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Vol. 3(38)

Spis treści

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 3-6
DOI Address: -
PDF: npw/38/npw38toc.pdf

SPIS TREŚCI / CONTENTS / ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Wstęp

Author: Teresa Astramowicz-Leyk
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5881-2325
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 7-12
DOI Address: -
PDF: npw/38/npw3800.pdf

Mechanisms for the Protection of Ukrainian Refugees in the EU Member States

Author: Olha Ivasechko
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2141-3309
Author: Yaryna Turchyn
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9114-1911
Author: Teresa Astramowicz-Leyk
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5881-2325
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 15-37
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233801
PDF: npw/38/npw3801.pdf

The article considers the issue of the migration crisis of Ukrainian refugees to EU member states caused by Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022. An elucidation was made as to the quantity of Ukrainian refugees taken in by European states since the Russia’s full-scale military invasion of Ukraine commenced. An analysis of forms of protection for individuals in the European Union is conducted, including refugee status and temporary protection. The legislation of refugee status in the EU is represented through the prism of the analysis of the Council Directive 2001/55/EC on temporary protection. The key difference between temporary protection and refugee status is defined. The key problems faced by European countries are highlighted; concurrently, the obstacles experienced by Ukrainian refugees are presented, namely, obtaining housing and employment. Special attention was paid to the issue of “fatigue” and exhaustion of social systems and ordinary citizens in EU countries. The authors present the results of the study on the mechanisms of providing protection and asylum to Ukrainian refugees in the EU. Furthermore, the 10-point strategy suggested by the European Commission to the European Council and the Justice and Home Affairs Council in order to support EU countries in their endeavor of admitting Ukrainian refugees has been duly given attention. The core research objectives revolve around the effectiveness of protection mechanisms for Ukrainian refugees in the EU, and any consequences said system may bring about for both the EU and Ukraine.

temporary protection mechanism Russian Federation European Union war refugees Ukraine

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Forced Migration from Ukraine during the Russian-Ukrainian War: impact on the EU and Ukraine

Author: Alla Atamanenko
Institution: National University of Ostroh Academy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4940-1625
Author: Mariia Avhustiuk
Institution: National University of Ostroh Academy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9510-5715
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 38-59
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233802
PDF: npw/38/npw3802.pdf

The full-scale invasion of Russia into Ukraine on February 24, 2022, which was accompanied by the violation of humanitarian law and the demolition of civilian infrastructure, has led to the emergence of forced migration. Millions of people left the country within a short period. On March 4, the EU Temporary Protection Directive was reactivated in response to the unprecedented flow of migrants from Ukraine. EU countries have opened their borders to migrants from Ukraine, providing them with shelter and assistance. Poland and its neighbouring states, such as Romania, Moldova, Hungary, as well as the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany, Austria, received the highest quantity of migrants. The wave of migration has had a noticeable influence on the functioning of labour markets and employment, even in those regions of Ukraine which have not been exposed to military activity. Comprehensive studies show that external migration, among other factors, will significantly affect the demographic situation in Ukraine due to the increase in the number of people who do not plan to return from abroad. A key factor in the crisis is the fact that the majority of these people is youth of employable age and children. Besides, educational migration from Ukraine to EU countries has also increased significantly. The influx of immigrants who have established themselves in the nations of the European Union have significantly impacted the labour markets of these countries, putting a considerable strain on the public funds of the host countries. The question of Ukrainian immigrants’ ability to engage in activities such as schooling (including access to educational opportunities for children), employment, residence, and healthcare in both the immediate and long-term future is coming to the fore. Ukrainian and international scholars alike have done numerous studies on external migration from Ukraine; nonetheless, the forced migration resulting from the full-scale military invasion of Ukraine has yet to be adequately examined. Subsequently, the article is intended to examine the displacement circumstances in Ukraine and the EU and to evaluate the consequence of compulsory external migration in Ukraine and the EU.

EU countries external migration foreign migration forced migration full-scale invasion migrants refugees Ukraine

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Ukrainians in Poland on behalf of refugees – a case study of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship

Author: Teresa Astramowicz-Leyk
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5881-2325
Author: Olha Ivasechko
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2141-3309
Author: Yaryna Turchyn
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9114-1911
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 60-83
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233803
PDF: npw/38/npw3803.pdf

The aim of the article is to present the activity of three branches of the Association of Ukrainians in Poland, covering the entire Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The study also outlines the Association’s activities supporting refugees. The main research hypothesis is that the Association of Ukrainians in Poland is actively engaged in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, and following Russia’s full-scale invasion, members of the Association became extremely proactive both in helping refugees from Ukraine, as well as Ukrainians who stayed in Ukraine, including those from the territory of military operations. The core research problems focuses on the following questions: What efforts did the Association of Ukrainians in Poland undertake to maintain its history, traditions, language and culture? Which activities have been supported by local government authorities, including the Voivodeship ones? How has the Association changed its activity following the Russia’s full-scale aggression against Ukraine on February 24, 2022? Previous studies conducted by the authors demonstrate that economic migrants from Ukraine in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship did not perceive themselves as a part of the Ukrainian minority living in the region. Meanwhile, the relationship between the Association and the refugees is different.

Russia’s full-scale aggression against Ukraine Association of Ukrainians in Poland Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship Ukrainian minority Ukrainian refugees

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Verification of nationality and rehabilitation in Upper Silesia as a point of reference for Donbas

Author: Cezary Trosiak
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3434-5042
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 84-103
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233804
PDF: npw/38/npw3804.pdf

In Poland, the region where the phenomenon of multiculturalism is most strongly represented is Upper Silesia. Upper Silesia, its historical hosts, have been confronted with German, Polish and Czech nationalism since the mid-21st century. Initially, they were forced to determine their ethnic affiliation, then, due to the change of borders, they were forced to move to one or the other side of the newly established Polish-German border in 1922. After 1945, they were subjected to strong repression, deportation to forced labor camps, forced displacement, degrading verification of nationality, and then they were confronted with the Polish population who came to Upper Silesia. Most often, the Poles who arrived were hostile to the Upper Silesians. The aim of this article is to answer the question whether the experiences of integration of the indigenous population of Upper Silesia into the social, cultural, economic and political structures of the Polish state after World War II can be related to a similar process that will take place after the end of hostilities in the eastern regions of the Ukrainian state. . The starting point is the thesis that the Upper Silesian experience of the rehabilitation and citizenship verification procedures should serve as a warning against the mistakes made in Upper Silesia rather than as a useful reference point.

socio-cultural integration national rehabilitation regional identity regionalism refugees

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Scientific and Educational Life of Ukrainians in Bavaria

Author: Artem Kokosh
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4785-2190
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 104-116
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233805
PDF: npw/38/npw3805.pdf

The phenomenon of the Ukrainian national minority is well known in Bavaria. Despite the noticeable presence in Landtag, local universities, Bavarian Academy of Sciences, diplomatic offices and other institutions, they are not the most populous minority in the region. Moreover, in the early 2000s there was the Ukrainian school, Technical- Husbandry Institute and University which had the legal acts to offer education to not only Ukrainians but also to people of other nationalities. What opportunities are available to Ukrainians in Bavaria to benefit from favourable conditions and how is the local authority handling the matter of the Ukrainian institutions? The main objective of the research is to identify the main periods of Ukrainian presence in scientific and educational institutions in Bavaria, as well as research their status in the region. Moreover, the support of these institutions to Ukrainian refugees in 2022 will be studied. Examining the Ukrainian refugee situation in Europe, the article will also evaluate the utility of these institutions. As a final point, the study presents the capacity of these institutions to affect the integration of students into society nowadays.

Bavarian Ministries university national minority Ukrainians refugees

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Non-governmental assistance to Ukrainian refugees by Polish society in the aftermath of the escalation of hostilities in 2022

Author: Katarzyna Maciejewska-Mieszkowska
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1623-8788
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 117-136
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233806
PDF: npw/38/npw3806.pdf

The full-scale war in Ukraine caused the largest refugee crisis in Europe after World War II. Poland was the initial destination for people fleeing the war, causing a rapid influx of several million refugees in just a few weeks. An unprecedented and rapid response of the Polish society in terms of providing assistance to refugees enabled the acceptance of those who decided to stay in Poland Social action that began at the local level and translated into commonly known non-governmental assistance provided the basis and impetus for fostering beneficial connections between Poland and Ukraine, not only on the state level, but especially within the respective populations. The purpose of the article was to explore the forms of assistance offered by the Polish society, the scope of aspects of the refugees’ lives it addressed, and how this was reflected in the mutual perception of Poles and Ukrainians. As a hypothesis, it was assumed that a direct involvement of the Polish society in helping refugees from Ukraine decreased over the course of a year of the full-blown war in Ukraine, with simultaneous high social support for the state’s systemic solutions in this regard. In order to verify the hypothesis, a combination of descriptive, analysis of existing data, comparative and statistical methods were employed.

non-governmental aid Poles society refugees Ukraine

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Issues of national minorities in the policy of the Eastern Partnership

Author: Halyna Lutsyshyn
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8434-071X
Author: Oleksandr Sokolovsky
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0515-2367
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 137-150
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233807
PDF: npw/38/npw3807.pdf

The peculiarities of implementing the policy of the EU’s Eastern Partnership Initiative in regards to protecting the rights of national minorities have been studied. The issue of national minorities in the EU is considered from the perspectives of security, democracy, and regional integration. Despite contemporary criticism of the EU’s Eastern Partnership Initiative, many initiatives aimed at protecting the rights of national minorities in the region have been implemented, thereby fostering intergovernmental cooperation. It is evident that Ukraine and Moldova are the most proactive in protecting the rights of national minorities amongst the Eastern Partnership countries. These countries have been granted the status of candidate for EU accession. Despite the Russian-Ukrainian war, Ukraine actively works on improving legislation in the field of ethno-policy. Particular emphasis is placed on analysis of the institutional structure of national minorities, communication pathways, and non-discriminatory policies in Eastern Partnership countries. Member states of the Eastern Partnership actively utilize “soft power” techniques through a network of minority organizations. It has been suggested that European integration of Ukraine and Moldova has generated considerable opportunities for the development of national minorities. Loosening of state borders has enabled national minorities to connect more deeply with their ethnic homelands, thereby transforming them into engaged participants of transborder cooperation and significant figures of regional policy. The Eastern Partnership furnishes a platform for minorities to assert themselves in decisions which pertain to their lives, execute grant initiatives, and take part in regional associations of minorities. Nevertheless, certain risks are highlighted, such as particular nations exploiting EU enlargement to tackle minority matters or manipulate minority rights. The EU has analyzed programs supporting national minorities, especially those implemented in the Eastern Partnership countries. While Eastern Partnership countries have developed their policies regarding national minorities, there are common problems faced by minorities in the region. Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, Azerbaijan, and Armenia are involved in conflicts, being former Soviet Union countries, and face numerous challenges concerning the functioning of the Russian minority, which is numerically significant in this region. It is stated that the EU cooperates with the Eastern Partnership countries on matters regarding national minorities, and it is crucial to develop innovative models for managing ethnic diversity, promoting the involvement of national minorities in making socio-political decisions and integrating them into society.

national minorities Moldova European Union Georgia European integration Belarus Eastern Partnership Ukraine

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Active labour market policies response to Ukrainian citizens entering the European Union’s labour market

Author: Oleksandra Struk
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5316-9630
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 151-170
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233808
PDF: npw/38/npw3808.pdf

The article contains a thorough analysis of the European active labour market policies in the face of the influx of Ukrainians following the outbreak of the Russia’s full-scale aggression against Ukraine. An overview of the temporary protection regulations for Ukrainians adopted by the EU states made it possible to determine the conditions of legal residence and labour market access. Statistical data and surveys conducted by international institutions became the basis for identification the Ukrainian refugee’s profile on the EU labour market. Thus, the vast majority of Ukrainian citizens staying in EU states are women with higher-than-average educational level; good or high proficiency in English; who used to work before the war with a non-negligible share in the health and education sectors; and who often work below their qualification. In addition, an analytical comparison was undertaken to highlight the image of migrants who came to Poland before February 24, 2022 and that of war refugees who have arrived following the outbreak of the war in Ukraine. Acceptance of Ukrainians by Poles, remarkable similarities between countries in terms of culture, favourable access to the labour market and healthcare are of the utmost significance for both economic migrants and war refugees.

temporary protection labour market policy Russia’s full-scale aggression against Ukraine Ukrainian refugees European Union Poland

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Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne Europy w kontekście rosyjskiej inwazji na Ukrainę

Author: Sergiusz Wasiuta
Institution: Uniwersytet Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3402-963X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 171-195
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233809
PDF: npw/38/npw3809.pdf

Europe’s Energy security in the context of Russian invasion on Ukraine

The article presents an objective vision of the causes, content and possible consequences of non-compliance with energy security for the EU or Western democratic countries in connection with Russian imperialism’s aggression against Ukraine as a manifestation of the resurgent colonial Soviet thinking and practice of conquering states and enslaving nations. The concept of energy security has relatively new roots. Intensification of research, attempts at its systemic conceptualization are still ongoing. The author takes a contemporary view of the goals, threats, instruments, and methods of implementation of the policy of energy independence of the EU, diversification of resources and suppliers, and politically assesses the consequences of the still not fully overcome model of supply of raw materials from Russia to the countries of Europe as a hybrid threat. The scientific point of view organically correlates with the civic position, the principles of transatlantic energy security policy and the democratic European vision of contemporary events.

Russian invasion Europe energy security Ukraine

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Bezpieczeństwo wschodniej granicy Polski wobec współczesnych zagrożeń transgranicznych

Author: Andrzej Wawrzusiszyn
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7587-136X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 197-218
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233810
PDF: npw/38/npw3810.pdf

Security on the eastern border of Poland in the face of modern cross-border threats

Modern threats are a multidimensional problem, in addition to the old and well-known, there are constantly new, dynamically changing security environments. The grounds for security threats are diverse and evolve along with the development of international relations, changes in the interests of the state and its position on the international arena. The aggressive, imperial policy of the Russian Federation is an example of this and contributes to instability in the region and seriously threatens the sovereignty of neighboring countries. Guaranteeing the security of the Polish border (especially the eastern – external of European Union) is a serious challenge and must be constantly adapted to the changing threats occurring in times of peace, crisis, and also in times of war. The author characterizes the contemporary security environment of Poland and the accompanying cross-border threats, presents the process of shaping the EU external border security system together with the current situation of the security management of the Polish state border. It also draws conclusions that the state border must still be in the center of interest of the state authorities and indicates that as a result of the current external threat to the state, there is a need to improve the cooperation of services and institutions responsible for the security of the state border in the national and international dimension.

border guards cross-border threats system state border management security

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Polityka społeczna w Polsce i na Ukrainie przez pryzmat procesów demograficznych: diagnoza i analiza porównawcza w kontekście ludności w wieku przedprodukcyjnym (0–17 lat)

Author: Liudmyla Kryvachuk
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3083-4781
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 219-247
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233811
PDF: npw/38/npw3811.pdf

Social policy in Poland and Ukraine through the prism of demographic processes: diagnosis and comparative analysis in the context of the population of pre-working age (0–17 years)

The article the presents results of a study on the situation of children in Poland and Ukraine in the years 1991–2021 (30 years). Children and youth are determinants of social changes, they shape the future potential of society, therefore creating conditions for their formation and accumulation of human capital is one of the main priorities of state policy in most countries of the world. The comparative analysis was carried out on the basis of selected demographic indicators, including the number of children, the participation of children aged 0-17 in the general population in Poland and Ukraine, the number of live births, the birth rate, the fertility rate in Poland and Ukraine, the child mortality rate under 1 year, the child mortality rate under 5 years (0-4 years) in Poland and Ukraine. The diagnosis and analysis of the situation of children in Poland and Ukraine shows both positive and negative trends that require modernization of public policy instruments in this area in both countries.

child mortality birth structure child population situation of children demographic characteristics population of pre-working age social policy in Poland and Ukraine children social policy

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Представление о РОДИНЕ жителей белорусско- польско-литовского культурно-языкового пограничья (на материале польских периферийных говоров)

Author: Jadwiga Kozłowska-Doda
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7567-178X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 248-285
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233812
PDF: npw/38/npw3812.pdf

Imagination of the HOMELAND of the inhabitants of the Belarusian-Polish-Lithuanian cultural and linguistic borderland (based on the material of Polish peripheral dialects)

The article discusses the concept of HOMELAND based on the material of Polish peripheral dialects on the territory of Voronovo district, Belarus. As a context, the author used selected dictionaries of other researchers of the “Polish language of Borderlands” in the Belarusian-Polish-Lithuanian borderlands, narratives of the inhabitants of the Myadel region (Belarus), memories of emigrants from the Vilnius region (Lithuania), as well as residents of Podlasie, Warmia and Mazuria (Poland). The author collected the material as records of continuous texts on various topics, it was not a purposeful study of vocabulary and semantics on the topic of the homeland. The method of cognitive definition proposed by Jerzy Bartminski, which provides for the reconstruction of the “mental object”, i.e. the maximum set of characteristics fixed in the language, was used in the article. As a result of the analysis of the material, similar features, indicated earlier by the researchers of this borderland, were found. Among the components of the imagination of HOMELAND, in the first place there was a warm attitude to native places (the emotional connection of a person with the place of birth and the period of childhood) and ancestors (including the deceased, the cemetery). The importance of the place of residence and neighbours (their own, ours, etc. people with similar experience), as well as religion (their own and neighbouring parishes, the cult of the Virgin Mary) was also emphasized. Less often, but expressively accentuated cultural (for example, traditions and language) and everyday signs of the concept (stability; private property; homeland where you can live). At the same time, more expressive than in other works, sketching of the ideological homeland by local residents was noticed (for the older it is the Second Polish Republic, for the younger – Belarus). According to the author, this is explained by the fact that among the respondents were, among other things, the residents whose ancestors participated in the uprising of 1863, fought with the Bolsheviks in the Polish-Soviet war, as well as those associated with the Home Army. In addition to the traditional point of view of an ordinary peasant/ petty nobleman, the perspective of a patriot not only of a “small homeland”, but also of a non-existent state (Second Polish Republic) is also considered.

cognitive definition Polish peripheral dialects Belarusian-Polish-Lithuanian Borderland oral history homeland Belarus

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Religious activity and expression of national identity of Ukrainians during the introduction of the new Soviet ritual: 1960’s–1970’s

Author: Nadia Kindrachuk
Institution: Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7505-0668
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 286-302
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233813
PDF: npw/38/npw3813.pdf

The party ideologues of the Soviet totalitarian state artificially developed and actively introduced into the life of the titular nation of the Ukrainian SSR a new Soviet ritualism, the main goal of which was to raise from every Ukrainian a Russified citizen of the Soviet type without national identity and religious beliefs, with a Russian consciousness, mentality and language. The article proves that the ancient church and religious traditions and customs of the Ukrainian people continued to be a part of the everyday culture of Ukrainians. The religious activity of representatives of the Ukrainian ethnic group was especially observed during the celebration of Christmas, Epiphany, Easter and other church holidays. And although the number of adherents of religious rites in the republic was different – from less in the East to more in the West, Christian values, despite atheism, continued to be the basis of the spiritual life of the absolute majority of Ukrainians.

denationalization new Soviet ritualism religious customs and traditions Soviet power Church national consciousness atheism Ukrainians totalitarian regime

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Favoring particular assemblies or cultivating Poland’s history?1 [book review Zgromadzenia w Polsce. Teoria, praktyka i komentarz do ustawy]

Author: Karolina Owczarek
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9809-5778
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 305-314
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233814
PDF: npw/38/npw3814.pdf

Отдавать предпочтение определенным ассамблеям или культивировать историю Польши?

[рецензия книги Zgromadzenia w Polsce. Teoria, praktyka i komentarz do ustawy]

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Interdyscyplinarne badania nad Bliskim Wschodem [recenzja książki Bliski wschód – od Edenu do cyberprzestrzeni]

Author: Julia Rolińska
Institution: Badaczka niezależna
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0000-7580-9339
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 322-325
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233816
PDF: npw/38/npw3816.pdf

Interdisciplinary studies of the Middle East

[book review Bliski wschód – od Edenu do cyberprzestrzeni]

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Spojrzenie na sprawy japońskie [recenzja książki Współczesna Japonia: społeczeństwo, polityka, gospodarka]

Author: Kamil Pietrasik
Institution: Towarzystwo Azji i Pacyfiku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8579-0659
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 326-330
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233817
PDF: npw/38/npw3817.pdf

Japanese affairs up close

[book review Współczesna Japonia: społeczeństwo, polityka, gospodarka]

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