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Vol. 4(35)

Spis treści

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 3-6
DOI Address: -
PDF: npw/35/npw35toc.pdf

SPIS TREŚCI / CONTENTS / ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Gruzińskie starania o zbliżenie z Zachodem po 1991 r.

Author: Andrzej Furier
Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3745-3578
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 9-31
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223501
PDF: npw/35/npw3501.pdf

Georgian efforts for rapprochement with the West after 1991

The paper presents the changes in Georgian foreign policy after the collapse of the USSR. The historical context of Georgian ties with the West and attempts to build their own security policy after 1991, which required resignation from the traditional support for Germany. The analysis covers the period from the proclamation of independence and the first free parliamentary elections in 1990 to the 2013. For the politicians of the Second Republic, relations with Russia and the support shown to the Georgian state by the United States were of key importance. The August war in 2008 inhibited Georgian activity in the international arena and restored Russian influence in that country

Mikheil Saakashvili Eduard Shevardnadze Zviad Gamsakhurdia the Rose Revolution foreign policy after 1991 Грузия Georgia

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Uchodźcy XXI wieku. Przestrzeń zagrożeń – przestrzeń wyzwań

Author: Adam Hołub
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8865-6543
Author: Beata Tomaszewska-Hołub
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5829-5986
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 32-50
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223502
PDF: npw/35/npw3502.pdf

Refugees of the 21st Century. Area of threats – Area of challenges

Current migratory movements have been mostly connected with the refugee crisis initiated in 2015, the deliberate actions of the government of Belarus in 2021 and the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022. It should be assumed that the pursuit of people towards the area of security is associated with multiple threats and challenges both for themselves and for their surroundings. The problems concern countries of departure, transit and destination. In each of these “stages” there are multiple threats affecting not only the refugees themselves. The main problem is the identification and analysis of threats, which would allow to define the conditions for strengthening the area of security related to migration. Threats concern both the life and health of people on the move (death in transit, loss of health, exposure to criminal and extreme political circles, involvement in criminal activities, economic exploitation, ethnic and religious animosities and conflicts) and for the institutions of states (social assistance, internal security). Global events indicate that threats, problems and challenges will continue to exist. It is therefore necessary to adapt the forms of institutional actions towards the problem in order to neutralize the indicated threats.

migration refugees smuggling human trafficking threats миграция

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Cybersecurity culture in the public and private sector area in the Central European region

Author: Marek Górka
Institution: Koszalin University of Technology
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6964-1581
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 51-71
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223503
PDF: npw/35/npw3503.pdf

Cybersecurity culture in the public and private sector area in the Central European region

Cyber security is a growing problem associated with everything a citizen or organisation does in cyberspace. The problem thus outlined fits into a multifaceted programme that can be addressed through cyber security management. The analysis in the article compares the level of cyber security awareness among the staff of public institutions and the private sector in four Central European countries, namely Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. Public institutions are by nature open, decentralised and rich in a wide range of data about the state, society, economy, economics and research and innovation. For this reason, they are often exposed to serious cyber threats. This study examines the relationship between cyber security culture and the urgent need for preventive action against possible cyber threats. The main thesis of the study is that an adequate understanding of cyber security culture and improved awareness among employees about digital threats is key to achieving cyber security growth. The research illustrates breaches in so-called digital hygiene, which are caused by a lack of knowledge, skills and errors in employee behaviour. Following a survey of staff employed in both public and private organisations, an identification of key cyber security risk factors is made. Increasing staff competencies can help improve cyber resilience.

cyber security cyber security culture organisational culture public entities innovation cyber security management кибербезопасность

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Role theory and Russia’s attempts to integrate the post-Soviet space: from internal to international duties

Author: Damian Strycharz
Institution: Cracow University of Economics
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8653-3892
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 72-100
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223504
PDF: npw/35/npw3504.pdf

Role theory and Russia’s attempts to integrate the post-Soviet space: from internal to international duties

With the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, Moscow’s foreign policy towards the post-Soviet space has become an even greater area of concern. In order to better understand Russia’s behaviour in the post-Soviet space, it is worth analysing what led to Moscow’s renewed interest in this area. There are numerous accounts explaining Russia’s policies towards its neighbourhood, but they often focus on material factors or Russian imperial complexes. To address the existing gap and examine changes in Moscow’s attitude towards the region, this paper will use role theory and analyse shifts in Russia’s national role conceptions. It argues that the combination of important external and internal factors led to changes in perception of Russia’s international duties and responsibilities between Putin’s rise to power and his return to the presidency in 2012. Consequently, these changes resulted in different understanding of Russia’s role in the post-Soviet space, which had implications for Russia’s increasingly aggressive actions in the region afterwards.

Russian foreign policy post-Soviet space regional integration role theory national role conception Внешняя политика России

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Konflikt wokół zapory Rogun jako przykład sporów o zasoby wodne w Azji Centralnej

Author: Paulina Filkowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0040-967X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 101-114
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223505
PDF: npw/35/npw3505.pdf

The conflict around the Rogun dam as an example of disputes over water resources

Water scarcity is an area of disputes between many states. Generally, these conflicts occur as a result of competition for water resources. They are especially visible in underdeveloped regions, such as Africa or the Middle East. Central Asia, the five republics established after the collapse of the USSR, is also an area exposed to conflicts. An example of such conflict can be the construction of the Rogun dam on Vakhsh river in Tajikistan. The project caused a lot of controversy and further construction fueled them even more. The aim of the paper is to present the conflict over the Rogun dam on the Vakhsh river in Tajikistan as an example of a conflict over water resources in Central Asia. The article presents the genesis and essence of the dispute, as well as attempts to resolve the conflict.

water water scarcity Rogun dam Central Asia Tajikistan Uzbekistan вода

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Integracja narodów i partii agrarnych w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej w myśli politycznej polskiego ruchu ludowego w końcowym okresie zaborów i dwudziestoleciu międzywojennym

Author: Marcin Wichmanowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5748-7946
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 115-144
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223506
PDF: npw/35/npw3506.pdf

Integration of nations and agrarian parties in Central and Eastern Europe in the political thought of the Polish peasant movement in the ultimate period of the partitions and in the interwar period

The question of European integration in the political thought of the peasant movement in Central and Eastern Europe appeared many times since the second half of the 19th century. In the period of partitions, people searched for paths to freedom and independence. The ideas of creating multinational political organisms were to be means for obtaining a certain degree of subjectivity. Poles saw development opportunities in the federation within the Habsburg monarchy. On the other hand, the union of the peoples of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, mainly Lithuanians, Belarusians and Ukrainians – there was an apparent chance joint struggle with the Russian invader. The geopolitics of the region, constructed in the result of the First World War, meant that the newly created Central European states found themselves between Germany and Russia – both of which were states with imperialist traditions. The question of the union of states, or mainly peasant parties in the political thought of the Polish and European peasant movements appeared several times, but in the 1930s it was rather an addition to the programs of these parties. Initially, the Poles sought an agreement mainly with neighbours facing similar threats. When the implementation of these plans failed, their programs contented with peaceful international cooperation based on the League of Nations.

peasant movement agrarian parties integration political thought Middle Eastern Europe народное движение

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Trade Flows Between the European Union and the Eastern Partnership Countries: Dynamics and Prospects

Author: Tomasz Grodzicki
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7819-2127
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 145-160
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223507
PDF: npw/35/npw3507.pdf

Trade Flows Between the European Union and the Eastern Partnership Countries: Dynamics and Prospects

The Eastern Partnership is a part of the European Neighbourhood Policy focusing on the EU’s Eastern neighbours. Its main objective is to deepen the political and economic integration of the EU with six countries in Eastern Europe and the South Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. The aim of this paper is to assess the development of EU trade relations with Eastern Partnership Countries from 2002 to 2021 and to indicate its prospects. The results show that the EU is in a group of main trading partners of the Eastern Partnership countries. The EU noticed both: a trade surplus with Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine and Armenia (except in 2005); and a trade deficit with Azerbaijan. The volumes of imports and exports had increased over the years which also led to better economic integration with the EU. However, the future EU-Eastern Partnership trade characteristics and dynamics remain unknown due to the Russian invasion on Ukraine that caused troubles in trade flows in Ukraine and economic sanctions on Russia and Belarus.

Eastern Partnership (EaP) European Union (EU) exports imports trade Восточное партнерство (ВП)

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Środowisko pracy w Chinach

Author: Elżbieta Kolasińska
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6592-5598
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 161-180
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223508
PDF: npw/35/npw3508.pdf

Work environment in China

China is a country based on traditional values on the one hand, and on the other, oriented towards the modern advances of globalization. It has undergone a wide range of socio-economic changes. The working environment in China is influenced by both classic and contemporary factors. This article discusses dysfunctional phenomena occurring in the working environment in China. These include workaholism, karoshi, karojisatsu, the 996 model, and the “lying flat” movement. The study is a critical analysis of labor relations in China.

China workaholism karoshi karojisatsu the 996 model workplace Китай

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Muhadżirowie w Polsce – zagrożenie terroryzmem islamistycznym ze strony obcokrajowców

Author: Przemysław Mazur
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0025-9410
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 181-200
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223509
PDF: npw/35/npw3509.pdf

The Muhajirs in Poland – the threat of Islamist terrorism from foreigners

The aim of this article was to analyse the terrorist threat in Poland posed by foreigners participating in the global salafi jihadist project. As a rule, these are people associated with such organizations as the Muslim Brotherhood, Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State ISIS, and their derivatives. The research was to verify the actual scale of the phenomenon, the motivations, the modus operandi, and to show trends in this practice. It was also an attempt to identify system problems that hinder the fight against terrorism and may result in a threat to Polish security. The analysis also shows that, contrary to popular opinions, the threat comes not only from the Middle East, but also from Central Asia and the Caucasus. All these directions, however, have their specifics.

terrorism al-Qaeda Islamic State ISIS Poland Chechenya Central Asia Syria терроризм

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The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Turkish foreign policy towards the Western Balkans

Author: Jan Niemiec
Institution: Jagiellonian University in Kraków
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8593-451X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 201-228
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223510
PDF: npw/35/npw3510.pdf

The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Turkish foreign policy towards the Western Balkans

The scientific aim of this paper is to analyse and evaluate actions taken by Turkey’s leading politicians with regard to the Western Balkan states (i.e. Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the Justice and Development Party came to power in 2002, Turkey has attempted to increase its international influence through diplomatic, economic and cultural measures. Western Balkans region, with which Turks have historical and ethnic ties, is one of the key areas in AKP’s doctrine. Adopting image theory in international relations as the theoretical foundation, this research examines implementation of Turkish foreign policy in the Western Balkans in times of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic. By employing available original Turkish sources (academic publications, public reports, press releases), the main objectives of Turkey’s political strategy towards the region have been determined. Detailed analysis of official statements and speeches of Turkish policy-makers was also fundamental for this study. In this context, the values and symbols to which the AKP government refers in its activities in the Western Balkans have been identified. Based on content analysis, comparative analysis and political discourse analysis, this research seeks to explain the rationale of Turkish actions in recent months. As a conclusion, future prospects for Turkey’s involvement in the Western Balkans have been presented and discussed.

Republic of Turkey Western Balkans COVID-19 pandemic regional diplomacy foreign policy Турецкая Республика

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Polska politologia na XXVI Światowym Kongresie Politologicznym IPSA, Lizbona, 10–15 lipca 2021 r

Author: Arkadiusz Żukowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3413-9492
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 231-259
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223511
PDF: npw/35/npw3511.pdf

Polish Political Science at the IPSA 26th World Congress of Political Science, Lisbon, 10th–15th July, 2021

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Polityka zagraniczna Rosji wobec Bliskiego Wschodu [recenzja książki Od Związku Radzieckiego do Federacji Rosyjskiej, Sto lat polityki zagranicznej wobec Bliskiego Wschodu]

Author: Lech Wyszczelski
Institution: Profesor emerytowany Akademii Obrony Narodowej w Warszawie i Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczo-Humanistycznego w Siedlcach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2063-4281
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 263-269
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223514
PDF: npw/35/npw3514.pdf

Russia’s foreign policy towards the Middle East [book review Od Związku Radzieckiego do Federacji Rosyjskiej, Sto lat polityki zagranicznej wobec Bliskiego Wschodu]

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On Economic Asian-Centrism [book review Selected Socio-Economic and International Relations Issues in Contemporary Asian States]

Author: Katarzyna Skiert-Andrzejuk
Institution: Collegium Civitas
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4451-5092
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 270-275
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223512
PDF: npw/35/npw3512.pdf

On Economic Asian-Centrism [book review Selected Socio-Economic and International Relations Issues in Contemporary Asian States]

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Społeczeństwo Chin: kolektywizm czy indywidualizm? [recenzja książki Indywidualista w społeczeństwie]

Author: Iga Bączkowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7053-8429
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 276-280
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223513
PDF: npw/35/npw3513.pdf

Chinese society: collectivism or individualism? [book review Indywidualista w społeczeństwie]

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