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Vol. 4(39)

Wyzwania XXI wieku państw Dalekiego Wschodu

Author: Bogusław Pacek
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8111-1682
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 9-24
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233901
PDF: npw/39/npw3901.pdf

Challenges of the 21st century of the Far East countries

Far East countries are mentioned around the world almost every day. It happens either because of their economic and political importance (including China, Japan or South Korea), or because of fears that they will become the cause or pretext for a major military conflict. Each of these countries faces a number of challenges that can create risks, but also, with the right decisions, can provide opportunities for rapid development. This article highlights selected and important in the author’s opinion, challenges facing the countries of the Far East. Overcoming them will be important not only for the countries affected by these challenges, but will also have impact on the politics and economies of many other countries around the world. The discussed economic challenges of the People’s Republic of China, challenges related to China’s internal and foreign policy, Japan’s energy and financial challenges, the challenges of Taiwan and both Koreas indicate the author’s research and discussion of issues that are less known but pose big problems for the Far East. Social pathologies that significantly impede the functioning of states have been added to the catalogue of typical challenges. The challenges described concern the period after 2020 and are very current.

Вызовы Дальнего Востока military challenges financial challenges economics and economy Challenges of the Far East social pathologies

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Rola obwodu królewieckiego w stosunkach litewsko-rosyjskich po rozpadzie Związku Radzieckiego

Author: Marcin Chełminiak
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: 0000-0002-6963-3143
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 25-40
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233902
PDF: npw/39/npw3902.pdf

The role of Kaliningrad Region in Lithuanian-Russian relations after the dissolution of the Soviet Union

The process of dissolution of the Soviet Union has led not only to the geopolitical changes in Europe and in the world, but also to the fact that the issue of the Kaliningrad Region became the subject of interest from Baltic states. The Russian exclave has been the subject of debate and political controversy both in Russia and in Lithuania. Initially it was a result of the militarization of Kaliningrad Region and speculation regarding the change in its status. Later, the issue of Kaliningrad Region appeared primarily in the context of the enlargement of the European Union to the east. The importance of the Russian enclave for Lithuania should be considered not only in terms of geopolitical location, but mainly in the context of political, economic and military conditions.

Калининградская область Baltic Sea Region Kaliningrad region Lithuania geopolitics

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Niemieckie kontakty z Kaukazem w XVIII i XIX w.

Author: Andrzej Furier
Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3745-3578
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 41-63
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233903
PDF: npw/39/npw3903.pdf

German contacts with the Caucasus in the 18th and 19th centuries

The paper presents the initial period of German-Caucasian contacts, which includes the activity of German travelers, scientists and settlers in the 18th and 19th centuries. These activities were carried out during the period of Russian rule over Caucasus. The influence of the unification of Germany in 1871 on the intensification of German-Caucasian relations and a change in their character was noted. From then on, they were an element of the foreign policy of the Second Reich, which increased German-Caucasian economic exchange and led to political cooperation in the 20th century.

Германия German settlement in the Caucasus German research into the Caucasus Caucasus Germany Azerbaijan Georgia Armenia

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Rola cyberprzestrzeni w wojnie Rosji z Ukrainą

Author: Agnieszka Warchoł
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0786-6440
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 64-79
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233904
PDF: npw/39/npw3904.pdf

The role of cyberspace in Russia’s war against Ukraine

The aim of article is to present the ways in which cyberspace has been used in Russia’s war against Ukraine. The article consists of several parts. The first deals with Ukraine’s preparations for potential Russian cyber attacks. In the second part, the author presents information on the use of cyberspace in the Russian-Ukrainian war. The last part presents possible scenarios for the use of cyberspace in wars in the future. The study used the following research methods: historical method, comparative analysis, literature analysis and criticism, source analysis and criticism, and case study.

cyberwar cyberspace Russia cyberattacks Ukraine

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Twarz solidarności i pojednania? Niewerbalna komunikacja emocji w wojennych przemówieniach Wołodymyra Zełenskiego do polskich odbiorców

Author: Patryk Wawrzyński
Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0911-1068
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 80-101
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233905
PDF: npw/39/npw3905.pdf

The Face of Solidarity and Reconciliation? Emotions and nonverbal communication in Volodymyr Zelensky’s wartime addresses to the Polish audience

President V. Zelensky’s international popularity and sympathy resulted from his empathetic image as the nation’s speaker after the Russian aggression in February 2022. The novel application of technology helped him communicate with foreign audiences and receive international military, political, economic, and humanitarian support, strengthening the anti-Russian alliance. Poland was an essential partner in Zelensky’s strategy as Poles hosted millions of Ukrainian war refugees, marking the Polish society as a core target group of his communication. The paper presents the results of automated coding (FaceReader 9, general model, 30 fps) of the Ukrainian President’s facial expressions of emotions in three speeches addressed to the Polish audience after February 2022, comparing them with the results of a study on Zelensky’s 73 international addresses in the first year of the war. The study investigates differences in nonverbal targeting of Poles and other audiences, providing detailed profiles of analyzed speeches. The results suggest that the stage of the conflict primarily regulated his nonverbal communication, and then it was adapted to the targeted audience. (1) Zelensky increased emotional expressiveness in communication with the Poles, signaling all three dominant emotions (sadness, anger, and disgust). (2) The intensity of disgust had a reverse pattern than in the general sample, and it was reduced with time and replaced by more arousing anger. (3) The Ukrainian President significantly stronger displayed fear in his speeches to the Polish audience. The differences in nonverbal dynamics explain a reduced involvement of Polish society in helping Ukraine, as Zelensky’s initial empathetic image was replaced with a more aggressive style of wartime leadership.

невербальная коммуникация sympathy expression of emotions nonverbal communication credibility political branding polish-ukrainian relations

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Characteristics of calculating the power of states in Eastern Europe: a powermetric approach

Author: Erwin Metera
Institution: Political Science Alumni Association of the University of Warsaw
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9003-5810
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 102-118
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233906
PDF: npw/39/npw3906.pdf

The conducted research indicates the elements characteristic of power relations among states in Eastern Europe by describing them in mathematical terms. Using existing assumptions and resulting universal powermetric models, the study adapts them to the specifics of the region, enabling the implementation of the negative role of the imports of Russian energy resources in calculating the power of individual states. The role of trade links based on the two main energy resources – natural gas and crude oil – has been indicated. Imports of these raw materials from Russia, which constitute a significant part of the balance of resources used in the energy sectors of the importing countries, are the source of reduction of the geopolitical position of these states in the region, in relation to the position held by the Russian Federation. By taking into account the negative impact of trade in energy resources due to their use by the Russian Federation as a tool in achieving geostrategic goals, the conclusions obtained in the study allow for an increase in the accuracy of existing powermetric models in research on power distribution in Eastern Europe.

powermetrics political geography IR theory methodology Eastern Europe geopolitics Russia international relations

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Znaczenie tożsamości obywatelskiej dla Białorusinów i Litwinów

Author: Tatiana Kanasz
Institution: Akademia Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. M. Grzegorzewskiej
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7389-5683
Author: Agata Chutnik
Institution: Badaczka niezależna
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5915-8641
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 119-133
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233907
PDF: npw/39/npw3907.pdf

The importance of civic identity for Belarusians and Lithuanians

The article captures the differences in the formation of civic attitudes among Belarusians and Lithuanians. The starting point is a brief analysis of the identity formation of both nations. Then, on the basis of a comparative analysis made using representative survey research from 2012-2022, a picture concerning the importance of selected issues of civic identity is presented. Above all, it is attachment and belonging to the state, which takes into account ethnic and civic components such as language, self-understanding through identification with the territory, nationality and citizenship, changes and differences in reference to historical heritage and approaches to European identity. We present data on respect for state institutions and the law, willingness to pay or avoid taxes as a form of support and attachment to statehood, as well as preferred form of government. We also refer to data related to sentiments towards the past and understanding Russia’s role, national pride and autostereotypical features, while juxtaposing these with the question of where Lithuanians and Belarusians see their future. Finally, we point out the importance of history, political influence and collective experiences as a basis for the formation of civic attitudes.

национальная идентичность desk research civic attitudes Lithuanians Belarusians national identity

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Sytuacja gospodarcza w Republice Mołdawii i jej determinanty w latach 2021–2022

Author: Karolina Kotulewicz-Wisińska
Institution: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7416-4898
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 134-156
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233908
PDF: npw/39/npw3908.pdf

The economic situation in the Republic of Moldova and its determinants in 2021–2022

The article presents the process of stabilizing the economy in the republic of Moldova in the years 2021–2022. During this period, new internal and external conditions emerged in Moldova that affected the results achieved by the Moldovan economy. The year 2021 went down in the economic history of this country as the year in which the highest GDP growth of 13.9% was recorded compared to the previous year. In turn, in 2022, the growth of Moldovan GDP was negative. This was largely due to external factors such as the increase in energy prices and Russia’s armed aggression against Ukraine. These factors forced the Moldovan authorities to adapt to these conditions. The article attempts to show how in 2021-2022 the above-mentioned factors determined the course of economic stabilization in the Republic of Moldova, without taking into account the region of Transnistria.

Республика Молдова war in the Ukraine macroeconomic stabilisation economic potential factors od economic development Republic of Moldova

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Państwa Bliskiego Wschodu wobec rosyjskiej agresji na Ukrainę w 2022 roku. Stanowisko Izraela, Arabii Saudyjskiej i Islamskiej Republiki Iranu

Author: Marzena Mruk
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3529-0365
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 157-177
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233909
PDF: npw/39/npw3909.pdf

Middle East countries towards Russian aggression against Ukraine in 2022. The position of Israel, Saudi Arabia and the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Middle East is particularly vulnerable to armed conflicts and other acts of aggression due to its ethnic, religious and cultural diversity. The war in Ukraine poses a political and economic challenge to the Middle East states, as follows from various diplomatic relations between them and the Russian Federation and Ukraine. After February 24, 2022, the leaders and governments of the Middle East countries issued a series of statements in which they tried to express their position on the declaration of independence of the separatist Lugansk and Donetsk People’s Republics and the invasion of Ukraine. Among the countries of the Middle East that have expressed their position on the armed conflict in Ukraine, it is particularly worth paying attention to Israel, Saudi Arabia and Iran. These three states constitute the largest political, economic and military forces in the region and a different approach to relations with the Russian Federation as the main factor shaping their position on the armed conflict in Europe

война России и Украины Russia-Ukraine war Saudi Arabia Iran international security Israel Middle East

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Model of the Dimensions of Threat Perception: Results of Experimental Verification Based on the Sense of Endangerment Caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic

Author: Bogdan Ćwik
Institution: Military University of Technology, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8774-9054
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 178-197
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233910
PDF: npw/39/npw3910.pdf

The article addresses the problem of the limited effectiveness of the perception of warning signals related to threats. The subject is an element of the search for methods to improve the efficiency of risk monitoring systems. The problem with these systems is the fact that, despite the existing standards, binding norms and regulations, as well as numerous organisational, technological, and institutional security measures, unexpected negative events still occur, and their consequences include not only significant losses but also numerous human tragedies. The article presents a model of the efficiency of the perception of threats that identifies a 9-dimensional vector of the “significance of the perceived threat”. Each of the presented dimensions reflects a specific factor that influences the significance of the perceived threat. The research was based on the feeling of endangerment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic among the citizens of Poland. The threat was particularly noticeable in the first phases of the pandemic, i.e., in March and April 2020 and October-December (the second wave of the pandemic).

warning signal interpretation efficiency of signal reading warning signal visibility warning signal perception of threat

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A brief introduction to Christian and Confucian studies in North Korea

Author: Nicolas Levi
Institution: Polish Academy of Sciences
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9780-730X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 198-208
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233911
PDF: npw/39/npw3911.pdf

The question of religions in North Korea remains a sensitive issue in this country. Due to the nature of the North Korean regime, studies on religions were banned until the 1980’s. It’s only after that a research institution dealing with religious issues were established in the major university of the country. This institution is dealing with the main religions existing in North Korea. The main challenge was to combine the ideological framework with religious aspirations. The present study analyzes North Korean discursive strategies concerning religious studies. It focuses on the academic work of North Korean researchers dealing with religious studies.

Со Кёндок So Kyong-dok Religions in North Korea Korean Unification Kim Il Sung University Confucianism

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Rady młodzieżowe przy jednostkach samorządu terytorialnego na świecie – przegląd badań na wybranych przykładach

Author: Dominik Boratyn
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2335-7515
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 209-223
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233912
PDF: npw/39/npw3912.pdf

Youth councils at local government units in the world – a review of research on selected examples

The article is part of a publication cycle on the activities of youth councils at local government units. The introduction to the publication discusses the current state of research on the issues of youth councils in Poland and in the world, the purpose of the research and the hypothesis. The main part of the article presents examples of the activity of youth councils at local government units that operate not only in Poland or Europe, but all over the world. The publication presents, inter alia, youth councils operating in Great Britain, the United States of America and Canada.

youth activity Youth Councils youth local politics

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Polski problem milenium – etap planowanej modernizacji. Badawczym okiem o półwieczu Polski Ludowej [recenzja książki Społeczeństwo polskie po II wojnie światowej]

Author: Tadeusz Klementewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2101-5060
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 232-237
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233914
PDF: npw/39/npw3914.pdf

Poland’s millennium problem – the stage of planned modernization. With a research eye on the half-century of the Polish People’s Republic [book review Społeczeństwo polskie po II wojnie światowej]

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Rozważania o zniewolonym społeczeństwie [recenzja książki Zniewalane/zniewolone człowieczeństwo. Efekt fałszywej narracji oraz edukacyjnej hipokryzji czołowych systemów władzy]

Author: Paweł Prüfer
Institution: Akademia im. Jakuba z Paradyża w Gorzowie Wielkopolskim
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3647-8068
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 238-246
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233915
PDF: npw/39/npw3915.pdf

Reflections on an enslaved society [book review Zniewalane/zniewolone człowieczeństwo. Efekt fałszywej narracji oraz edukacyjnej hipokryzji czołowych systemów władzy]

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