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Vol. 2(37)

Spis treści

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 3-6
DOI Address: -
PDF: npw/37/npw37toc.pdf

SPIS TREŚCI / CONTENTS / ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Uwarunkowania krótkotrwałych rządów w Japonii: przykład premiera Sugi Yoshihide

Author: Karol Żakowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2715-570X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 9-28
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233701
PDF: npw/37/npw3701.pdf

Determinants of short-lived governments in Japan: the example of Prime Minister Suga Yoshihide

Japan is one of the countries with the most frequently changing heads of government in the world. The aim of this article is to examine both the structural and individual causes of this situation by using the example of the short term in office of Prime Minister Suga Yoshihide from 2020 to 2021. While such factors as strong ministerial sectionalism in the government, factionalism in the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), high frequency of parliamentary and ruling party presidential elections, as well as consensual political culture made it difficult for prime ministers to remain in office for a longer period of time, the electoral and administrative reforms of the 1990s facilitated the heads of government to stabilize the government’s social and party base of support. Nevertheless, the usage of the new institutional instruments to remain in power depended on the prime minister’s ability to create his/her positive image among voters. This article analyzes why Prime Minister Suga, despite leading a stable ruling coalition in both houses of the parliament and having extensive experience in decision-making process, was unable to maintain the government’s initially high popularity and resigned only one year after having formed his cabinet.

Japan Suga Yoshihide Prime Minister factionalism Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)

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Introducing the Research Project “Sacred Narrative – The Political Dimension of Japanese Mythology”

Author: Klaus Antoni
Institution: University of Tuebingen
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3600-1403
Author: Julia Dolkovski
Institution: University of Tuebingen
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0001-3348-0886
Author: Louise Neubronner
Institution: University of Tuebingen
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0001-2401-3725
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 29-71
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233702
PDF: npw/37/npw3702.pdf

Introducing the Research Project “Sacred Narrative – The Political Dimension of Japanese Mythology”

The Kojiki and Nihon shoki have been integral to the formation of Japanese identity, especially since the 18th century. As such, they were constantly exposed to processes of sacralization and desacralization, i.e., the attribution and removal of authority. The research project “Sacred Narrative – The Political Dimension of Japanese Mythology” is concerned with how certain systems of thought or ideology used these texts in a way that raised them to an elevated position or deprived them of it. Organized in three focus areas, the project delves into the topic of the historical change the Kojiki and Nihon shoki underwent in terms of interpretation and instrumentalization from the Edo period up to modern-day Japan. These investigations are integrated into the research group “De/Sacralization of Texts” at the University of Tübingen that started its work in January 2022. In this interdisciplinary context, “Sacred narrative” seeks to promote the integration of East-Asian textuality into general theory formation.

Japanese mythology Kojiki Nihon shoki sacralization political mythology Jinmu-tennō Motoori Norinaga myth in popular culture

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To the Brighter Side. New Tendencies in Erecting Statues of Bodhisattva Jizō in Japanese Buddhist Temples

Author: Alīse Eishō Donnere
Institution: Tohoku Gakuin University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0002-0210-4981
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 72-90
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233703
PDF: npw/37/npw3703.pdf

To the Brighter Side. New Tendencies in Erecting Statues of Bodhisattva Jizō in Japanese Buddhist Temples

Japan is a predominantly atheistic country, however, Buddhism is still keeping its influence on society. Firstly, funerals are mostly performed according to the Buddhist ritual. Secondly, several times a year the majority of Japanese families visit their relatives’s graves in cemeteries, belonging to Buddhist temples. As a result, Buddhism is associated first of all with death and funeral. Buddhist priests try to make the image of Buddhism brighter in many ways. In this article, we will look at one of these ways – erecting statues that depict simultaneously the beloved bodhisattva Jizo, the priests themselves, visitors and the dead relatives.

Japanese Buddhism Japan buddhism Jizo statues funeral Buddhism modern Buddhism

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Rozważania na temat państwowości Riukiu czasów nowożytnych

Author: Stanisław Meyer
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3075-5677
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 91-109
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233704
PDF: npw/37/npw3704.pdf

Reflections on the statehood of Ryukyu of modern times

In this article, I argue against the widely accepted view among Japanese historians that the Ryukyu Kingdom of early modern times belonged to the Japanese bakuhan system while retaining its status as a foreign country. Placing Ryukyu within the bakuhan framework corresponds with the deterministic narrative of history that justifies Japan’s annexation of Ryukyu on one side, and Okinawan people’s choice of Japanese identity on the other. The claim of “foreign country inside the bakuhan system” is difficult to defend in light of theories of state that emphasize the importance of the interaction between society and state institutions. Ryukyu, as a separate social entity, had no influence on the shape of the bakuhan system and, conversely, the bakuhan system did not shape the Ryukyuan society.

Japan Ryukyu Okinawa history bakuhan system

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Czynniki determinujące kontynuowanie wojny rosyjsko-ukraińskiej

Author: Marcin Koczan
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8039-6820
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 110-124
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233705
PDF: npw/37/npw3705.pdf

Factors determining the continuation of the Russian-Ukrainian war

On February 24, 2022, Russian troops attacked the territory of Ukraine, starting a new phase of the conflict that has been ongoing since 2014. Due to the difference in potential between Russia and Ukraine, most analysts expected a relatively quick end of military operation. Although several months have passed since the attack, there are no signs that the war will end soon. On the contrary, most indications indicate that the conflict will not end any time soon. The authorities of both sides declare their willingness to start peace negotiations, but they set preconditions unacceptable to the other side. Societies seem determined to continue the war, or at least there are no widespread symptoms of defeatism. Russia’s military potential has not reached a critical level that would make it impossible to wage a full-scale war, and the economic situation is better than predicted a few months ago. Ukraine’s continued resistance depends on the extent of assistance it receives from its allies. The article describes the factors that prove the continuation of military operations, but also the reasons for ending the war.

Ukraine Russia Russian-Ukrainian war regional security

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Russian Disinformation and Propaganda Campaign Justifying the Annexing of Crimea in 2014

Author: Oksana Voytyuk
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6452-2893
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 125-145
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233706
PDF: npw/37/npw3706.pdf

Russian Disinformation and Propaganda Campaign Justifying the Annexing of Crimea in 2014

On February 26, 2014, the Russian Federation annexed the Crimean Peninsula. Russia’s unlawful actions have been condemned in the international arena, but this has in no way changed the decision of the authorities in the Kremlin. In order to prove the legitimacy of the occupation of Crimea, the Russian Federation launched a disinformation and propaganda campaign aimed primarily at the internal arena, i.e. at the Russians. The aim of the article is to analyze selected statements by Vladimir Putin regarding the annexation of Crimea and to try to answer the question of whether disinformation and internal propaganda were effective in convincing Russians that the occupation of Crimea was an act of restoring historical justice. For the purposes of the article, research methods appropriate for international relations were used.

propaganda disinformation Crimea Russian Federation Ukraine annexation

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Cultural Security in the Context of the Analysis of the Religiosity of Belarusian Students

Author: Viktoryia Baretskaya
Institution: Siedlce Scientific Society
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8299-6213
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 146-164
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233707
PDF: npw/37/npw3707.pdf

Cultural Security in the Context of the Analysis of the Religiosity of Belarusian Students

Religion can become an instrument of manipulation and destabilization in society, everything depends on people who have access to the levers of power, the position of Church hierarchs and the level of religious literacy of the population. The article is devoted to the study of the concept of the correlation of national identity and Christian universalism, as well as the model of Church–State relations in the modern social teaching of the Russian Orthodox Church, in the context of the analysis of some aspects of the religiosity of the Belarusian student youth, namely quantitative indicators of trust in the Church, attendance of divine services, and confessional affiliation.

religiosity of student youth model of Church–State relations social teaching of the Russian Orthodox Church cultural security

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Uwarunkowania międzynarodowe rozwoju sektora IT na Białorusi a przyczyny emigracji informatyków białoruskich w latach 2020–2021

Author: Rafał Lisiakiewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8649-6518
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 165-191
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233708
PDF: npw/37/npw3708.pdf

International conditions of the IT sector development in Belarus and the reasons for emigration of Belarusian IT specialists in 2020–2021

The aim of the article is to indicate the relevant factors shaping economic migrations from the perspective of the theory of international relations. The article concerns a crucial period for the immigration of IT workers from Belarus, i.e. the second half of 2020 and the first half of 2021. From the point of view of the theory of international relations, it should pay attention to two levels in research on the issues of economic cooperation: domestic and international one. In the article, the author will point out the link between migration and the international and political conditions of the development of the IT sector in Belarus. The research hypothesis put forward by the author is related to the link between the causes of migration and the economic and political conditions that developed in Belarus in the 21st century. Authoritarian systems, according to the author, may favor economic development and create conditions for running a business in a specific way, but the security of such activity itself is limited.

Belarus IT sector migrations international relations Poland

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Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe wobec Rosji, Ukrainy i Białorusi w latach 2015–2019

Author: Tomasz R. Dębowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9933-8911
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 192-211
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233709
PDF: npw/37/npw3709.pdf

The Polish People’s Party towards Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in 2015–2019

Eastern policy is one of the most important areas of Polish foreign policy. It regards the countries (of the former Soviet Union), that do not belong to the Euro-Atlantic structures. In 2015, Law and Justice won the parliamentary elections in Poland. Witold Waszczykowski was assigned as the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and was replaced in January 2018 by Jacek Czaputowicz. The aim of the study is to find an answer to the question: what was the attitude of the Polish People’s Party to Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in 2015–2019 and what premises influenced its shape? A working hypothesis was adopted: “The Polish People’s Party in 2015–2019 opted for a partnership model of Poland’s relations with Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, shaped on the basis of pragmatic premises”. The time limit for the research covered the period from July 17th, 2015 to November 11th, 2019. The analysis of the collected material made possible to answer the question (contained in the introduction to the article), and also confirmed the validity of the adopted working hypothesis. Moreover, it showed that for the Polish People’s Party, matters concerning eastern policy were not the leading thread in the reflection on Polish foreign policy.

Polish eastern policy Polish People’s Party Russia Belarus Ukraine

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Demokratyzacja państw Europy Środkowej i Wschodniej w kontekście rozpadu Związku Radzieckiego, na łamach czasopisma podziemnego „Obóz”

Author: Judyta Bielanowska
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Bezpieczeństwa w Poznaniu / Europejskie Centrum Solidarności w Gdańsku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6764-7859
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 212-238
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233710
PDF: npw/37/npw3710.pdf

Democratization of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe in the context of the collapse of the Soviet Union, in the context of the underground magazine “Obóz”

The democratization of the former Soviet Union countries was a long and arduous process of regaining the sovereignty lost after World War II. The political, social, economic, cultural and institutional transformations taking place at that time, both in the territory of the former Soviet republics and those formally independent of the USSR, but in fact completely dominated by it, constituted a conglomerate of various factors, conditioning in most cases a bloodless revolution. The systemic transformation, however, did not go everywhere in the direction expected by society and the new political class. In many countries, the quality of overall structural transformations left much to be desired. Not everywhere was it possible to fill the institutional void left by the liquidated organs of government and the security apparatus. The lively assessment of the new, democratic political system, formulated in statu nascendi, was shared by the opinion-forming circles that had so far operated in the underground and had a strong influence on the social mood of individual countries. One of the independent magazines devoted to the problems of neighboring countries was the underground periodical “Obóz”.

democratization, The Soviet Union Central and Eastern Europe

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Turkey forever balances between East and West

Author: Karolina Wanda Olszowska
Institution: Jagiellonian University in Kraków
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0535-912X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 239-255
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233711
PDF: npw/37/npw3711.pdf

Turkey forever balances between East and West

When looking at contemporary Turkish politics, an incorrect notion is often circulated that Turkey has only in recent years, as far back as under Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, begun a policy of balancing between East and West. The purpose of this article is to analyze Turkey’s posture – in terms of balancing between spheres of influence – after the end of World War II until Turkey joined NATO and then compare it with Turkey’s stance during the Justice and Development Party government in the context of relations with the United States and Russia. This will help answer the question: to what extent is Ankara’s current balkanizing attitude something surprising? Aren’t specific patterns of the 1945–1952 period similar to those of the 21st century, and the differences are the attitudes of Washington and Moscow rather than Ankara?

Soviet Union Cold War Turkey United States Russia

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Dyplomacja religijna Republiki Turcji

Author: Łukasz Sławomir Fraszka
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1423-652X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 256-277
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233712
PDF: npw/37/npw3712.pdf

Religious diplomacy of the Republic of Türkiye

The aim of this article is to analyse the religious dimension of Turkey’s foreign policy in the era of Justice and Development Party rule and the forms of its implementation. The article argues that the Republic of Turkey, in the era of AKP rule, is becoming one of the main state actors in international relations, which is beginning to use religion as an instrument of soft power in its foreign policy. At the same time, using “religious diplomacy” as a formal tool to strengthen the state’s image in the international arena. „Religious diplomacy” is the primary tool of Turkish soft power to strengthen the country’s international position after the Cold War. It aims to promote the Turkish model of Islam as a moderate type of Islam that can coexist with modernity and multiculturalism. It also promotes Turkish language and culture alongside religious curricula by linking Sunni Islam and Turkish nationalism.

religion “religious diplomacy” soft power foreign policy of Türkiye

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The Heart of Arabs. Emirati Songs for Egypt

Author: Edyta Wolny-Abouelwafa
Institution: Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4645-8909
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 278-294
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233713
PDF: npw/37/npw3713.pdf

The Heart of Arabs. Emirati Songs for Egypt

Creating patriotic songs in the Arab countries is very common. They can represent different types of music, can be connected to special occasions or be created without them, just from the ‘need a heart’. The author of the article has been doing research on contemporary Egyptian patriotic songs for years. On the basis of her results, she has decided to divide all the analysed songs into the those created by Egyptians for Egyptians and in addition created by other artists for Egypt and its citizens. The job of the latter she calls ‘patriotic songs’ as well and divided them into two main groups which are connected with the way they identify themselves. The article presents the results of the analysis of selected songs released by United Arab Emirates’ artists for Egypt. The article’s author’s goal was to check the songs’ topics and which one of the previously mentioned groups they represent. She also mentions the figure of Hussain Al Jassmi, the most popular, in recent years, Emirati singer creating patriotic songs for Egypt. She analysed the songs on the basis of the songs’ topics and combined it with the contemporary relations between United Arab Emirates and Egypt while mentioning their origins historically. All of this allowed her to reach the conclusions presented in the article.

Egypt United Arab Emirates patriotic songs love for Egypt pop culture amicable songs for Egypt Hussain Al Jassmi Arab unity

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Ochrona praw człowieka w kontekście zadań samorządu gminnego [recenzja książki Rola samorządu gminnego w ochronie praw człowieka]

Author: Teresa Astramowicz-Leyk
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5881-2325
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 297-303
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233714
PDF: npw/37/npw3714.pdf

Protection of human rights in the context of the tasks of municipal government

[book review Rola samorządu gminnego w ochronie praw człowieka]

Защита прав человека в контексте задач муниципального управления

[рецензия книги Rola samorządu gminnego w ochronie praw człowieka]

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Dokąd zmierzasz, Europo? [recenzja książki Wyzwania Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej]

Author: Dominik Boratyn
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2335-7515
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 304-309
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233715
PDF: npw/37/npw3715.pdf

Where are you going, Europe?

[book review Wyzwania Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej]

Куда ты идешь, Европа?

[рецензия книги Wyzwania Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej]

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Chiny w procesie przemian: od osiągnięć polityki reform i otwarcia do wyzwań współczesnych – spojrzenie z perspektywy chińskiej [recenzja książki 100 dialogów Nowej Ery. Wszyscy jesteśmy Poszukiwaczami Snów]

Author: Ewa Radomska
Institution: Uniwersytet Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9503-534X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 310-341
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233716
PDF: npw/37/npw3716.pdf

China in the process of transformation: from the achievements of reform and opening-up policies to contemporary challenges – a Chinese perspective

[book review 100 dialogów Nowej Ery. Wszyscy jesteśmy Poszukiwaczami Snów]

Китай в процессе трансформации: от достижений политики реформ и открытости к современным вызовам – взгляд с китайской точки зрения

[рецензия книги 100 dialogów Nowej Ery. Wszyscy jesteśmy Poszukiwaczami Snów]

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Presenting Innovative Research on Contemporary China [book review Balancing Changes. Seventy Years of People’s Republic of China]

Author: Agnieszka Homańska
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2273-7903
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 342-348
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233717
PDF: npw/37/npw3717.pdf

Презентация инновационных исследований современного Китая

[рецензия книги Balancing Changes. Seventy Years of People’s Republic of China]

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