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Vol. 1(32)

Spis treści

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 3-6
DOI Address: -
PDF: npw/32/npw32toc.pdf

SPIS TREŚCI / CONTENTS / ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Międzynarodowy Dzień Kobiet - relikt socjalizmu czy symbol walki o równouprawnienie płci?

Author: Krystyna Leszczyńska-Wichmanowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1459-9280
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 9-30
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223201
PDF: npw/32/npw3201.pdf

International Women’s Day - a relic of socialism or a symbol of the struggle for gender equality?

March 8 as International Women’s Day is the consequence of the work of labor movements in North America and Europe. The holiday, established in 1910 during the 8th Congress of the Second International in Copenhagen, was to promote the idea of women’s rights and build support for universal suffrage of women. The first celebration of the International Women’s Day was held on 19 March 1911 in Western Europe to commemorate the 1848 March Revolution. In Russia, and then the USSR, it was decided to organize it on the anniversary of women’s participation in the demonstration in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) on 8 March (23 February - according to the Julian calendar) 1917. In the interwar period in Poland (on the initiative of the PPS) Women’s Day was celebrated on 19 June, commemorating the abolition of slavery in the United States. In 1972, the UN General Assembly, on the wave of efforts to change its policy towards women, proclaimed 1975 the International Women’s Year. Until 1977 - when the UN General Assembly recognized 8 March as the International Day of Women’s Rights and International Peace, which could be celebrated on a day chosen according to the tradition of a given country - this holiday was mainly celebrated in socialist countries.

8 марта борьба за гендерное равенство International Women’s Day 8 March Women’s Day in Poland International Women’s Year Women’s Rights and International Peace Day fight for gender equality women’s rights human rights

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Public and cultural diplomacy in European cities and states’ branding

Author: Szymon Ostrowski
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3529-0365
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 31-43
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223202
PDF: npw/32/npw3202.pdf

Public and cultural diplomacy in European cities and states’ branding

Article “Public and cultural diplomacy in cities’ branding” is a try to set ideas of city diplomacy and idea of branding into theory of international relations. Also, analysis of two West-European and two East-European cities is a chance to analyze chances and threats that both states and cities can encounter during a process of brand building. The main questions that article is answering are “Can cities use their resources and connections to make public and cultural diplomacy?” and “What influence on that process has factor of being a city in post-soviet country or former Soviet Satellite state?” It can be said that cities are able to brand and rebrand itself and they are more flexible than states that cannot run away from some aspects of its identity. In case of difference between western and post-soviet states, the difference is none. In research, numerous rankings, articles and analyses were used as a primary sources in order to characterize how different are images of Italy, Germany, Hungary and Ukraine. Also, paper tries to determine, what is relation between states brand and branding of its cities.

брендинг города city diplomacy city branding softpower cultural diplomacy мягкая сила public diplomacy nation branding international relations

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Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - a Lethal Weapon of Tomorrow for Terrorists

Author: Aleksander Olech
Institution: Baltic Defence College
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3793-5913
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 44-60
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223203
PDF: npw/32/npw3203.pdf

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - a Lethal Weapon of Tomorrow for Terrorists

Terrorism has been used as a form of combat for centuries. Over the years, the tools used by terrorists have evolved. While attacks with cold weapons still take place, nowadays terrorists also use explosives, machine guns, guided missiles and increasingly often drones. The present growth of the arms market has led to terrorist groups being heavily militarized, as they can successfully acquire modern weapons and subsequently use them in their attacks. This state of affairs has directly affected the security of states and societies, and subsequently became a principal subject of discussion on international security forums. Contemporary global terrorist threats also harness artificial intelligence that supports weaponized robots, missiles, as well as clusters of killer drones. This narrative arose a few years ago, indicating that terrorists may have a vastly greater array of options at their disposal because they may cooperate with some states that would back them up. The chance for terrorist organisations to gain access to artificial intelligence technologies only increased due to the global competition surrounding it. Due to this potential spreading, terrorists will have a chance to operate weapons supported by AI. These events then merge into a deeply concerning scenario which conceivably may have to be confronted. The threat of terrorist organisations possessing and using swarms of drones does not seem to be very distant.

технологии technology терроризм artificial intelligence безопасность terrorism security drones

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Belt and Road Initiative vs. Baltic Sea Region. The perspectives of the container transport market in Poland

Author: Aleksandra Bartosiewicz
Institution: University of Łódź
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6464-9277
Author: Paulina Szterlik
Institution: University of Łódź
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1792-4691
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 61-81
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223204
PDF: npw/32/npw3204.pdf

Belt and Road Initiative vs. Baltic Sea Region. The perspectives of the container transport market in Poland

Poland is a key element of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). It is also an active container shipping participant in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). The aim of the article is to determine whether further development of the BRI is a threat for the Polish BSR container shipping, and vice versa. The main tools used to achieve the objectives mentioned above include a literature review, logical reasoning and statistical analysis. The results of a survey on the importance of chosen factors for the further development of the BRI in Poland, as well as the SWOT analysis of these factors are also part of the proposed study. The performed research shows that such factors as expansion of deep water infrastructure, the increase of seaport transhipment potential or competitiveness of the BSR are among biggest threats to the future of the BRI in Poland. At the same time, it seems that in the near future, the further development of the BRI will not significantly affect the container shipping in the BSR.

контейнерные перевозки BSR maritime logistics BRI container transport

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Udział Parlamentu Europejskiego w procesie kształtowania ukraińskiego prawa wyborczego

Author: Marta Labuda
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5327-9426
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 82-95
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223205
PDF: npw/32/npw3205.pdf

European Parliament’s participation in the process of shaping Ukraine’s electoral law

The article is an attempt to look at the process of shaping Ukraine’s electoral law in terms of the European Parliament’s initiatives. The research aim is to demonstrate the influence of the European Parliament in this regard. The research was based on a qualitative methodology with the use of institutional and legal analysis and critical analysis of strategies. The research showed that the European Parliament was the main initiator of changes in Ukraine’s electoral law after the entry into force of the Association Agreement. European Parliament significantly contributed to the reforms’ implementation and made Ukraine one step closer to the European Union.

реформы election law Украина reforms European Parliament Ukraine

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AUKUS - czy „małe NATO” Indo-Pacyfiku ograniczy chińską ekspansję morską?

Author: Rafał Ciastoń
Institution: Akademia Sztuki Wojennej
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9581-2914
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 96-107
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223206
PDF: npw/32/npw3206.pdf

AUKUS - will the Indo-Pacific “little NATO” limit Chinese maritime expansion?

On September 15, 2021, the United States of America, United Kingdom and Australia signed the trilateral defense agreement (AUKUS). The first two countries are to help Australia build attack nuclear submarines (SSN). It is clear that the purpose of the agrement is to further restrict the influence of the PRC in the region. The agreement was immediately criticized by People’s Republic of China. Voices of criticism or concern also came from other directions, such as from some ASEAN countries, European allies of the USA or India. The following article is an attempt to answer the question: to what extent will the establishment of AUKUS strengthen the regional position of the United States in the maritime dimension and contribute to limiting the expansion of China.

cointainment Chinese maritime expansion Indo - Pacific People Liberation Army Navy AUKUS сдерживание

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Uwarunkowania instytucjonalno-prawne rozwoju przedsiębiorstw społecznych w Chinach: przepisy krajowe i lokalne programy pilotażowe

Author: Ewa Radomska
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9503-534X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 108-128
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223207
PDF: npw/32/npw3207.pdf

Institutional and legal conditions for the development of social enterprises in China: the national provisions and the local pilot schemes

The aim of the article is to assess the institutional and legal conditions for the development of social enterprises in China by analyzing the current national provisions, indirectly relating to these entities, the local pilot schemes and the accreditation systems of social enterprises operating within them, as well as to formulate recommendations to decisionmakers concerning further necessary measures for the development of social enterprises. The analysis carried out has drawn several key conclusions. China is at an early stage in the implementation of institutional and legal solutions which are important for the development of social enterprises. There are no national laws and policies regulating the status and functioning of these entities. The national provisions on non profit law and company law relate indirectly to social enterprises. A complementary set of rules is needed to take account of the hybrid organisational form of social enterprises. In addition, a comprehensive assessment of the existing institutional and legal arrangements implemented under local pilot schemes (in Chengdu, Shunde-Foshan, Shenzhen, Beijing) is needed. They provide the basis for national legislation and policies relating to social enterprises. Insufficient understanding of the concept and the importance of social entrepreneurship by decision-makers at the government level can be considered problematic.

Пекин social enterprise pilot schemes accreditation systems Chengdu ShundeFoshan Shenzhen Beijing Китай China

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Aktywizacja polityczno-ekonomiczna Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej w wybranych państwach Azji Środkowej jako odpowiedź na rozpoczęcie kolejnego etapu transformacji

Author: Krystian Pachucki-Włosek
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4527-5441
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 129-154
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223208
PDF: npw/32/npw3208.pdf

Political and economic activation of the Republic of Poland in selected Central Asian countries as a response to the beginning of the next stage of transformation

The main objective of the article is to present the political-economic relations between the Republic of Poland, the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Uzbekistan in 1991-2021. Fundamental research problems concern the issue of increasing partnership intensity. Ther main research questions are as follows: Is there a correlation between the transformation and reform measures undertaken by the authorities of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan and the growing interest in deepening relations by the Republic of Poland?; Has the announcement of further liberalisation measures in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan influenced the intensification of cooperation in political and economic aspects?; How has the perception of Poland by political dissidents in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan changed over three decades? The primary research tools used in the paper were source and quantitative analysis. Statistical data, official announcements of state institutions and press articles were used as the material for the source analysis. Sorting them out, then analyzing them, allowed drawing conclusions. The quantitative analysis was used to assess the frequency of meetings of state leaders or parliamentary groups, changes in the volume of Polish exports and imports with the countries in question, and the increase in the number of Polish companies operating in the Kazakh and Uzbek markets.

политическое сотрудничество экономическое сотрудничество Узбекистан Польша Казахстан political cooperation Uzbekistan economic cooperation Kazakhstan Poland

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Wybrane aspekty rozwoju gospodarczego Azji[recenzja książki Wybrane aspekty rozwoju gospodarczego Azji]Selected Aspects of Asia’s Economic Development [book review Wybrane aspekty rozwoju gospodarczego Azji]

Author: Lech Wyszczelski
Institution: Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2063-4281
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 157-162
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223209
PDF: npw/32/npw3209.pdf

Selected Aspects of Asia’s Economic Development [book review Wybrane aspekty rozwoju gospodarczego Azji]

Избранные аспекты экономического развития Азии [рецензия книги Wybrane aspekty rozwoju gospodarczego Azji]

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Wieloaspektowość bezpieczeństwa Azji i Pacyfiku jako element ładu międzynarodowego [recenzja książki Współczesne bezpieczeństwo regionu Azji i Pacyfiku. Wybrane aspekty]

Author: Marzena Mruk
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3529-0365
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 163-168
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223210
PDF: npw/32/npw3210.pdf

The multifaceted security of Asia and the Pacific as an element of the international order [book review Współczesne bezpieczeństwo regionu Azji i Pacyfiku. Wybrane aspekty]

Многогранная безопасность Азиатско-Тихоокеанского региона как элемент международного порядка [рецензия книги Współczesne bezpieczeństwo regionu Azji i Pacyfiku. Wybrane aspekty]

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Russia’s problem with North Caucasian terrorism [book review Terroryzm północnokaukaski. Źródła, przejawy i przeciwdziałanie zjawisku]

Author: Kamil Pietrasik
Institution: Asia-Pacific Society
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8579-0659
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 169-173
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223211
PDF: npw/32/npw3211.pdf

Проблема России с северокавказским терроризмом [рецензия книги Terroryzm północnokaukaski. Źródła, przejawy i przeciwdziałanie zjawisku]

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