Analysis is a research method that enables an effective analysis of the geopolitical reality in the region because of: 1) the conflicts occurring in the system due to differences in power distribution; 2) the nature of the components of power, measurable by the means of Systemic Geopolitical Analysis. Confirming the above hypothesis, the article points to the economic aspect, linked to the Russian natural gas exports, and the military aspect, by taking into account the characteristics of contemporary tensions in the region, which reduce the role of supra-systemic reserves.

Системный Геополитический Анализ геополитика Systemic Geopolitical Analysis Eastern Europe geopolitics methodology international conflicts structural realism

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Przywłaszczenie historii jako sposób walki informacyjno-psychologicznej Rosji przeciwko Ukrainie

Author: Olga Wasiuta
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0481-1567
Author: Sergiusz Wasiuta
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3402-963X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 21-44
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223302
PDF: npw/33/npw3302.pdf

History usurpation as a method of the information and psychological fight of Russia against Ukraine

In the article, the authors analyze the activities of Russian Federation, which falsifies, rewrites, substitutes concepts, deals with the heroization and deheroization of some outstanding historical figures and appropriates the historical past of the Ukrainian nation, arguing that Ukraine is an integral part of Russia’s history and its cultural space. The aim of the article is to analyze the usurpation and falsification of history as a means of war, including information war of Russia against Ukraine.

Россия «русский мир» Russia Russian world (Russkiy mir) Russian historical propaganda disinformation techniques

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Kryzys migracyjny na granicy polsko-białoruskiej i jego wpływ na bezpieczeństwo Polski

Author: Andrzej Wawrzusiszyn
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7587-136X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 45-65
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223303
PDF: npw/33/npw3303.pdf

The migration crisis on the Polish-Belarusian border and its influence on the safety of Poland

Poland is under controlled migratory pressure on the border with Belarus. The influx of third-country nationals is supported by Belarusian state services. These activities are hybrid in their nature, and their aim is to destabilize the situation in Poland and the European Union. Although Poland has taken adequate measures to protect and defend its border, these events are a test of the effectiveness and efficiency of the functioning of the state security system. The purpose of this considerations is to present the events taking place on the PolishBelarusian border and their impact on the security of our state. In the methodological aspect, media and press reports, analysis of source materials and observation of the development of the situation were used. The result of the above is the fact that the migration crisis has not ended and continues to generate serious threats to Poland.

граница безопасность border illegal migration crisis security humanitarianism

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The Influence of Political Processes and the War in Ukraine on the Formation of Generation Alpha and the iGeneration (Z): Defining Specific Features

Author: Liudmyla Kryvachuk
Institution: Pedagogical University of Kraków
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3083-4781
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 66-89
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223304
PDF: npw/33/npw3304.pdf

The Influence of Political Processes and the War in Ukraine on the Formation of Generation Alpha and the iGeneration (Z): Defining Specific Features

The article attempts to analyse and define the specific features of the iGeneration (Z) and Generation Alpha in Ukraine in the context of the political processes and the war taking place in Ukrainian society. The article discusses the generation issues, taking into account the characteristics of the iGeneration (Z) and Generation Alpha. Assuming that a generation is an identifiable group of people who share a similar time of birth and significant events at critical stages of development, the article presents an original approach to determining the specific features of the iGeneration (Z) and Generation Alpha in Ukraine. The Orange Revolution (2004), the Revolution of Dignity (2014) and the hybrid war (2014-2022) and Russian-Ukrainian war (from 24.02.2022) had a significant impact on the formation of the iGeneration (Z) and Generation Alpha in Ukraine.

Украина политические процессы iGeneration (Z) generation Alpha Ukraine geopolitical processes hybrid war Russian-Ukrainian war social policy social problems children child at a younger school age young generation

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Migracja zarobkowa z Azji Centralnej do Rosji w dobie pandemii COVID-19

Author: Andrzej Stopczyński
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9795-725X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 90-108
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223305
PDF: npw/33/npw3305.pdf

Labor migration from Central Asia to Russia during the COVID-19 pandemic

Like most countries in the world, the Russian Federation has also been struggling with the coronavirus pandemic that causes the COVID-19 disease since the beginning of 2020. The pandemic has harmed many areas of life in Russia, including social, demographic and economic issues. The changes also affected the labor market, which to a large extent is shaped by economic migrants from Central Asia. The situation of the economic migrants themselves has also changed significantly. Many of them lost their jobs, especially in the first half of 2020. Due to sanitary restrictions and the closure of borders, the number of Central Asian residents who decided to leave for Russia has significantly decreased. Experts emphasize that economic migrants make a significant contribution to the development of the Russian economy and the economies of Central Asian countries. This article aims to present how the Covid-19 pandemic influenced the shape of economic migration from Central Asia to Russia in the context of changing employment conditions and the socio-economic situation, both in Russia and the countries of the region.

Central Asia migrants Russia COVID-19 pandemic Средняя Азия мигранты Российская Федерация

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Russian economic nationalism and the vectors of Russian foreign policy

Author: Rafał Lisiakiewicz
Institution: Cracow University of Economics
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8649-6518
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 109-130
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223306
PDF: npw/33/npw3306.pdf

Russian economic nationalism and the vectors of Russian foreign policy

In this article, the author wants to test the impact of economic nationalism on the change in Russia’s foreign policy. The author will refer to neoclassical realism, which shows how to combine the issues of power distribution in international relations with the influence of the domestic level of the state on the process of creation of the foreign policy. In terms of neoclassical realism, economic nationalism is a variable that shapes the perception of the economic challenges facing Russia. The author also points out that economic nationalism is also related to the protectionist policy of the Russian Federation. Thus, it influences the shaping of processes within and outside the country. The author recognizes that in the process of creating the Russian foreign policy decisions, economic nationalism should be linked to other factors, especially security issues and Russia’s general strategic culture, in order to obtain the final set of premises that will determine Russia’s shifts in foreign policy. The tensions related to the role of the EU and NATO in the countries of Eastern Europe clearly influenced the level of cooperation between Russia and the West. Nevertheless, economic issues in this regard were also extremely important. Russia’s power position was based on the economic potential.

Российская внешняя политика Russian foreign policy nationalism economy

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Szafranizacja Indii? Hindutwa w rządach Narendry Modiego w latach 2014-2021

Author: Tomasz Okraska
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2794-7811
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 131-155
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223307
PDF: npw/33/npw3307.pdf

Saffronization of India? Hindutwa ideology in the rule of Narendra Modi in 2014-2021

In the era of Narendra Modi’s rule in India, we are dealing with a significant increase in the importance of Hinduva. This applies not only to the rhetoric and practice of goverment’s actions, but also to the general change of the socio-political climate. It can be said about the transition of the said ideology to the Indian mainstream. In turn, the most important threads related to the interpretation of Hinduva are distrust towards the followers of Islam and the desire to subordinate them to the Hindu majority. From this conviction and electoral calculation follow further anti-Muslim actions, whether taken directly by Modi’s government, or approved by it, or at least not blocked. The situation of Indian Muslims has deteriorated significantly in so many fields since 2014 that the use of “saffronization of India” to illustrate this phenomenon seems appropriate. It means glorifying the role of the followers of the Hindu religion in India, while diminishing the importance of other religious groups, especially in the historical context.

Хиндутва ислам Hindutwa hinduism Islam Muslims Modi

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Realizacja chińskiej koncepcji Digital Silk Road - kazus Serbii

Author: Paula Tomaszewska
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0583-0938
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 156-170
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223308
PDF: npw/33/npw3308.pdf

Implementation of the Chinese Concept of Digital Silk Road - Case Study of Serbia

Until now, mainly traditional infrastructure projects have been implemented under the auspices of the Chinese Belt and Road. However, more and more often one can hear about its next component, i.e. the Digital Silk Road (DSR). In this way, China is expanding its “technospheres” - geographic areas where it is building its edge in terms of data and information gathering. These technospheres directly supply China with this most valuable commodity - the so-called “New oil” or data. PRC activities of this type translate into various regions of the world - including Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), including the Balkan countries. The research objective of the article is to analyze the assumptions of the digital component of the Belt and Road initiative in the selected Balkan country, i.e. in Serbia. It is also important to examine China’s strategy and measures towards that country. The author will try to answer the following research questions: (1) What is the Digital Silk Road?, (2) What opportunities and threats result from its implementation?, (3) How the CEE region, and the Balkan countries in particular, approach the cooperation offered by the PRC?, (4) What is the US Clean Web Initiative, and (5) What is Serbia’s reaction to digital propositions made by the PRC? The conducted analysis will allow for the definition of the mechanisms of operation of the RDI initiative, in particular its digital component in the Balkans, as well as it will be useful in research on the broader context of China’s foreign policy. The article uses the analysis of existing data (desk research).

Сербия Китайская Народная Республика Serbia Digital Silk Road People’s Republic of China digital initiative

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Report on the promotion event of Chinese literature “Spotlight on Chinese culture”, Toruń, April 27, 2022

Author: Iga Bączkowska
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7053-8429
Author: Bartosz Kuczyński
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1231-6320
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 173-176
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223309
PDF: npw/33/npw3309.pdf

Отчет с мероприятии по продвижению китайской литературы «В центре внимания китайская культура», Торунь, 27 апреля 2022 г.

Wieloaspektowość funkcjonowania współczesnego Bliskiego Wschodu [recenzja książki Bliski Wschód – tożsamość i polityka]

Author: Marzena Mruk
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3529-0365
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 179-185
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223310
PDF: npw/33/npw3310.pdf

The multifaceted functioning of the contemporary Middle East [book review Bliski Wschód – tożsamość i polityka]

Многогранное функционирование современного Ближнего Востока [рецензия книги Bliski Wschód – tożsamość i polityka]

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Być patriotą, ale czego? [recenzja książki W poszukiwaniu nowej Medyny. Muzułmańskie wizje niepodległych Indii u schyłku panowania brytyjskiego]

Author: Tomasz Flasiński
Institution: Polska Akademia Nauk
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2258-824X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 186-199
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223311
PDF: npw/33/npw3311.pdf

To be a patriot, but of what? [book review W poszukiwaniu nowej Medyny. Muzułmańskie wizje niepodległych Indii u schyłku panowania brytyjskiego]

Быть патриотом, но чего? [рецензия книги W poszukiwaniu nowej Medyny. Muzułmańskie wizje niepodległych Indii u schyłku panowania brytyjskiego]

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Discussion on the development of agriculture in China [book review Rozwój Rolnictwa w Chinach]

Author: Szymon Ostrowski
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3592-4409
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 200-202
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223312
PDF: npw/33/npw3312.pdf

TОбсуждение развития сельского хозяйства в Китае [рецензия книги Rozwój Rolnictwa w Chinach]

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Spis treści

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 3-6
DOI Address: -
PDF: npw/34/npw34toc.pdf

SPIS TREŚCI / CONTENTS / ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Ewolucja Strategii bezpieczeństwa narodowego Federacji Rosyjskiej w latach 2015–2021. Ujęcie normatywne

Author: Rafał Czachor
Institution: Krakowska Akademia im. A. Frycza Modrzewskiego
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5929-9719
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 9-26
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223401
PDF: npw/34/npw3401.pdf

The evolution of Russia’s National Security Strategy in 2015–2021. A normative approach

Adopted every 6 years, the national security strategies of Russia are the basic documents that fix the main challenges and threats to this country. The current strategy was adopted in June 2021 and replaced the previous document of December 2015. The following paper sheds a light on the most important aspects of the current strategy from a normative perspective and compares it with the previous version. Taking into account that for more than 10 years Russia has been undermining the western-centered international order, the paper stresses that the current strategy aims to consolidate the state, confirms the priority of the state over the society and individuals and the selfisolation from the foreign influences as a source of destabilization. It discusses the new tendencies in the evolution of strategies: the growing role of traditional Russian ethics, the need for the restrain a westernization of the society and the revival of patriotism.

the strategy of the national security of Russia security policy of Russia foreign policy of Russia international relations in Eurasia стратегия национальной безопасности России

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Bliscy sojusznicy? Perspektywy pogłębienia integracji rosyjsko-białoruskiej po 2018 roku

Author: Arkadiusz Czwołek
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2273-5345
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 27-62
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223402
PDF: npw/34/npw3402.pdf

Close allies? Prospects for deepening Russian-Belarusian integration after 2018

The aim of the article is to analyze Russian-Belarusian relations after 2018 and to determine the degree of advancement of the unification process of both countries within the formally existing since 1999 Union State of Russia and Belarus. In 2018, Russia took steps to accelerate the integration process. At that time, the Russian Federation presented two models for its future integration with Belarus. In order to force Belarus to tighten its cooperation, Russia used a whole spectrum of political and economic tools. The article diagnoses the main problems of the integration process to date and sets out the main goals of Russian policy towards Belarus. The subsequent stages of negotiations on deepening Russian-Belarusian integration were also characterized. The prospects for further integration of Russia and Belarus were also presented.

Russia Belarus Russian-Belarusian integration Union State Россия Беларусь

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The Russia-Ukraine Conflict: Economic Consequences on Europe and the World

Author: Philip Fwaldin Kasuwa
Institution: Pope John Paul II Catholic University in Lublin
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7118-6461
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 63-82
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223403
PDF: npw/34/npw3403.pdf

A number of international sanctions have been placed on Russia since it launched an attack on Ukraine on February 24, 2022, in order to persuade the country to de-escalate the conflict. The sanctions imposed on Russia, while designed to harm the Russian economy, had unintended consequences on the world economy, primarily through the disruption of global supply chains. Energy supply shocks, commodities and trade supply shocks were all caused by the conflict. In many nations, this resulted in an increase in worldwide inflation. Despite the fact that Israel and Turkey were instrumental in mediating a peaceful end of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the economic fallout from the crisis continued to reverberate throughout Europe and beyond.

Russia Ukraine war invasion Россия Украина война

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The American Multi-Domain Operation as a response to the Russian concept of New Generation Warfare

Author: Tomasz Wójtowicz
Institution: Pedagogical University of Kraków
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6468-8973
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 83-105
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223404
PDF: npw/34/npw3404.pdf

America’s unipolar balance of power created after the end of the Cold War is inevitably coming to an end. The dynamic economic growth of the People’s Republic of China, lasting uninterruptedly since the 1980s, the reconstruction of spheres of influence by the Russian Federation, the world war on terrorism with the accompanying costly wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, economic crises systematically weakening the economies of Western countries in 2001, 2007 and 2020, and the COVID-19 pandemic – these are just some of the many causes of geopolitical changes. Parallel to the weakening position of the United States, countries such as the Russian Federation are increasingly boldly challenging the current balance of power, provoking armed conflicts and destabilizing countries located in Central and Eastern Europe. The purpose of this article is to present the American Multi-Domain Operation concept as a response to the Russian concept of new generation warfare by which the country successfully led to the annexation of Crimea, the war in Donbas, and the political destabilization of Ukraine. The main research problem resulting from the assumed goal was to answer the following question: what is a Multi-Domain Operation and how do the United States intend to compete and win in the armed conflict taking place in Central and Eastern Europe with the Russian Federation? The following research methods were used to solve the research problems: the method of cause-effect and institutional-legal analysis, method of examining documents, and the method of analysis and criticism of literature. The monographic and comparative methods were also used. However, the main role was played by deductive reasoning which enables the identification of facts based on an in-depth analysis of source data. Taking into account the preliminary research, the author proposed the following research hypothesis: a Multi-Domain Operation is another American operational concept describing the security environment, and the Russian and American way of war. The USA will achieve victory in a possible armed conflict by locating and neutralizing the enemy’s anti-access – area denial capabilities, and then destroying its forces in the disputed area.

United States Multi-Domain Operations New Generation Warfare Russian Federation Central-East Europe концепция многозонной операции США Российская Федерация Центральная и Восточная Европа

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Ruchy ekstremistyczne i radykalizm w Australii na tle napięć między polityką wielokulturowości a dominacją kultury anglosaskiej

Author: Justyna Eska-Mikołajewska
Institution: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7681-2425
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 106-130
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223405
PDF: npw/34/npw3405.pdf

Extremist movements and radicalism in Australia against the background of tensions between the policy of multiculturalism and the domination of Anglo-Saxon culture

In multicultural Australia everyone, regardless of language, nationality or culture, has the right to express themselves openly. However, despite its official commitment to diversity, contemporary Australian society continues to experience tensions between multicultural politics and the domination of Anglo-Saxon cultural heritage. Right-wing politicians have described multiculturalism as a harbinger of a social conflict that would lead to an ethnically divided Australia. Following the events of September 11, 2001, some regulations were introduced to expand the catalog of tools used by the police and law enforcement agencies to effectively prevent acts of violent extremism. These restrictions on civil liberties are being used by Australian extreme-right movements as an argument to undermine confidence in the government’s “oppressive” policies. The Covid-19 pandemic and its effects has also revealed negative shifts in the landscape of brutal Australian extremism. This raises the question of how serious danger to the national security could an Australian nationalism be left unchecked, capable of transforming into racially and religiously excluding ideas of belonging to society. The paper shows that failure to react decisively to the continued undermining of trust in democratic institutions and exploiting the cracks in social cohesion may lead to Australia no longer being perceived as a defender of the principles of liberal democracy. Instead, it will come to be regarded as a „colonial bastion of white settlers,” and such a poor racial reputation of the country will undoubtedly make it difficult for Australia to navigate in an increasingly tense regional geopolitical environment in the future.

extremism radicalism nationalism multiculturalism Australia national security экстремизм радикализм

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Górnośląsko-Zagłębiowska Metropolia jako pionier w kształtowaniu polityki metropolitalnej w Polsce

Author: Beata Słobodzian
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0589-7879
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 131-144
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223406
PDF: npw/34/npw3406.pdf

Metropolis of Upper Silesia and Zagłębie as a pioneer in shaping the metropolitan policy in Poland

The phenomenon of incompatibility of the basic structure of territorial administration to dynamically progressing urbanisation is one of the problems of contemporary states. The public (and academic) discussion on how the state should support the development of metropolitan areas is quite vivid in Poland. However, Polish politics noticed the problem of territorial fragmentation in urbanised areas quite late compared to other European countries. Nevertheless in recent years successive Polish governments have taken up the issue. This has resulted in strategic documents and normative acts which task was to introduce new legal, financial and planning instruments for the development of cities and their functional areas, including metropolitan areas.

metropolis metropolitan policy Metropolis of Upper Silesia and Zagłębie мегаполис

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Становление и развёртывание движения шестидесятников и советская политика идеологизации, русификации культурнообразовательного пространства украинцев: конец 1950-х – 1960-е гг.

Author: Надежда Киндрачук
Institution: Прикарпатский национальный университет имени Василия Стефаника, Украина
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7505-0668
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 145-170
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223407
PDF: npw/34/npw3407.pdf

Formation and deployment of the movement of the Sixtiers and the Soviet policy of ideologizing, russification of the cultural and educational space of Ukrainians: the late 1950s–1960s

This article examines the Soviet policy of ideologization and, russification of the cultural and educational space of the Ukrainian nation in the late 1950s – 1960s and characterizes the formation and development of the movement of the Sixtiers. Despite the comprehensive control of the Soviet totalitarian state over human thinking, the young creative Ukrainian activist continued to be a living intellectual force that was able to adequately analyze socio-political processes in Ukraine and sought radical change in society at that time. This period was marked by the emergence of the Sixtiers – a new generation of Ukrainian national intelligentsia, who defended the national language, education and culture, freedom of artistic creativity. Despite the difficult socio-political circumstances of the time, a significant cultural progress took place in the creative life of the Ukrainian SSR, saturated with a diverse range of views, ideas and aspirations. In Ukraine, there was an irreversible process of national self-determination of Ukrainians through the cultural and educational space. Nonconformist sentiments in Ukrainian environment began a gradual transition to new democratic norms and standards in the life of the Ukrainian nation.

советское государство Soviet state ideologizing russification totalitarian regime Sixtiers Ukrainian nation national self-expression opposition sentiments

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Znikający autostopowicz „made in China”. Analiza wątku legendowego w perspektywie komparatystyki kulturowej

Author: Aleksandra Brzostek-Przybyszewska
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3909-4492
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 171-186
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223408
PDF: npw/34/npw3408.pdf

The story of vanishing hitchhiker “made in China”. Urban legend plot analysis in the perspective of comparative studies

This article provides an urban legend plot analysis in the perspective of comparative studies on the example of a popular story of vanishing hitchhiker. A comparative analysis was conducted using the original versions of this legend in the United States and the variants appearing in mainland China. Research on the variability of this story was first carried out in the 1940s by American folklorists, Richard Beardsley and Rosalie Hankey, which constitute the foundation for further analysis of Eastern themes of this legend. The Chinese versions of the story analyzed in this article were collected on the basis of author’s own field research, including ethnographic interviews and netnographic research. The field work was conducted in 2016–2018 in mainland China, with particular emphasis on Beijing, excluding special administrative regions of the People’s Republic of China (Hong Kong and Macau) and Tibet.

urban legends Chinese modern folklore vanishing hitchhiker comparative studies vernacular narratives городские легенды

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Sprawozdanie z seminarium „Ruchy migracyjne na świecie w XXI wieku: prognozy i wyzwania”, Toruń, 18 maja 2022 r.

Author: Paulina Filkowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0040-967X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 189-191
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223409
PDF: npw/34/npw3409.pdf

Report from a seminar on “Migration movements in the world in 21st century: prospects and challenges”, Toruń, May 18, 2022

Отчет с семинара «Миграционные движения в мире в XXI веке: прогнозы и вызовы», Торунь, 18 мая 2022 г.

Shaping social perceptions regarding the relationship between the linguistic and political spheres in Russia [book review „Marząc wielki, śniąc potężny…” Aspekty narracyjne współczesnej rosyjskiej polityki językowej]

Author: Joanna Rak
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0505-3684
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 195-199
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223410
PDF: npw/34/npw3410.pdf

Формирование социальных представлений о соотношении языковой и политической сфер в России

[рецензия книги „Marząc wielki, śniąc potężny…” Aspekty narracyjne współczesnej rosyjskiej polityki językowej]

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Niedoskonała nierównowaga [recenzja książki Perfect Imbalance: Russia and China]

Author: Michał Lubina
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/ 0000-0002-3342-1763
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 200-206
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223411
PDF: npw/34/npw3411.pdf

Imperfect Imbalance

[book review Perfect Imbalance: Russia and China]

Несовершенный дисбаланс

[рецензия книги Perfect Imbalance: Russia and China]

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Chiński model rozwoju z perspektywy chińskiej [recenzja książki Zaufanie do systemu. Sukces chińskiego „alternatywnego” modelu rozwoju]

Author: Ewa Radomska
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9503-534X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 207-238
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223412
PDF: npw/34/npw3412.pdf

China’s development model from a Chinese perspective

[book review Zaufanie do systemu. Sukces chińskiego „alternatywnego” modelu rozwoju]

Китайская модель развития с точки зрения Китая

[рецензия книги Zaufanie do systemu. Sukces chińskiego „alternatywnego” modelu rozwoju]

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Spis treści

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 3-6
DOI Address: -
PDF: npw/35/npw35toc.pdf

SPIS TREŚCI / CONTENTS / ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Gruzińskie starania o zbliżenie z Zachodem po 1991 r.

Author: Andrzej Furier
Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3745-3578
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 9-31
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223501
PDF: npw/35/npw3501.pdf

Georgian efforts for rapprochement with the West after 1991

The paper presents the changes in Georgian foreign policy after the collapse of the USSR. The historical context of Georgian ties with the West and attempts to build their own security policy after 1991, which required resignation from the traditional support for Germany. The analysis covers the period from the proclamation of independence and the first free parliamentary elections in 1990 to the 2013. For the politicians of the Second Republic, relations with Russia and the support shown to the Georgian state by the United States were of key importance. The August war in 2008 inhibited Georgian activity in the international arena and restored Russian influence in that country

Mikheil Saakashvili Eduard Shevardnadze Zviad Gamsakhurdia the Rose Revolution foreign policy after 1991 Грузия Georgia

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Uchodźcy XXI wieku. Przestrzeń zagrożeń – przestrzeń wyzwań

Author: Adam Hołub
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8865-6543
Author: Beata Tomaszewska-Hołub
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5829-5986
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 32-50
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223502
PDF: npw/35/npw3502.pdf

Refugees of the 21st Century. Area of threats – Area of challenges

Current migratory movements have been mostly connected with the refugee crisis initiated in 2015, the deliberate actions of the government of Belarus in 2021 and the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022. It should be assumed that the pursuit of people towards the area of security is associated with multiple threats and challenges both for themselves and for their surroundings. The problems concern countries of departure, transit and destination. In each of these “stages” there are multiple threats affecting not only the refugees themselves. The main problem is the identification and analysis of threats, which would allow to define the conditions for strengthening the area of security related to migration. Threats concern both the life and health of people on the move (death in transit, loss of health, exposure to criminal and extreme political circles, involvement in criminal activities, economic exploitation, ethnic and religious animosities and conflicts) and for the institutions of states (social assistance, internal security). Global events indicate that threats, problems and challenges will continue to exist. It is therefore necessary to adapt the forms of institutional actions towards the problem in order to neutralize the indicated threats.

migration refugees smuggling human trafficking threats миграция

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Cybersecurity culture in the public and private sector area in the Central European region

Author: Marek Górka
Institution: Koszalin University of Technology
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6964-1581
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 51-71
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223503
PDF: npw/35/npw3503.pdf

Cybersecurity culture in the public and private sector area in the Central European region

Cyber security is a growing problem associated with everything a citizen or organisation does in cyberspace. The problem thus outlined fits into a multifaceted programme that can be addressed through cyber security management. The analysis in the article compares the level of cyber security awareness among the staff of public institutions and the private sector in four Central European countries, namely Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. Public institutions are by nature open, decentralised and rich in a wide range of data about the state, society, economy, economics and research and innovation. For this reason, they are often exposed to serious cyber threats. This study examines the relationship between cyber security culture and the urgent need for preventive action against possible cyber threats. The main thesis of the study is that an adequate understanding of cyber security culture and improved awareness among employees about digital threats is key to achieving cyber security growth. The research illustrates breaches in so-called digital hygiene, which are caused by a lack of knowledge, skills and errors in employee behaviour. Following a survey of staff employed in both public and private organisations, an identification of key cyber security risk factors is made. Increasing staff competencies can help improve cyber resilience.

cyber security cyber security culture organisational culture public entities innovation cyber security management кибербезопасность

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Role theory and Russia’s attempts to integrate the post-Soviet space: from internal to international duties

Author: Damian Strycharz
Institution: Cracow University of Economics
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8653-3892
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 72-100
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223504
PDF: npw/35/npw3504.pdf

Role theory and Russia’s attempts to integrate the post-Soviet space: from internal to international duties

With the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, Moscow’s foreign policy towards the post-Soviet space has become an even greater area of concern. In order to better understand Russia’s behaviour in the post-Soviet space, it is worth analysing what led to Moscow’s renewed interest in this area. There are numerous accounts explaining Russia’s policies towards its neighbourhood, but they often focus on material factors or Russian imperial complexes. To address the existing gap and examine changes in Moscow’s attitude towards the region, this paper will use role theory and analyse shifts in Russia’s national role conceptions. It argues that the combination of important external and internal factors led to changes in perception of Russia’s international duties and responsibilities between Putin’s rise to power and his return to the presidency in 2012. Consequently, these changes resulted in different understanding of Russia’s role in the post-Soviet space, which had implications for Russia’s increasingly aggressive actions in the region afterwards.

Russian foreign policy post-Soviet space regional integration role theory national role conception Внешняя политика России

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Konflikt wokół zapory Rogun jako przykład sporów o zasoby wodne w Azji Centralnej

Author: Paulina Filkowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0040-967X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 101-114
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223505
PDF: npw/35/npw3505.pdf

The conflict around the Rogun dam as an example of disputes over water resources

Water scarcity is an area of disputes between many states. Generally, these conflicts occur as a result of competition for water resources. They are especially visible in underdeveloped regions, such as Africa or the Middle East. Central Asia, the five republics established after the collapse of the USSR, is also an area exposed to conflicts. An example of such conflict can be the construction of the Rogun dam on Vakhsh river in Tajikistan. The project caused a lot of controversy and further construction fueled them even more. The aim of the paper is to present the conflict over the Rogun dam on the Vakhsh river in Tajikistan as an example of a conflict over water resources in Central Asia. The article presents the genesis and essence of the dispute, as well as attempts to resolve the conflict.

water water scarcity Rogun dam Central Asia Tajikistan Uzbekistan вода

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Integracja narodów i partii agrarnych w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej w myśli politycznej polskiego ruchu ludowego w końcowym okresie zaborów i dwudziestoleciu międzywojennym

Author: Marcin Wichmanowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5748-7946
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 115-144
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223506
PDF: npw/35/npw3506.pdf

Integration of nations and agrarian parties in Central and Eastern Europe in the political thought of the Polish peasant movement in the ultimate period of the partitions and in the interwar period

The question of European integration in the political thought of the peasant movement in Central and Eastern Europe appeared many times since the second half of the 19th century. In the period of partitions, people searched for paths to freedom and independence. The ideas of creating multinational political organisms were to be means for obtaining a certain degree of subjectivity. Poles saw development opportunities in the federation within the Habsburg monarchy. On the other hand, the union of the peoples of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, mainly Lithuanians, Belarusians and Ukrainians – there was an apparent chance joint struggle with the Russian invader. The geopolitics of the region, constructed in the result of the First World War, meant that the newly created Central European states found themselves between Germany and Russia – both of which were states with imperialist traditions. The question of the union of states, or mainly peasant parties in the political thought of the Polish and European peasant movements appeared several times, but in the 1930s it was rather an addition to the programs of these parties. Initially, the Poles sought an agreement mainly with neighbours facing similar threats. When the implementation of these plans failed, their programs contented with peaceful international cooperation based on the League of Nations.

peasant movement agrarian parties integration political thought Middle Eastern Europe народное движение

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Trade Flows Between the European Union and the Eastern Partnership Countries: Dynamics and Prospects

Author: Tomasz Grodzicki
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7819-2127
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 145-160
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223507
PDF: npw/35/npw3507.pdf

Trade Flows Between the European Union and the Eastern Partnership Countries: Dynamics and Prospects

The Eastern Partnership is a part of the European Neighbourhood Policy focusing on the EU’s Eastern neighbours. Its main objective is to deepen the political and economic integration of the EU with six countries in Eastern Europe and the South Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. The aim of this paper is to assess the development of EU trade relations with Eastern Partnership Countries from 2002 to 2021 and to indicate its prospects. The results show that the EU is in a group of main trading partners of the Eastern Partnership countries. The EU noticed both: a trade surplus with Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine and Armenia (except in 2005); and a trade deficit with Azerbaijan. The volumes of imports and exports had increased over the years which also led to better economic integration with the EU. However, the future EU-Eastern Partnership trade characteristics and dynamics remain unknown due to the Russian invasion on Ukraine that caused troubles in trade flows in Ukraine and economic sanctions on Russia and Belarus.

Eastern Partnership (EaP) European Union (EU) exports imports trade Восточное партнерство (ВП)

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Środowisko pracy w Chinach

Author: Elżbieta Kolasińska
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6592-5598
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 161-180
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223508
PDF: npw/35/npw3508.pdf

Work environment in China

China is a country based on traditional values on the one hand, and on the other, oriented towards the modern advances of globalization. It has undergone a wide range of socio-economic changes. The working environment in China is influenced by both classic and contemporary factors. This article discusses dysfunctional phenomena occurring in the working environment in China. These include workaholism, karoshi, karojisatsu, the 996 model, and the “lying flat” movement. The study is a critical analysis of labor relations in China.

China workaholism karoshi karojisatsu the 996 model workplace Китай

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Muhadżirowie w Polsce – zagrożenie terroryzmem islamistycznym ze strony obcokrajowców

Author: Przemysław Mazur
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0025-9410
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 181-200
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223509
PDF: npw/35/npw3509.pdf

The Muhajirs in Poland – the threat of Islamist terrorism from foreigners

The aim of this article was to analyse the terrorist threat in Poland posed by foreigners participating in the global salafi jihadist project. As a rule, these are people associated with such organizations as the Muslim Brotherhood, Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State ISIS, and their derivatives. The research was to verify the actual scale of the phenomenon, the motivations, the modus operandi, and to show trends in this practice. It was also an attempt to identify system problems that hinder the fight against terrorism and may result in a threat to Polish security. The analysis also shows that, contrary to popular opinions, the threat comes not only from the Middle East, but also from Central Asia and the Caucasus. All these directions, however, have their specifics.

terrorism al-Qaeda Islamic State ISIS Poland Chechenya Central Asia Syria терроризм

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The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Turkish foreign policy towards the Western Balkans

Author: Jan Niemiec
Institution: Jagiellonian University in Kraków
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8593-451X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 201-228
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223510
PDF: npw/35/npw3510.pdf

The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Turkish foreign policy towards the Western Balkans

The scientific aim of this paper is to analyse and evaluate actions taken by Turkey’s leading politicians with regard to the Western Balkan states (i.e. Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the Justice and Development Party came to power in 2002, Turkey has attempted to increase its international influence through diplomatic, economic and cultural measures. Western Balkans region, with which Turks have historical and ethnic ties, is one of the key areas in AKP’s doctrine. Adopting image theory in international relations as the theoretical foundation, this research examines implementation of Turkish foreign policy in the Western Balkans in times of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic. By employing available original Turkish sources (academic publications, public reports, press releases), the main objectives of Turkey’s political strategy towards the region have been determined. Detailed analysis of official statements and speeches of Turkish policy-makers was also fundamental for this study. In this context, the values and symbols to which the AKP government refers in its activities in the Western Balkans have been identified. Based on content analysis, comparative analysis and political discourse analysis, this research seeks to explain the rationale of Turkish actions in recent months. As a conclusion, future prospects for Turkey’s involvement in the Western Balkans have been presented and discussed.

Republic of Turkey Western Balkans COVID-19 pandemic regional diplomacy foreign policy Турецкая Республика

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Polska politologia na XXVI Światowym Kongresie Politologicznym IPSA, Lizbona, 10–15 lipca 2021 r

Author: Arkadiusz Żukowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3413-9492
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 231-259
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223511
PDF: npw/35/npw3511.pdf

Polish Political Science at the IPSA 26th World Congress of Political Science, Lisbon, 10th–15th July, 2021

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Polityka zagraniczna Rosji wobec Bliskiego Wschodu [recenzja książki Od Związku Radzieckiego do Federacji Rosyjskiej, Sto lat polityki zagranicznej wobec Bliskiego Wschodu]

Author: Lech Wyszczelski
Institution: Profesor emerytowany Akademii Obrony Narodowej w Warszawie i Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczo-Humanistycznego w Siedlcach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2063-4281
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 263-269
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223514
PDF: npw/35/npw3514.pdf

Russia’s foreign policy towards the Middle East [book review Od Związku Radzieckiego do Federacji Rosyjskiej, Sto lat polityki zagranicznej wobec Bliskiego Wschodu]

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On Economic Asian-Centrism [book review Selected Socio-Economic and International Relations Issues in Contemporary Asian States]

Author: Katarzyna Skiert-Andrzejuk
Institution: Collegium Civitas
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4451-5092
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 270-275
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223512
PDF: npw/35/npw3512.pdf

On Economic Asian-Centrism [book review Selected Socio-Economic and International Relations Issues in Contemporary Asian States]

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Społeczeństwo Chin: kolektywizm czy indywidualizm? [recenzja książki Indywidualista w społeczeństwie]

Author: Iga Bączkowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7053-8429
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 276-280
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223513
PDF: npw/35/npw3513.pdf

Chinese society: collectivism or individualism? [book review Indywidualista w społeczeństwie]

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