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2023

Spis treści

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 3-6
DOI Address: -
PDF: npw/36/npw36toc.pdf

SPIS TREŚCI / CONTENTS / ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Konsolidacja systemu politycznego jako źródło rosyjskich zachowań politycznych w środowisku międzynarodowym

Author: Jakub Potulski
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4139-5590
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 9-38
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233601
PDF: npw/36/npw3601.pdf

Consolidation of the political system as a source of Russian political behavior in the international environment

The contemporary Russian Federation is undergoing a process of democratic regression and a return to the socio-political authoritarianism, traditional to the Russian political system. The detachment of decision-making processes from the will of the citizens means that elites follow their own logic of action while remaining outside democratic control. Thus, all decisions are taken in the interests of the elites, most of whom come from the secret services and the military. The consolidation of the political regime, the regression of democracy in Russian conditions, promotes a return to great power thinking and thus encourages aggressive behaviour. In the article, the author points out that the aggression against Ukraine, undertaken in January 2022, was preceded by a long-term process of consolidation of the political system and elimination from its structure of any check and balance mechanisms allowing democratic control over political decision-making processes.

path dependency democratic backsliding democratization, Russian Federation Российская Федерация

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Założenia polityki zagranicznej Prawa i Sprawiedliwości wobec Rosji w programie wyborczym partii z 2019 r.

Author: Dominika Liszkowska
Institution: Politechnika Koszalińska
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6312-341X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 39-55
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233602
PDF: npw/36/npw3602.pdf

Assumptions of Law and Justice’s foreign policy towards Russia in the 2019 election program

This article presents the main assumptions and attributes of the Law and Justice (PiS) policy towards Russia, included in the party’s 2019 election program – “Poland – a model of the welfare state”. The article aims to answer the following questions: What policy assumptions towards Russia were presented by Law and Justice in its 2019 election program? What elements does PiS’s policy towards this state consist of? What are the features of this policy? What are the reasons for the approach and policy of PiS towards the Russian Federation? the 2019 PiS election program or subject to a qualitative analysis is the source and starting material for showing the main goals, elements and features of PiS’s foreign policy towards Russia.

election programs foreign policy Russia Poland Law and Justice внешняя политика

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The importance of the United States in Poland’s military security policy in the context of the war in Ukraine

Author: Łukasz Jureńczyk
Institution: Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1149-925X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 56-68
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233603
PDF: npw/36/npw3603.pdf

The subject of the article is the importance of the United States in Poland’s military security policy in relation to the war in Ukraine. The article begins with an introduction discussing its main assumptions and a synthetic historical background of the importance of the US for Poland and its security. The main part of the article is divided into two parts, the first one discussing the importance of the US in Poland’s military security policy after the Cold War. The second part is devoted to the change in the importance of the US in this policy in connection with the outbreak of the war in Ukraine and the main factors that determine this change. The aim of the article is to identify and analyze the changes in the importance of the United States in the Polish military security policy as a result of the outbreak of the war in Ukraine in 2022. The main research problem is whether the importance of the US in Poland’s military security policy increased as a result of the war, and if so, because of what main factors? The thesis of the article states that the war in Ukraine increased the importance of the US as the main external guarantor of Poland’s security and defense. This is due to the leading role played by the United States in military support for Ukraine and strengthening NATO’s eastern flank, including Poland, in the absence of leadership from Western European powers. The research included interviews with scientists and analysts from research centers in Washington and New York.

Polish-American relations Russian aggression security and defense policy war in Ukraine Польско-американские отношения

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Instytucje ochrony międzynarodowej cudzoziemców w Polsce – rozwiązania polityczne i prawne

Author: Katarzyna Chrostowska-Malak
Institution: Politechnika Warszawska
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7098-3960
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 69-100
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233604
PDF: npw/36/npw3604.pdf

Institutions of international protection for foreigners in Poland – political and legal solutions

Forced migration is a phenomenon affecting various parts of the world. Throughout history, people have been forced to leave their own country due to wars, conflicts, persecution and poverty in search of safety and livelihood. The events of recent years that Poland has been experiencing (including the COVID-19 pandemic, the Poland-Belarus border crisis, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the earlier migration crisis of 2015/2016) have led to changes in the pattern of migration, migration policy, as well as law in this regard. Poland is becoming a destination for an increasing number of refugees. Crises have put to the test Poland’s current migration and refugee policy. It has become apparent that the existing institutional and legal solutions are insufficient. In addition, it is not easy to cooperate and present a united front on the European Union forum in the face of potential threats resulting from successive migration waves. The purpose of this article is to present the institutions dealing with international protection of foreigners in Poland, describe their scope of competence, as well as discuss the need for new solutions. An aspect of particular importance is the ability to correctly identify a given situation and needs in order to grant (or refuse) a specific form of protection accordingly. 

органы по защите иностранцев foreigners’ rights foreigners’ protection institutions border protection иностранцы foreigners migration policy миграционная политика права иностранцев

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Imigracja a bezpieczeństwo wewnętrzne państwa

Author: Krzysztof Janik
Institution: Krakowska Akademia im. Andrzeja Frycza Modrzewskiego
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4783-9052
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 101-121
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233605
PDF: npw/36/npw3605.pdf

Immigration and the internal security of the state

This article deals with the impact of immigration on the multifaceted internal security of Poland. The considerations are based on the assumption that immigration is an inevitable phenomenon, and the future will bring its increase, also in relation to our country. This will result in the growth of various types of conflicts – from economic, through cultural and religious to political. Some of these conflicts are exaggerated, others can be resolved by appropriate political decisions. Importantly, the increase in immigrants in Poland does not translate into the state of public security. Foreigners do not pose a significant threat to this security, but this situation may change. It is necessary to prepare services responsible for security for such an eventuality, to ensure their interoperability and effectiveness of operation.

social conflicts immigration internal security иммиграция

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Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne Turcji

Author: Aleksander Olech
Institution: Baltic Defence College
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3793-5913
Author: Natalia Potera
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7556-9491
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 122-140
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233606
PDF: npw/36/npw3606.pdf

Turkey’s energy security

Türkiye is dependent on imports of energy resources from abroad, but its current economic strategy is based on the diversification of supply sources, which will make it less susceptible to possible manipulation by suppliers. The government’s energy policy focuses on increasing the share of renewable energy resources and domestic energy. Despite the ongoing armed conflict in Ukraine, Türkiye has not given up on energy cooperation with Russia, trying to balance between East and West. The main reason was the Covid-19 pandemic, which forced Ankara to intensify economic and energy contacts with Moscow again. The aim of the article is to present the challenges that Türkiye is currently facing in the sphere of energy security. The authors of the article will try to answer the following research questions: What is the primary objective of Ankara’s economic strategy? Does Türkiye have alternatives to energy cooperation with Russia? The role of Ankara in the NATO Alliance is crucial as well as its position in the international arena. For this reason the research on Türkiye must be carried out.

Türkiye oil Турция energy Gas energy security

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How Outrage Can be Quantified in Risk Assessment

Author: Jerzy Wolanin
Institution: The Main School of Fire Service
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5915-6905
Author: Paweł Kępka
Institution: The Main School of Fire Service
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8653-369X
Author: Oksana Telak
Institution: The Main School of Fire Service
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6103-3784
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 141-160
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233607
PDF: npw/36/npw3607.pdf

How Outrage Can be Quantified in Risk Assessment

In the article the problem how an emotional state influences quantitative risk profile is discussed. Risk as a concept enhances two equivalent dimensions. The first dimension relates to experts’ risk assessment. The second one is related to public risk perception, named outrage. One can understand outrage as the emotional state concerning risk. Five different degrees of hazardous situations are described and public emotional attitude towards them is analyzed by structured interview. A correlation between the emotional attitude and readiness to act is calculated to describe amplification of risk by the emotional state. Then a risk profile is constructed.

risk profile perception of risk state of emotion outrage возмущение

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Separatisms and Social Integration Processes on the Example of Estonia

Author: Agata Włodarska-Frykowska
Institution: University of Lodz
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4672-7232
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 161-174
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233608
PDF: npw/36/npw3608.pdf

The article seeks to analyze political and social separatisms in contemporary Estonia and to outline integration processes in the country. The Russian national minority has been a factor that has significantly influenced the existing divisions in the interior of the country since the creation of the independent and sovereign Estonian state. Despite the passage of more than 30 years after regaining its independence, Estonia is still struggling with internal separatist mechanisms, whilst strongly developed and strengthened integration processes have significantly influenced its social consolidation. Changes in Estonian society are apparent, the sense of Estonian identity keeps strengthening and representatives of national minorities, primarily the Russian one, have increasingly improved their linguistic competence in Estonian. On the other hand, it is extremely difficult to build Estonian statehood, subjectivity and identity in the shadow of the difficult relations with the Russian Federation.

Russian national minority contemporary Estonia integration strategy linguistic separatism social separatism political separatism политический сепаратизм

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Aporie zrównoważonego rozwoju

Author: Łukasz Zaorski-Sikora
Institution: Politechnika Łódzka
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3404-0994
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 175-188
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233609
PDF: npw/36/npw3609.pdf

Aporias of sustainable development

The article considers the aporias underlying the idea of sustainable development and the 2030 Agenda. The reports made for the Agenda show, on the one hand, that in recent years the number of people living in extreme poverty has significantly decreased, on the other hand, it turns out that the goals of sustainable development are implemented are faster and more effective in developed countries. In other words, we observe that despite the relative improvement in living conditions in the poorest countries of the global South, most of the profits still go to the wealthiest countries of the North, which get richer at the expense of the poor. The author concludes that the aporetic nature of the 2030 Agenda has been unintentionally expressed already in the preamble, where the idea of sustainable development is compared to modern Esperanto, thanks to which the activities of governments and business are to be integrated under the aegis of the United Nations, and notes that the vast majority of vocabulary in Esperanto comes from languages Western European, and the language is always governed by a specific axiology and social structure – it turns out that it is easier for Western countries to find the semantic, syntactic and, above all, pragmatic reality assumed in the Agenda.

aporia Sustainable Development Goals justice partnership sustainable development апория

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Sytuacja prawna Polskiego Autokefalicznego Kościoła Prawosławnego i jej uwarunkowania społeczno-polityczne w latach 1944–1956. Problemy wybrane

Author: Danuta Waniek
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9645-1898
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 189-219
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233610
PDF: npw/36/npw3610.pdf

Consolidation of the political system as a source of Russian political behavior in the international environment

The main purpose of this article is to recall and analyze from a political-legal point of view not only the little-known wartime history of the Polish Orthodox Church, but also attempts to bring order to the chaos that reigned in the Polish Orthodox Church after the end of World War II. This issue is most often taken up in intellectual circles associated with the Orthodox Church, or - less often - by experts in religious policy. The study presented here is an attempt to supplement this body of work with an own view of the policy of the authorities of the People’s Republic of Poland towards the Orthodox Church, carried out in 1944-1958, which was seriously influenced not only by ideological and legal decisions, characteristic of the period of building revolutionary political changes, but also by long unresolved nationality issues.

Moscow Patriarchate separation of churches from the state PPS Provisional Government of National Unity PKWN Manifesto Curzon-Namier line operation “Vistula” population resettlement March Constitution orthodoxy autocephaly national and ethnic minorities Православие

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The European Union’s Economic Development Strategy and Cooperation with the Countries of Central Asia

Author: Mukesh Shankar Bharti
Institution: Amity Univesity
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3693-7247
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 220-244
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233611
PDF: npw/36/npw3611.pdf

The European Union’s Economic Development Strategy and Cooperation with the Countries of Central Asia

The purpose of this study is to analyse the European Union (EU) economic and development cooperation in Central Asia. EU’s economic support to Central Asian countries strengthens its position in this region. Central Asia is a key strategic area for cooperation and the EU seems to have deeper engagement. Moreover, this research highlights the EU’s strategic gear up with Central Asian countries from 2007 to till now. Since the EU launched the Central Asia Strategy in 2007, the objective of this policy is to provide development assistance and establish diplomatic channels in the region. The following research questions rely on, why is Central Asia important to the EU and how does it shape relations with Central Asian countries? And this study relies on qualitative analysis that will be used in this research which addresses the main research problems. Further, the study uses the empirical approach to justify answers to the questions and identify the research outcomes.

Strategic Cooperation EU development Central Asia geopolitics economy Центральная Азия

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Prześladowanie ludności ujgurskiej w świetle Konwencji w sprawie zapobiegania i karania zbrodni ludobójstwa – przyczynek do dyskusji

Author: Sara Tomaszewska
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4139-5590
Author: Paula Tomaszewska
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4139-5590
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 245-258
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233612
PDF: npw/36/npw3612.pdf

Persecution of the uighur people in the light of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide – a contribution to the discussion

The scientific aim of the article is to answer the following research question: did the People’s Republic of China commit the genocide in the Uighurs in the light of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of December 9, 1948? The authors in their work: (1) characterize the Uyghur people, (2) describe the concept of genocide and the act of committing this act, (3) analyze examples qualifying for the recognition of Chinese actions as genocide (4) try to show the reaction of the main international actors to the situation in Xinjiang. The thesis of the article claims that the PRC committed genocide against the Uighur people by: (1) killing members of this group; (2) causing serious bodily and psychological harm to members of the group; (3) performing deliberate actions aimed at physical destruction of all or part of this community; (4) imposing measures to prevent birth in a group; (5) forcible separation of children from parents. The resulting article is a presentation of Chinese activities that fulfill the features of the crime of genocide and provide an in-depth legal analysis of the Genocide Convention. The article conducts a political analysis based on available source material.

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide prosecution Uighurs уголовное преследование

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Sprawozdanie ze spotkania ze Stanisławem Asiejewem, Toruń, 8 grudnia 2022 r.

Author: Remigiusz Falkowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 261-262
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233613
PDF: npw/36/npw3613.pdf

Report from a meeting with Stanislav Aseyev, Toruń, December 8, 2022

Отчет со встречи со Станиславом Осеевым, Торунь, 8 декабря 2022 г.

Another View on International Relations [book review International Public Relations and Public Diplomacy: Communication and Engagement]

Author: Isaac Antwi-Boasiako
Institution: Technological University Dublin
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8882-1326
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 265-267
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233614
PDF: npw/36/npw3614.pdf

Другой взгляд на международные отношения

[рецензия книги International Public Relations and Public Diplomacy: Communication and Engagement]

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Rosyjskie spojrzenie na Bliski Wschód [recenzja książki Od Związku Radzieckiego do Federacji Rosyjskiej. Sto lat polityki zagranicznej wobec Bliskiego Wschodu]

Author: Marzena Mruk
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3529-0365
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 268-274
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233615
PDF: npw/36/npw3615.pdf

A Russian Perspective on the Middle East

[book review Od Związku Radzieckiego do Federacji Rosyjskiej. Sto lat polityki zagranicznej wobec Bliskiego Wschodu]

Российский взгляд на Ближний Восток

[рецензия книги Od Związku Radzieckiego do Federacji Rosyjskiej. Sto lat polityki zagranicznej wobec Bliskiego Wschodu]

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Potrzeba matką sportu [recenzja książki Historia chińskiego sportu]

Author: Bartosz Kuczyński
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1231-6320
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 275-278
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233616
PDF: npw/36/npw3616.pdf

Necessity is the mother of sport

[book review Historia chińskiego sportu]

Необходимость – мать спорта

[рецензия книги Historia chińskiego sportu]

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Przegląd polskiej literatury XX wieku [recenzja książki Leszka Szarugi Przestrzenie literatury i okolice]

Author: Joanna Baum
Institution: Badaczka niezależna
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9794-3114
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 279-281
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233617
PDF: npw/36/npw3617.pdf

Overview of Polish literature of the 20th century

[recenzja książki Leszka Szarugi Przestrzenie literatury i okolice]

Обзор польской литературы 20 века

[recenzja książki Leszka Szarugi Przestrzenie literatury i okolice]

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Spis treści

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 3-6
DOI Address: -
PDF: npw/37/npw37toc.pdf

SPIS TREŚCI / CONTENTS / ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Uwarunkowania krótkotrwałych rządów w Japonii: przykład premiera Sugi Yoshihide

Author: Karol Żakowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2715-570X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 9-28
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233701
PDF: npw/37/npw3701.pdf

Determinants of short-lived governments in Japan: the example of Prime Minister Suga Yoshihide

Japan is one of the countries with the most frequently changing heads of government in the world. The aim of this article is to examine both the structural and individual causes of this situation by using the example of the short term in office of Prime Minister Suga Yoshihide from 2020 to 2021. While such factors as strong ministerial sectionalism in the government, factionalism in the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), high frequency of parliamentary and ruling party presidential elections, as well as consensual political culture made it difficult for prime ministers to remain in office for a longer period of time, the electoral and administrative reforms of the 1990s facilitated the heads of government to stabilize the government’s social and party base of support. Nevertheless, the usage of the new institutional instruments to remain in power depended on the prime minister’s ability to create his/her positive image among voters. This article analyzes why Prime Minister Suga, despite leading a stable ruling coalition in both houses of the parliament and having extensive experience in decision-making process, was unable to maintain the government’s initially high popularity and resigned only one year after having formed his cabinet.

Japan Suga Yoshihide Prime Minister factionalism Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)

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Introducing the Research Project “Sacred Narrative – The Political Dimension of Japanese Mythology”

Author: Klaus Antoni
Institution: University of Tuebingen
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3600-1403
Author: Julia Dolkovski
Institution: University of Tuebingen
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0001-3348-0886
Author: Louise Neubronner
Institution: University of Tuebingen
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0001-2401-3725
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 29-71
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233702
PDF: npw/37/npw3702.pdf

Introducing the Research Project “Sacred Narrative – The Political Dimension of Japanese Mythology”

The Kojiki and Nihon shoki have been integral to the formation of Japanese identity, especially since the 18th century. As such, they were constantly exposed to processes of sacralization and desacralization, i.e., the attribution and removal of authority. The research project “Sacred Narrative – The Political Dimension of Japanese Mythology” is concerned with how certain systems of thought or ideology used these texts in a way that raised them to an elevated position or deprived them of it. Organized in three focus areas, the project delves into the topic of the historical change the Kojiki and Nihon shoki underwent in terms of interpretation and instrumentalization from the Edo period up to modern-day Japan. These investigations are integrated into the research group “De/Sacralization of Texts” at the University of Tübingen that started its work in January 2022. In this interdisciplinary context, “Sacred narrative” seeks to promote the integration of East-Asian textuality into general theory formation.

Japanese mythology Kojiki Nihon shoki sacralization political mythology Jinmu-tennō Motoori Norinaga myth in popular culture

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To the Brighter Side. New Tendencies in Erecting Statues of Bodhisattva Jizō in Japanese Buddhist Temples

Author: Alīse Eishō Donnere
Institution: Tohoku Gakuin University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0002-0210-4981
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 72-90
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233703
PDF: npw/37/npw3703.pdf

To the Brighter Side. New Tendencies in Erecting Statues of Bodhisattva Jizō in Japanese Buddhist Temples

Japan is a predominantly atheistic country, however, Buddhism is still keeping its influence on society. Firstly, funerals are mostly performed according to the Buddhist ritual. Secondly, several times a year the majority of Japanese families visit their relatives’s graves in cemeteries, belonging to Buddhist temples. As a result, Buddhism is associated first of all with death and funeral. Buddhist priests try to make the image of Buddhism brighter in many ways. In this article, we will look at one of these ways – erecting statues that depict simultaneously the beloved bodhisattva Jizo, the priests themselves, visitors and the dead relatives.

Japanese Buddhism Japan buddhism Jizo statues funeral Buddhism modern Buddhism

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Rozważania na temat państwowości Riukiu czasów nowożytnych

Author: Stanisław Meyer
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3075-5677
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 91-109
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233704
PDF: npw/37/npw3704.pdf

Reflections on the statehood of Ryukyu of modern times

In this article, I argue against the widely accepted view among Japanese historians that the Ryukyu Kingdom of early modern times belonged to the Japanese bakuhan system while retaining its status as a foreign country. Placing Ryukyu within the bakuhan framework corresponds with the deterministic narrative of history that justifies Japan’s annexation of Ryukyu on one side, and Okinawan people’s choice of Japanese identity on the other. The claim of “foreign country inside the bakuhan system” is difficult to defend in light of theories of state that emphasize the importance of the interaction between society and state institutions. Ryukyu, as a separate social entity, had no influence on the shape of the bakuhan system and, conversely, the bakuhan system did not shape the Ryukyuan society.

Japan Ryukyu Okinawa history bakuhan system

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Czynniki determinujące kontynuowanie wojny rosyjsko-ukraińskiej

Author: Marcin Koczan
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8039-6820
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 110-124
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233705
PDF: npw/37/npw3705.pdf

Factors determining the continuation of the Russian-Ukrainian war

On February 24, 2022, Russian troops attacked the territory of Ukraine, starting a new phase of the conflict that has been ongoing since 2014. Due to the difference in potential between Russia and Ukraine, most analysts expected a relatively quick end of military operation. Although several months have passed since the attack, there are no signs that the war will end soon. On the contrary, most indications indicate that the conflict will not end any time soon. The authorities of both sides declare their willingness to start peace negotiations, but they set preconditions unacceptable to the other side. Societies seem determined to continue the war, or at least there are no widespread symptoms of defeatism. Russia’s military potential has not reached a critical level that would make it impossible to wage a full-scale war, and the economic situation is better than predicted a few months ago. Ukraine’s continued resistance depends on the extent of assistance it receives from its allies. The article describes the factors that prove the continuation of military operations, but also the reasons for ending the war.

Ukraine Russia Russian-Ukrainian war regional security

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Russian Disinformation and Propaganda Campaign Justifying the Annexing of Crimea in 2014

Author: Oksana Voytyuk
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6452-2893
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 125-145
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233706
PDF: npw/37/npw3706.pdf

Russian Disinformation and Propaganda Campaign Justifying the Annexing of Crimea in 2014

On February 26, 2014, the Russian Federation annexed the Crimean Peninsula. Russia’s unlawful actions have been condemned in the international arena, but this has in no way changed the decision of the authorities in the Kremlin. In order to prove the legitimacy of the occupation of Crimea, the Russian Federation launched a disinformation and propaganda campaign aimed primarily at the internal arena, i.e. at the Russians. The aim of the article is to analyze selected statements by Vladimir Putin regarding the annexation of Crimea and to try to answer the question of whether disinformation and internal propaganda were effective in convincing Russians that the occupation of Crimea was an act of restoring historical justice. For the purposes of the article, research methods appropriate for international relations were used.

propaganda disinformation Crimea Russian Federation Ukraine annexation

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Cultural Security in the Context of the Analysis of the Religiosity of Belarusian Students

Author: Viktoryia Baretskaya
Institution: Siedlce Scientific Society
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8299-6213
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 146-164
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233707
PDF: npw/37/npw3707.pdf

Cultural Security in the Context of the Analysis of the Religiosity of Belarusian Students

Religion can become an instrument of manipulation and destabilization in society, everything depends on people who have access to the levers of power, the position of Church hierarchs and the level of religious literacy of the population. The article is devoted to the study of the concept of the correlation of national identity and Christian universalism, as well as the model of Church–State relations in the modern social teaching of the Russian Orthodox Church, in the context of the analysis of some aspects of the religiosity of the Belarusian student youth, namely quantitative indicators of trust in the Church, attendance of divine services, and confessional affiliation.

religiosity of student youth model of Church–State relations social teaching of the Russian Orthodox Church cultural security

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Uwarunkowania międzynarodowe rozwoju sektora IT na Białorusi a przyczyny emigracji informatyków białoruskich w latach 2020–2021

Author: Rafał Lisiakiewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8649-6518
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 165-191
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233708
PDF: npw/37/npw3708.pdf

International conditions of the IT sector development in Belarus and the reasons for emigration of Belarusian IT specialists in 2020–2021

The aim of the article is to indicate the relevant factors shaping economic migrations from the perspective of the theory of international relations. The article concerns a crucial period for the immigration of IT workers from Belarus, i.e. the second half of 2020 and the first half of 2021. From the point of view of the theory of international relations, it should pay attention to two levels in research on the issues of economic cooperation: domestic and international one. In the article, the author will point out the link between migration and the international and political conditions of the development of the IT sector in Belarus. The research hypothesis put forward by the author is related to the link between the causes of migration and the economic and political conditions that developed in Belarus in the 21st century. Authoritarian systems, according to the author, may favor economic development and create conditions for running a business in a specific way, but the security of such activity itself is limited.

Belarus IT sector migrations international relations Poland

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Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe wobec Rosji, Ukrainy i Białorusi w latach 2015–2019

Author: Tomasz R. Dębowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9933-8911
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 192-211
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233709
PDF: npw/37/npw3709.pdf

The Polish People’s Party towards Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in 2015–2019

Eastern policy is one of the most important areas of Polish foreign policy. It regards the countries (of the former Soviet Union), that do not belong to the Euro-Atlantic structures. In 2015, Law and Justice won the parliamentary elections in Poland. Witold Waszczykowski was assigned as the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and was replaced in January 2018 by Jacek Czaputowicz. The aim of the study is to find an answer to the question: what was the attitude of the Polish People’s Party to Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in 2015–2019 and what premises influenced its shape? A working hypothesis was adopted: “The Polish People’s Party in 2015–2019 opted for a partnership model of Poland’s relations with Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, shaped on the basis of pragmatic premises”. The time limit for the research covered the period from July 17th, 2015 to November 11th, 2019. The analysis of the collected material made possible to answer the question (contained in the introduction to the article), and also confirmed the validity of the adopted working hypothesis. Moreover, it showed that for the Polish People’s Party, matters concerning eastern policy were not the leading thread in the reflection on Polish foreign policy.

Polish eastern policy Polish People’s Party Russia Belarus Ukraine

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Demokratyzacja państw Europy Środkowej i Wschodniej w kontekście rozpadu Związku Radzieckiego, na łamach czasopisma podziemnego „Obóz”

Author: Judyta Bielanowska
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Bezpieczeństwa w Poznaniu / Europejskie Centrum Solidarności w Gdańsku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6764-7859
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 212-238
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233710
PDF: npw/37/npw3710.pdf

Democratization of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe in the context of the collapse of the Soviet Union, in the context of the underground magazine “Obóz”

The democratization of the former Soviet Union countries was a long and arduous process of regaining the sovereignty lost after World War II. The political, social, economic, cultural and institutional transformations taking place at that time, both in the territory of the former Soviet republics and those formally independent of the USSR, but in fact completely dominated by it, constituted a conglomerate of various factors, conditioning in most cases a bloodless revolution. The systemic transformation, however, did not go everywhere in the direction expected by society and the new political class. In many countries, the quality of overall structural transformations left much to be desired. Not everywhere was it possible to fill the institutional void left by the liquidated organs of government and the security apparatus. The lively assessment of the new, democratic political system, formulated in statu nascendi, was shared by the opinion-forming circles that had so far operated in the underground and had a strong influence on the social mood of individual countries. One of the independent magazines devoted to the problems of neighboring countries was the underground periodical “Obóz”.

democratization, The Soviet Union Central and Eastern Europe

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Turkey forever balances between East and West

Author: Karolina Wanda Olszowska
Institution: Jagiellonian University in Kraków
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0535-912X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 239-255
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233711
PDF: npw/37/npw3711.pdf

Turkey forever balances between East and West

When looking at contemporary Turkish politics, an incorrect notion is often circulated that Turkey has only in recent years, as far back as under Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, begun a policy of balancing between East and West. The purpose of this article is to analyze Turkey’s posture – in terms of balancing between spheres of influence – after the end of World War II until Turkey joined NATO and then compare it with Turkey’s stance during the Justice and Development Party government in the context of relations with the United States and Russia. This will help answer the question: to what extent is Ankara’s current balkanizing attitude something surprising? Aren’t specific patterns of the 1945–1952 period similar to those of the 21st century, and the differences are the attitudes of Washington and Moscow rather than Ankara?

Soviet Union Cold War Turkey United States Russia

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Dyplomacja religijna Republiki Turcji

Author: Łukasz Sławomir Fraszka
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1423-652X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 256-277
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233712
PDF: npw/37/npw3712.pdf

Religious diplomacy of the Republic of Türkiye

The aim of this article is to analyse the religious dimension of Turkey’s foreign policy in the era of Justice and Development Party rule and the forms of its implementation. The article argues that the Republic of Turkey, in the era of AKP rule, is becoming one of the main state actors in international relations, which is beginning to use religion as an instrument of soft power in its foreign policy. At the same time, using “religious diplomacy” as a formal tool to strengthen the state’s image in the international arena. „Religious diplomacy” is the primary tool of Turkish soft power to strengthen the country’s international position after the Cold War. It aims to promote the Turkish model of Islam as a moderate type of Islam that can coexist with modernity and multiculturalism. It also promotes Turkish language and culture alongside religious curricula by linking Sunni Islam and Turkish nationalism.

religion “religious diplomacy” soft power foreign policy of Türkiye

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The Heart of Arabs. Emirati Songs for Egypt

Author: Edyta Wolny-Abouelwafa
Institution: Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4645-8909
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 278-294
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233713
PDF: npw/37/npw3713.pdf

The Heart of Arabs. Emirati Songs for Egypt

Creating patriotic songs in the Arab countries is very common. They can represent different types of music, can be connected to special occasions or be created without them, just from the ‘need a heart’. The author of the article has been doing research on contemporary Egyptian patriotic songs for years. On the basis of her results, she has decided to divide all the analysed songs into the those created by Egyptians for Egyptians and in addition created by other artists for Egypt and its citizens. The job of the latter she calls ‘patriotic songs’ as well and divided them into two main groups which are connected with the way they identify themselves. The article presents the results of the analysis of selected songs released by United Arab Emirates’ artists for Egypt. The article’s author’s goal was to check the songs’ topics and which one of the previously mentioned groups they represent. She also mentions the figure of Hussain Al Jassmi, the most popular, in recent years, Emirati singer creating patriotic songs for Egypt. She analysed the songs on the basis of the songs’ topics and combined it with the contemporary relations between United Arab Emirates and Egypt while mentioning their origins historically. All of this allowed her to reach the conclusions presented in the article.

Egypt United Arab Emirates patriotic songs love for Egypt pop culture amicable songs for Egypt Hussain Al Jassmi Arab unity

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Ochrona praw człowieka w kontekście zadań samorządu gminnego [recenzja książki Rola samorządu gminnego w ochronie praw człowieka]

Author: Teresa Astramowicz-Leyk
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5881-2325
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 297-303
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233714
PDF: npw/37/npw3714.pdf

Protection of human rights in the context of the tasks of municipal government

[book review Rola samorządu gminnego w ochronie praw człowieka]

Защита прав человека в контексте задач муниципального управления

[рецензия книги Rola samorządu gminnego w ochronie praw człowieka]

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Dokąd zmierzasz, Europo? [recenzja książki Wyzwania Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej]

Author: Dominik Boratyn
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2335-7515
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 304-309
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233715
PDF: npw/37/npw3715.pdf

Where are you going, Europe?

[book review Wyzwania Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej]

Куда ты идешь, Европа?

[рецензия книги Wyzwania Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej]

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Chiny w procesie przemian: od osiągnięć polityki reform i otwarcia do wyzwań współczesnych – spojrzenie z perspektywy chińskiej [recenzja książki 100 dialogów Nowej Ery. Wszyscy jesteśmy Poszukiwaczami Snów]

Author: Ewa Radomska
Institution: Uniwersytet Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9503-534X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 310-341
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233716
PDF: npw/37/npw3716.pdf

China in the process of transformation: from the achievements of reform and opening-up policies to contemporary challenges – a Chinese perspective

[book review 100 dialogów Nowej Ery. Wszyscy jesteśmy Poszukiwaczami Snów]

Китай в процессе трансформации: от достижений политики реформ и открытости к современным вызовам – взгляд с китайской точки зрения

[рецензия книги 100 dialogów Nowej Ery. Wszyscy jesteśmy Poszukiwaczami Snów]

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Presenting Innovative Research on Contemporary China [book review Balancing Changes. Seventy Years of People’s Republic of China]

Author: Agnieszka Homańska
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2273-7903
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 342-348
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233717
PDF: npw/37/npw3717.pdf

Презентация инновационных исследований современного Китая

[рецензия книги Balancing Changes. Seventy Years of People’s Republic of China]

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Spis treści

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 3-6
DOI Address: -
PDF: npw/38/npw38toc.pdf

SPIS TREŚCI / CONTENTS / ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Wstęp

Author: Teresa Astramowicz-Leyk
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5881-2325
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 7-12
DOI Address: -
PDF: npw/38/npw3800.pdf

Mechanisms for the Protection of Ukrainian Refugees in the EU Member States

Author: Olha Ivasechko
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2141-3309
Author: Yaryna Turchyn
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9114-1911
Author: Teresa Astramowicz-Leyk
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5881-2325
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 15-37
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233801
PDF: npw/38/npw3801.pdf

The article considers the issue of the migration crisis of Ukrainian refugees to EU member states caused by Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022. An elucidation was made as to the quantity of Ukrainian refugees taken in by European states since the Russia’s full-scale military invasion of Ukraine commenced. An analysis of forms of protection for individuals in the European Union is conducted, including refugee status and temporary protection. The legislation of refugee status in the EU is represented through the prism of the analysis of the Council Directive 2001/55/EC on temporary protection. The key difference between temporary protection and refugee status is defined. The key problems faced by European countries are highlighted; concurrently, the obstacles experienced by Ukrainian refugees are presented, namely, obtaining housing and employment. Special attention was paid to the issue of “fatigue” and exhaustion of social systems and ordinary citizens in EU countries. The authors present the results of the study on the mechanisms of providing protection and asylum to Ukrainian refugees in the EU. Furthermore, the 10-point strategy suggested by the European Commission to the European Council and the Justice and Home Affairs Council in order to support EU countries in their endeavor of admitting Ukrainian refugees has been duly given attention. The core research objectives revolve around the effectiveness of protection mechanisms for Ukrainian refugees in the EU, and any consequences said system may bring about for both the EU and Ukraine.

temporary protection mechanism Russian Federation European Union war refugees Ukraine

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Forced Migration from Ukraine during the Russian-Ukrainian War: impact on the EU and Ukraine

Author: Alla Atamanenko
Institution: National University of Ostroh Academy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4940-1625
Author: Mariia Avhustiuk
Institution: National University of Ostroh Academy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9510-5715
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 38-59
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233802
PDF: npw/38/npw3802.pdf

The full-scale invasion of Russia into Ukraine on February 24, 2022, which was accompanied by the violation of humanitarian law and the demolition of civilian infrastructure, has led to the emergence of forced migration. Millions of people left the country within a short period. On March 4, the EU Temporary Protection Directive was reactivated in response to the unprecedented flow of migrants from Ukraine. EU countries have opened their borders to migrants from Ukraine, providing them with shelter and assistance. Poland and its neighbouring states, such as Romania, Moldova, Hungary, as well as the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany, Austria, received the highest quantity of migrants. The wave of migration has had a noticeable influence on the functioning of labour markets and employment, even in those regions of Ukraine which have not been exposed to military activity. Comprehensive studies show that external migration, among other factors, will significantly affect the demographic situation in Ukraine due to the increase in the number of people who do not plan to return from abroad. A key factor in the crisis is the fact that the majority of these people is youth of employable age and children. Besides, educational migration from Ukraine to EU countries has also increased significantly. The influx of immigrants who have established themselves in the nations of the European Union have significantly impacted the labour markets of these countries, putting a considerable strain on the public funds of the host countries. The question of Ukrainian immigrants’ ability to engage in activities such as schooling (including access to educational opportunities for children), employment, residence, and healthcare in both the immediate and long-term future is coming to the fore. Ukrainian and international scholars alike have done numerous studies on external migration from Ukraine; nonetheless, the forced migration resulting from the full-scale military invasion of Ukraine has yet to be adequately examined. Subsequently, the article is intended to examine the displacement circumstances in Ukraine and the EU and to evaluate the consequence of compulsory external migration in Ukraine and the EU.

EU countries external migration foreign migration forced migration full-scale invasion migrants refugees Ukraine

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Ukrainians in Poland on behalf of refugees – a case study of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship

Author: Teresa Astramowicz-Leyk
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5881-2325
Author: Olha Ivasechko
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2141-3309
Author: Yaryna Turchyn
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9114-1911
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 60-83
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233803
PDF: npw/38/npw3803.pdf

The aim of the article is to present the activity of three branches of the Association of Ukrainians in Poland, covering the entire Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The study also outlines the Association’s activities supporting refugees. The main research hypothesis is that the Association of Ukrainians in Poland is actively engaged in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, and following Russia’s full-scale invasion, members of the Association became extremely proactive both in helping refugees from Ukraine, as well as Ukrainians who stayed in Ukraine, including those from the territory of military operations. The core research problems focuses on the following questions: What efforts did the Association of Ukrainians in Poland undertake to maintain its history, traditions, language and culture? Which activities have been supported by local government authorities, including the Voivodeship ones? How has the Association changed its activity following the Russia’s full-scale aggression against Ukraine on February 24, 2022? Previous studies conducted by the authors demonstrate that economic migrants from Ukraine in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship did not perceive themselves as a part of the Ukrainian minority living in the region. Meanwhile, the relationship between the Association and the refugees is different.

Russia’s full-scale aggression against Ukraine Association of Ukrainians in Poland Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship Ukrainian minority Ukrainian refugees

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Verification of nationality and rehabilitation in Upper Silesia as a point of reference for Donbas

Author: Cezary Trosiak
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3434-5042
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 84-103
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233804
PDF: npw/38/npw3804.pdf

In Poland, the region where the phenomenon of multiculturalism is most strongly represented is Upper Silesia. Upper Silesia, its historical hosts, have been confronted with German, Polish and Czech nationalism since the mid-21st century. Initially, they were forced to determine their ethnic affiliation, then, due to the change of borders, they were forced to move to one or the other side of the newly established Polish-German border in 1922. After 1945, they were subjected to strong repression, deportation to forced labor camps, forced displacement, degrading verification of nationality, and then they were confronted with the Polish population who came to Upper Silesia. Most often, the Poles who arrived were hostile to the Upper Silesians. The aim of this article is to answer the question whether the experiences of integration of the indigenous population of Upper Silesia into the social, cultural, economic and political structures of the Polish state after World War II can be related to a similar process that will take place after the end of hostilities in the eastern regions of the Ukrainian state. . The starting point is the thesis that the Upper Silesian experience of the rehabilitation and citizenship verification procedures should serve as a warning against the mistakes made in Upper Silesia rather than as a useful reference point.

socio-cultural integration national rehabilitation regional identity regionalism refugees

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Scientific and Educational Life of Ukrainians in Bavaria

Author: Artem Kokosh
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4785-2190
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 104-116
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233805
PDF: npw/38/npw3805.pdf

The phenomenon of the Ukrainian national minority is well known in Bavaria. Despite the noticeable presence in Landtag, local universities, Bavarian Academy of Sciences, diplomatic offices and other institutions, they are not the most populous minority in the region. Moreover, in the early 2000s there was the Ukrainian school, Technical- Husbandry Institute and University which had the legal acts to offer education to not only Ukrainians but also to people of other nationalities. What opportunities are available to Ukrainians in Bavaria to benefit from favourable conditions and how is the local authority handling the matter of the Ukrainian institutions? The main objective of the research is to identify the main periods of Ukrainian presence in scientific and educational institutions in Bavaria, as well as research their status in the region. Moreover, the support of these institutions to Ukrainian refugees in 2022 will be studied. Examining the Ukrainian refugee situation in Europe, the article will also evaluate the utility of these institutions. As a final point, the study presents the capacity of these institutions to affect the integration of students into society nowadays.

Bavarian Ministries university national minority Ukrainians refugees

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Non-governmental assistance to Ukrainian refugees by Polish society in the aftermath of the escalation of hostilities in 2022

Author: Katarzyna Maciejewska-Mieszkowska
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1623-8788
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 117-136
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233806
PDF: npw/38/npw3806.pdf

The full-scale war in Ukraine caused the largest refugee crisis in Europe after World War II. Poland was the initial destination for people fleeing the war, causing a rapid influx of several million refugees in just a few weeks. An unprecedented and rapid response of the Polish society in terms of providing assistance to refugees enabled the acceptance of those who decided to stay in Poland Social action that began at the local level and translated into commonly known non-governmental assistance provided the basis and impetus for fostering beneficial connections between Poland and Ukraine, not only on the state level, but especially within the respective populations. The purpose of the article was to explore the forms of assistance offered by the Polish society, the scope of aspects of the refugees’ lives it addressed, and how this was reflected in the mutual perception of Poles and Ukrainians. As a hypothesis, it was assumed that a direct involvement of the Polish society in helping refugees from Ukraine decreased over the course of a year of the full-blown war in Ukraine, with simultaneous high social support for the state’s systemic solutions in this regard. In order to verify the hypothesis, a combination of descriptive, analysis of existing data, comparative and statistical methods were employed.

non-governmental aid Poles society refugees Ukraine

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Issues of national minorities in the policy of the Eastern Partnership

Author: Halyna Lutsyshyn
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8434-071X
Author: Oleksandr Sokolovsky
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0515-2367
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 137-150
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233807
PDF: npw/38/npw3807.pdf

The peculiarities of implementing the policy of the EU’s Eastern Partnership Initiative in regards to protecting the rights of national minorities have been studied. The issue of national minorities in the EU is considered from the perspectives of security, democracy, and regional integration. Despite contemporary criticism of the EU’s Eastern Partnership Initiative, many initiatives aimed at protecting the rights of national minorities in the region have been implemented, thereby fostering intergovernmental cooperation. It is evident that Ukraine and Moldova are the most proactive in protecting the rights of national minorities amongst the Eastern Partnership countries. These countries have been granted the status of candidate for EU accession. Despite the Russian-Ukrainian war, Ukraine actively works on improving legislation in the field of ethno-policy. Particular emphasis is placed on analysis of the institutional structure of national minorities, communication pathways, and non-discriminatory policies in Eastern Partnership countries. Member states of the Eastern Partnership actively utilize “soft power” techniques through a network of minority organizations. It has been suggested that European integration of Ukraine and Moldova has generated considerable opportunities for the development of national minorities. Loosening of state borders has enabled national minorities to connect more deeply with their ethnic homelands, thereby transforming them into engaged participants of transborder cooperation and significant figures of regional policy. The Eastern Partnership furnishes a platform for minorities to assert themselves in decisions which pertain to their lives, execute grant initiatives, and take part in regional associations of minorities. Nevertheless, certain risks are highlighted, such as particular nations exploiting EU enlargement to tackle minority matters or manipulate minority rights. The EU has analyzed programs supporting national minorities, especially those implemented in the Eastern Partnership countries. While Eastern Partnership countries have developed their policies regarding national minorities, there are common problems faced by minorities in the region. Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, Azerbaijan, and Armenia are involved in conflicts, being former Soviet Union countries, and face numerous challenges concerning the functioning of the Russian minority, which is numerically significant in this region. It is stated that the EU cooperates with the Eastern Partnership countries on matters regarding national minorities, and it is crucial to develop innovative models for managing ethnic diversity, promoting the involvement of national minorities in making socio-political decisions and integrating them into society.

national minorities Moldova European Union Georgia European integration Belarus Eastern Partnership Ukraine

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Active labour market policies response to Ukrainian citizens entering the European Union’s labour market

Author: Oleksandra Struk
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5316-9630
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 151-170
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233808
PDF: npw/38/npw3808.pdf

The article contains a thorough analysis of the European active labour market policies in the face of the influx of Ukrainians following the outbreak of the Russia’s full-scale aggression against Ukraine. An overview of the temporary protection regulations for Ukrainians adopted by the EU states made it possible to determine the conditions of legal residence and labour market access. Statistical data and surveys conducted by international institutions became the basis for identification the Ukrainian refugee’s profile on the EU labour market. Thus, the vast majority of Ukrainian citizens staying in EU states are women with higher-than-average educational level; good or high proficiency in English; who used to work before the war with a non-negligible share in the health and education sectors; and who often work below their qualification. In addition, an analytical comparison was undertaken to highlight the image of migrants who came to Poland before February 24, 2022 and that of war refugees who have arrived following the outbreak of the war in Ukraine. Acceptance of Ukrainians by Poles, remarkable similarities between countries in terms of culture, favourable access to the labour market and healthcare are of the utmost significance for both economic migrants and war refugees.

temporary protection labour market policy Russia’s full-scale aggression against Ukraine Ukrainian refugees European Union Poland

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Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne Europy w kontekście rosyjskiej inwazji na Ukrainę

Author: Sergiusz Wasiuta
Institution: Uniwersytet Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3402-963X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 171-195
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233809
PDF: npw/38/npw3809.pdf

Europe’s Energy security in the context of Russian invasion on Ukraine

The article presents an objective vision of the causes, content and possible consequences of non-compliance with energy security for the EU or Western democratic countries in connection with Russian imperialism’s aggression against Ukraine as a manifestation of the resurgent colonial Soviet thinking and practice of conquering states and enslaving nations. The concept of energy security has relatively new roots. Intensification of research, attempts at its systemic conceptualization are still ongoing. The author takes a contemporary view of the goals, threats, instruments, and methods of implementation of the policy of energy independence of the EU, diversification of resources and suppliers, and politically assesses the consequences of the still not fully overcome model of supply of raw materials from Russia to the countries of Europe as a hybrid threat. The scientific point of view organically correlates with the civic position, the principles of transatlantic energy security policy and the democratic European vision of contemporary events.

Russian invasion Europe energy security Ukraine

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Bezpieczeństwo wschodniej granicy Polski wobec współczesnych zagrożeń transgranicznych

Author: Andrzej Wawrzusiszyn
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7587-136X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 197-218
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233810
PDF: npw/38/npw3810.pdf

Security on the eastern border of Poland in the face of modern cross-border threats

Modern threats are a multidimensional problem, in addition to the old and well-known, there are constantly new, dynamically changing security environments. The grounds for security threats are diverse and evolve along with the development of international relations, changes in the interests of the state and its position on the international arena. The aggressive, imperial policy of the Russian Federation is an example of this and contributes to instability in the region and seriously threatens the sovereignty of neighboring countries. Guaranteeing the security of the Polish border (especially the eastern – external of European Union) is a serious challenge and must be constantly adapted to the changing threats occurring in times of peace, crisis, and also in times of war. The author characterizes the contemporary security environment of Poland and the accompanying cross-border threats, presents the process of shaping the EU external border security system together with the current situation of the security management of the Polish state border. It also draws conclusions that the state border must still be in the center of interest of the state authorities and indicates that as a result of the current external threat to the state, there is a need to improve the cooperation of services and institutions responsible for the security of the state border in the national and international dimension.

border guards cross-border threats system state border management security

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Polityka społeczna w Polsce i na Ukrainie przez pryzmat procesów demograficznych: diagnoza i analiza porównawcza w kontekście ludności w wieku przedprodukcyjnym (0–17 lat)

Author: Liudmyla Kryvachuk
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3083-4781
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 219-247
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233811
PDF: npw/38/npw3811.pdf

Social policy in Poland and Ukraine through the prism of demographic processes: diagnosis and comparative analysis in the context of the population of pre-working age (0–17 years)

The article the presents results of a study on the situation of children in Poland and Ukraine in the years 1991–2021 (30 years). Children and youth are determinants of social changes, they shape the future potential of society, therefore creating conditions for their formation and accumulation of human capital is one of the main priorities of state policy in most countries of the world. The comparative analysis was carried out on the basis of selected demographic indicators, including the number of children, the participation of children aged 0-17 in the general population in Poland and Ukraine, the number of live births, the birth rate, the fertility rate in Poland and Ukraine, the child mortality rate under 1 year, the child mortality rate under 5 years (0-4 years) in Poland and Ukraine. The diagnosis and analysis of the situation of children in Poland and Ukraine shows both positive and negative trends that require modernization of public policy instruments in this area in both countries.

child mortality birth structure child population situation of children demographic characteristics population of pre-working age social policy in Poland and Ukraine children social policy

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Представление о РОДИНЕ жителей белорусско- польско-литовского культурно-языкового пограничья (на материале польских периферийных говоров)

Author: Jadwiga Kozłowska-Doda
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7567-178X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 248-285
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233812
PDF: npw/38/npw3812.pdf

Imagination of the HOMELAND of the inhabitants of the Belarusian-Polish-Lithuanian cultural and linguistic borderland (based on the material of Polish peripheral dialects)

The article discusses the concept of HOMELAND based on the material of Polish peripheral dialects on the territory of Voronovo district, Belarus. As a context, the author used selected dictionaries of other researchers of the “Polish language of Borderlands” in the Belarusian-Polish-Lithuanian borderlands, narratives of the inhabitants of the Myadel region (Belarus), memories of emigrants from the Vilnius region (Lithuania), as well as residents of Podlasie, Warmia and Mazuria (Poland). The author collected the material as records of continuous texts on various topics, it was not a purposeful study of vocabulary and semantics on the topic of the homeland. The method of cognitive definition proposed by Jerzy Bartminski, which provides for the reconstruction of the “mental object”, i.e. the maximum set of characteristics fixed in the language, was used in the article. As a result of the analysis of the material, similar features, indicated earlier by the researchers of this borderland, were found. Among the components of the imagination of HOMELAND, in the first place there was a warm attitude to native places (the emotional connection of a person with the place of birth and the period of childhood) and ancestors (including the deceased, the cemetery). The importance of the place of residence and neighbours (their own, ours, etc. people with similar experience), as well as religion (their own and neighbouring parishes, the cult of the Virgin Mary) was also emphasized. Less often, but expressively accentuated cultural (for example, traditions and language) and everyday signs of the concept (stability; private property; homeland where you can live). At the same time, more expressive than in other works, sketching of the ideological homeland by local residents was noticed (for the older it is the Second Polish Republic, for the younger – Belarus). According to the author, this is explained by the fact that among the respondents were, among other things, the residents whose ancestors participated in the uprising of 1863, fought with the Bolsheviks in the Polish-Soviet war, as well as those associated with the Home Army. In addition to the traditional point of view of an ordinary peasant/ petty nobleman, the perspective of a patriot not only of a “small homeland”, but also of a non-existent state (Second Polish Republic) is also considered.

cognitive definition Polish peripheral dialects Belarusian-Polish-Lithuanian Borderland oral history homeland Belarus

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Religious activity and expression of national identity of Ukrainians during the introduction of the new Soviet ritual: 1960’s–1970’s

Author: Nadia Kindrachuk
Institution: Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7505-0668
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 286-302
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233813
PDF: npw/38/npw3813.pdf

The party ideologues of the Soviet totalitarian state artificially developed and actively introduced into the life of the titular nation of the Ukrainian SSR a new Soviet ritualism, the main goal of which was to raise from every Ukrainian a Russified citizen of the Soviet type without national identity and religious beliefs, with a Russian consciousness, mentality and language. The article proves that the ancient church and religious traditions and customs of the Ukrainian people continued to be a part of the everyday culture of Ukrainians. The religious activity of representatives of the Ukrainian ethnic group was especially observed during the celebration of Christmas, Epiphany, Easter and other church holidays. And although the number of adherents of religious rites in the republic was different – from less in the East to more in the West, Christian values, despite atheism, continued to be the basis of the spiritual life of the absolute majority of Ukrainians.

denationalization new Soviet ritualism religious customs and traditions Soviet power Church national consciousness atheism Ukrainians totalitarian regime

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Favoring particular assemblies or cultivating Poland’s history?1 [book review Zgromadzenia w Polsce. Teoria, praktyka i komentarz do ustawy]

Author: Karolina Owczarek
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9809-5778
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 305-314
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233814
PDF: npw/38/npw3814.pdf

Отдавать предпочтение определенным ассамблеям или культивировать историю Польши?

[рецензия книги Zgromadzenia w Polsce. Teoria, praktyka i komentarz do ustawy]

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Interdyscyplinarne badania nad Bliskim Wschodem [recenzja książki Bliski wschód – od Edenu do cyberprzestrzeni]

Author: Julia Rolińska
Institution: Badaczka niezależna
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0000-7580-9339
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 322-325
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233816
PDF: npw/38/npw3816.pdf

Interdisciplinary studies of the Middle East

[book review Bliski wschód – od Edenu do cyberprzestrzeni]

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Spojrzenie na sprawy japońskie [recenzja książki Współczesna Japonia: społeczeństwo, polityka, gospodarka]

Author: Kamil Pietrasik
Institution: Towarzystwo Azji i Pacyfiku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8579-0659
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 326-330
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233817
PDF: npw/38/npw3817.pdf

Japanese affairs up close

[book review Współczesna Japonia: społeczeństwo, polityka, gospodarka]

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Wyzwania XXI wieku państw Dalekiego Wschodu

Author: Bogusław Pacek
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8111-1682
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 9-24
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233901
PDF: npw/39/npw3901.pdf

Challenges of the 21st century of the Far East countries

Far East countries are mentioned around the world almost every day. It happens either because of their economic and political importance (including China, Japan or South Korea), or because of fears that they will become the cause or pretext for a major military conflict. Each of these countries faces a number of challenges that can create risks, but also, with the right decisions, can provide opportunities for rapid development. This article highlights selected and important in the author’s opinion, challenges facing the countries of the Far East. Overcoming them will be important not only for the countries affected by these challenges, but will also have impact on the politics and economies of many other countries around the world. The discussed economic challenges of the People’s Republic of China, challenges related to China’s internal and foreign policy, Japan’s energy and financial challenges, the challenges of Taiwan and both Koreas indicate the author’s research and discussion of issues that are less known but pose big problems for the Far East. Social pathologies that significantly impede the functioning of states have been added to the catalogue of typical challenges. The challenges described concern the period after 2020 and are very current.

Вызовы Дальнего Востока military challenges financial challenges economics and economy Challenges of the Far East social pathologies

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Rola obwodu królewieckiego w stosunkach litewsko-rosyjskich po rozpadzie Związku Radzieckiego

Author: Marcin Chełminiak
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: 0000-0002-6963-3143
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 25-40
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233902
PDF: npw/39/npw3902.pdf

The role of Kaliningrad Region in Lithuanian-Russian relations after the dissolution of the Soviet Union

The process of dissolution of the Soviet Union has led not only to the geopolitical changes in Europe and in the world, but also to the fact that the issue of the Kaliningrad Region became the subject of interest from Baltic states. The Russian exclave has been the subject of debate and political controversy both in Russia and in Lithuania. Initially it was a result of the militarization of Kaliningrad Region and speculation regarding the change in its status. Later, the issue of Kaliningrad Region appeared primarily in the context of the enlargement of the European Union to the east. The importance of the Russian enclave for Lithuania should be considered not only in terms of geopolitical location, but mainly in the context of political, economic and military conditions.

Калининградская область Baltic Sea Region Kaliningrad region Lithuania geopolitics

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Niemieckie kontakty z Kaukazem w XVIII i XIX w.

Author: Andrzej Furier
Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3745-3578
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 41-63
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233903
PDF: npw/39/npw3903.pdf

German contacts with the Caucasus in the 18th and 19th centuries

The paper presents the initial period of German-Caucasian contacts, which includes the activity of German travelers, scientists and settlers in the 18th and 19th centuries. These activities were carried out during the period of Russian rule over Caucasus. The influence of the unification of Germany in 1871 on the intensification of German-Caucasian relations and a change in their character was noted. From then on, they were an element of the foreign policy of the Second Reich, which increased German-Caucasian economic exchange and led to political cooperation in the 20th century.

Германия German settlement in the Caucasus German research into the Caucasus Caucasus Germany Azerbaijan Georgia Armenia

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Rola cyberprzestrzeni w wojnie Rosji z Ukrainą

Author: Agnieszka Warchoł
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0786-6440
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 64-79
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233904
PDF: npw/39/npw3904.pdf

The role of cyberspace in Russia’s war against Ukraine

The aim of article is to present the ways in which cyberspace has been used in Russia’s war against Ukraine. The article consists of several parts. The first deals with Ukraine’s preparations for potential Russian cyber attacks. In the second part, the author presents information on the use of cyberspace in the Russian-Ukrainian war. The last part presents possible scenarios for the use of cyberspace in wars in the future. The study used the following research methods: historical method, comparative analysis, literature analysis and criticism, source analysis and criticism, and case study.

cyberwar cyberspace Russia cyberattacks Ukraine

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Twarz solidarności i pojednania? Niewerbalna komunikacja emocji w wojennych przemówieniach Wołodymyra Zełenskiego do polskich odbiorców

Author: Patryk Wawrzyński
Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0911-1068
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 80-101
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233905
PDF: npw/39/npw3905.pdf

The Face of Solidarity and Reconciliation? Emotions and nonverbal communication in Volodymyr Zelensky’s wartime addresses to the Polish audience

President V. Zelensky’s international popularity and sympathy resulted from his empathetic image as the nation’s speaker after the Russian aggression in February 2022. The novel application of technology helped him communicate with foreign audiences and receive international military, political, economic, and humanitarian support, strengthening the anti-Russian alliance. Poland was an essential partner in Zelensky’s strategy as Poles hosted millions of Ukrainian war refugees, marking the Polish society as a core target group of his communication. The paper presents the results of automated coding (FaceReader 9, general model, 30 fps) of the Ukrainian President’s facial expressions of emotions in three speeches addressed to the Polish audience after February 2022, comparing them with the results of a study on Zelensky’s 73 international addresses in the first year of the war. The study investigates differences in nonverbal targeting of Poles and other audiences, providing detailed profiles of analyzed speeches. The results suggest that the stage of the conflict primarily regulated his nonverbal communication, and then it was adapted to the targeted audience. (1) Zelensky increased emotional expressiveness in communication with the Poles, signaling all three dominant emotions (sadness, anger, and disgust). (2) The intensity of disgust had a reverse pattern than in the general sample, and it was reduced with time and replaced by more arousing anger. (3) The Ukrainian President significantly stronger displayed fear in his speeches to the Polish audience. The differences in nonverbal dynamics explain a reduced involvement of Polish society in helping Ukraine, as Zelensky’s initial empathetic image was replaced with a more aggressive style of wartime leadership.

невербальная коммуникация sympathy expression of emotions nonverbal communication credibility political branding polish-ukrainian relations

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Characteristics of calculating the power of states in Eastern Europe: a powermetric approach

Author: Erwin Metera
Institution: Political Science Alumni Association of the University of Warsaw
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9003-5810
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 102-118
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233906
PDF: npw/39/npw3906.pdf

The conducted research indicates the elements characteristic of power relations among states in Eastern Europe by describing them in mathematical terms. Using existing assumptions and resulting universal powermetric models, the study adapts them to the specifics of the region, enabling the implementation of the negative role of the imports of Russian energy resources in calculating the power of individual states. The role of trade links based on the two main energy resources – natural gas and crude oil – has been indicated. Imports of these raw materials from Russia, which constitute a significant part of the balance of resources used in the energy sectors of the importing countries, are the source of reduction of the geopolitical position of these states in the region, in relation to the position held by the Russian Federation. By taking into account the negative impact of trade in energy resources due to their use by the Russian Federation as a tool in achieving geostrategic goals, the conclusions obtained in the study allow for an increase in the accuracy of existing powermetric models in research on power distribution in Eastern Europe.

powermetrics political geography IR theory methodology Eastern Europe geopolitics Russia international relations

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Znaczenie tożsamości obywatelskiej dla Białorusinów i Litwinów

Author: Tatiana Kanasz
Institution: Akademia Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. M. Grzegorzewskiej
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7389-5683
Author: Agata Chutnik
Institution: Badaczka niezależna
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5915-8641
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 119-133
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233907
PDF: npw/39/npw3907.pdf

The importance of civic identity for Belarusians and Lithuanians

The article captures the differences in the formation of civic attitudes among Belarusians and Lithuanians. The starting point is a brief analysis of the identity formation of both nations. Then, on the basis of a comparative analysis made using representative survey research from 2012-2022, a picture concerning the importance of selected issues of civic identity is presented. Above all, it is attachment and belonging to the state, which takes into account ethnic and civic components such as language, self-understanding through identification with the territory, nationality and citizenship, changes and differences in reference to historical heritage and approaches to European identity. We present data on respect for state institutions and the law, willingness to pay or avoid taxes as a form of support and attachment to statehood, as well as preferred form of government. We also refer to data related to sentiments towards the past and understanding Russia’s role, national pride and autostereotypical features, while juxtaposing these with the question of where Lithuanians and Belarusians see their future. Finally, we point out the importance of history, political influence and collective experiences as a basis for the formation of civic attitudes.

национальная идентичность desk research civic attitudes Lithuanians Belarusians national identity

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Sytuacja gospodarcza w Republice Mołdawii i jej determinanty w latach 2021–2022

Author: Karolina Kotulewicz-Wisińska
Institution: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7416-4898
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 134-156
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233908
PDF: npw/39/npw3908.pdf

The economic situation in the Republic of Moldova and its determinants in 2021–2022

The article presents the process of stabilizing the economy in the republic of Moldova in the years 2021–2022. During this period, new internal and external conditions emerged in Moldova that affected the results achieved by the Moldovan economy. The year 2021 went down in the economic history of this country as the year in which the highest GDP growth of 13.9% was recorded compared to the previous year. In turn, in 2022, the growth of Moldovan GDP was negative. This was largely due to external factors such as the increase in energy prices and Russia’s armed aggression against Ukraine. These factors forced the Moldovan authorities to adapt to these conditions. The article attempts to show how in 2021-2022 the above-mentioned factors determined the course of economic stabilization in the Republic of Moldova, without taking into account the region of Transnistria.

Республика Молдова war in the Ukraine macroeconomic stabilisation economic potential factors od economic development Republic of Moldova

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Państwa Bliskiego Wschodu wobec rosyjskiej agresji na Ukrainę w 2022 roku. Stanowisko Izraela, Arabii Saudyjskiej i Islamskiej Republiki Iranu

Author: Marzena Mruk
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3529-0365
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 157-177
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233909
PDF: npw/39/npw3909.pdf

Middle East countries towards Russian aggression against Ukraine in 2022. The position of Israel, Saudi Arabia and the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Middle East is particularly vulnerable to armed conflicts and other acts of aggression due to its ethnic, religious and cultural diversity. The war in Ukraine poses a political and economic challenge to the Middle East states, as follows from various diplomatic relations between them and the Russian Federation and Ukraine. After February 24, 2022, the leaders and governments of the Middle East countries issued a series of statements in which they tried to express their position on the declaration of independence of the separatist Lugansk and Donetsk People’s Republics and the invasion of Ukraine. Among the countries of the Middle East that have expressed their position on the armed conflict in Ukraine, it is particularly worth paying attention to Israel, Saudi Arabia and Iran. These three states constitute the largest political, economic and military forces in the region and a different approach to relations with the Russian Federation as the main factor shaping their position on the armed conflict in Europe

война России и Украины Russia-Ukraine war Saudi Arabia Iran international security Israel Middle East

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Model of the Dimensions of Threat Perception: Results of Experimental Verification Based on the Sense of Endangerment Caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic

Author: Bogdan Ćwik
Institution: Military University of Technology, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8774-9054
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 178-197
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233910
PDF: npw/39/npw3910.pdf

The article addresses the problem of the limited effectiveness of the perception of warning signals related to threats. The subject is an element of the search for methods to improve the efficiency of risk monitoring systems. The problem with these systems is the fact that, despite the existing standards, binding norms and regulations, as well as numerous organisational, technological, and institutional security measures, unexpected negative events still occur, and their consequences include not only significant losses but also numerous human tragedies. The article presents a model of the efficiency of the perception of threats that identifies a 9-dimensional vector of the “significance of the perceived threat”. Each of the presented dimensions reflects a specific factor that influences the significance of the perceived threat. The research was based on the feeling of endangerment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic among the citizens of Poland. The threat was particularly noticeable in the first phases of the pandemic, i.e., in March and April 2020 and October-December (the second wave of the pandemic).

warning signal interpretation efficiency of signal reading warning signal visibility warning signal perception of threat

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A brief introduction to Christian and Confucian studies in North Korea

Author: Nicolas Levi
Institution: Polish Academy of Sciences
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9780-730X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 198-208
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233911
PDF: npw/39/npw3911.pdf

The question of religions in North Korea remains a sensitive issue in this country. Due to the nature of the North Korean regime, studies on religions were banned until the 1980’s. It’s only after that a research institution dealing with religious issues were established in the major university of the country. This institution is dealing with the main religions existing in North Korea. The main challenge was to combine the ideological framework with religious aspirations. The present study analyzes North Korean discursive strategies concerning religious studies. It focuses on the academic work of North Korean researchers dealing with religious studies.

Со Кёндок So Kyong-dok Religions in North Korea Korean Unification Kim Il Sung University Confucianism

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Rady młodzieżowe przy jednostkach samorządu terytorialnego na świecie – przegląd badań na wybranych przykładach

Author: Dominik Boratyn
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2335-7515
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 209-223
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233912
PDF: npw/39/npw3912.pdf

Youth councils at local government units in the world – a review of research on selected examples

The article is part of a publication cycle on the activities of youth councils at local government units. The introduction to the publication discusses the current state of research on the issues of youth councils in Poland and in the world, the purpose of the research and the hypothesis. The main part of the article presents examples of the activity of youth councils at local government units that operate not only in Poland or Europe, but all over the world. The publication presents, inter alia, youth councils operating in Great Britain, the United States of America and Canada.

youth activity Youth Councils youth local politics

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Polski problem milenium – etap planowanej modernizacji. Badawczym okiem o półwieczu Polski Ludowej [recenzja książki Społeczeństwo polskie po II wojnie światowej]

Author: Tadeusz Klementewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2101-5060
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 232-237
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233914
PDF: npw/39/npw3914.pdf

Poland’s millennium problem – the stage of planned modernization. With a research eye on the half-century of the Polish People’s Republic [book review Społeczeństwo polskie po II wojnie światowej]

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Rozważania o zniewolonym społeczeństwie [recenzja książki Zniewalane/zniewolone człowieczeństwo. Efekt fałszywej narracji oraz edukacyjnej hipokryzji czołowych systemów władzy]

Author: Paweł Prüfer
Institution: Akademia im. Jakuba z Paradyża w Gorzowie Wielkopolskim
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3647-8068
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 238-246
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233915
PDF: npw/39/npw3915.pdf

Reflections on an enslaved society [book review Zniewalane/zniewolone człowieczeństwo. Efekt fałszywej narracji oraz edukacyjnej hipokryzji czołowych systemów władzy]

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