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2015

Polityka wschodnia RP Uwarunkowania i efekty

Author: Karol B. Janowski
Year of publication: 2015
Pages: 15-36
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015201
PDF: npw/09/npw2015201.pdf

In analyzing the mode in which Poland was settling its relations with Russia a deduction comes to mind that Poland remains under the spell of the syndromes which were either disposed of or dealt with by other European nations. Remaining is the challenge to solidify Poland’s position within the safety vault of heaven that is vouched by the West while establishing a pragmatic and rational and conflict free relationships with the East-Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic countries, particularly Latvia. Thus, required is the ability to comprehend the Polish national interests, that is the Polish raison d’état, in a realistic and rational manner within the limits of the existing geopolitical situation of the competition, securing sustained competitive advantages, entering into alliances or compromises and making a long-term option.

syndrome raison d’état interest national interest foreign policy Russia

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Rosyjska polityka integracyjna w Azji Centralnej wobec aktywności Unii Europejskiej na tym obszarze Część II

Author: Sylwester Gardocki
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 37-55
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015202
PDF: npw/09/npw2015202.pdf

The competition of Western states and Russia for influence in the area of Central Asia has a long history. Located in the centre of the continent, the Central Asian region is a kind of link between China and the countries of Southeast Asia, Afghanistan, the Middle East and a number of Islamic countries in the south, the Caucasus, Turkey, Europe and Russia – to the west and north. The beginning of the current development of the geopolitical situation in Central Asia falls on time of disintegration of the Soviet Union and emergence of independent republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The presented article describes the geopolitical situation of the region.

integration policies Central Asia Russia competition the European Union

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Euroazjatycka Wspólnota Gospodarcza i Szanghajska Organizacja Współpracy jako alternatywa dla Turcji wobec braku członkostwa w Unii Europejskiej

Author: Ahmet Burak
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 56-55
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015203
PDF: npw/09/npw2015203.pdf

Turkey formally applied for membership in the European Union (EU) on April 14, 1987, but it took 12 years to get candidate status at the Helsinki summit of 1999. The year 2014 brought no breakthrough in the negotiations between the EU and Turkey. Public opinion polls show that many Turkish citizens have no hope of joining the EU. Waiting too long for membership in the EU is causing a lot of controversy in Turkey and is one of the most frequently raised issues in the political discourse. In the last three years, the Turkish political class and socjety became more and more sympathetic to perceived integration initiatives in the Eastern direction. Turkey has opened a new road in the form of accession to the Eurasian Union and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. What will happen if Turkey will support its way in this direction? How long can Turkey wait for admission to the EU? Where would it be better for Turkey? The Eastern Alliance or the Western?

Eurasian Union alternatives EU membership Turkey Shanghai Cooperation Organization the European Union

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Polityka zagraniczna Francji wobec Rosji w sektorze energetycznym

Author: Karolina J. Helnarska
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 66-84
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015204
PDF: npw/09/npw2015204.pdf

The France on the international stage, with Russia can be changed while in the field of energy, trying to benefit from mutual cooperation. This comes from the desire of France to ensure the security of gas supplies, supply diversification, the strengthening of French companies in the field of energy in the European Energy market. France pursued a policy based on the security of supplies from sources of imports under long-term contracts. In addition to security issues and important economic role played by political issues. France is more active cooperation in economic matters and issues of energy security between Germany and Russia. Doesn’t want to be completely excluded from cooperation in this area. Offer Russia the possibility of buying some military technology and nuclear missiles, which can Germany offer.

security energy security foreign policy of France Russia

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Deportacija chechenskogo naroda: chto ehto bylo i mozhno li ehto zabyt? (K 70-letiju deportacii chechenskogo i ingushskogo narodov)

Author: Magomed Daduev
Author: Abdula Bugaev
Author: Vakhi Akaev
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 85-104
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015205
PDF: npw/09/npw2015205.pdf

The article analyzes some historical aspects of the deportation of the Chechen people 23 February 1944. Reveals the absurdity of the law , the state decisions on the deportation of the Chechens , using previously unknown archival documents, reveals the failure of the charges brought against them by the Stalinist totalitarian regime. The questions Khrushchev criticism of the personality cult of Stalin at the Twentieth Party Congress, a long and complicated process of rehabilitation of repressed peoples, including Chechens.

Reasoned criticism subjected to allegations of certain Russian authors, contrary to elementary logic, trying to justify the crimes of the Stalin–Beria’s regime, to prove the validity of the deportation of people. It is suggested that a scientific approach to the past, tragic repression involves accurate, objective approach, overcoming political situation, reproduction in the public consciousness, studies the ideology of Stalinism. This will strengthen inter-ethnic harmony in Russia, which is very important and necessary for a civilized community.

ethnic memory activation of research falsification the cult of personality legal arbitrariness state decisions the Stalin-Beria regime The deportation of the Chechens and Ingush repatriation rehabilitation

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Losy polskiego dziedzictwa kultury na radzieckiej Ukrainie (1922–1991) Część II: 1945–1991

Author: Dariusz Matelski
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 105-130
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015206
PDF: npw/09/npw2015206.pdf

The end of war in Europe on 8 May 1945 allowed to seek restitution of cultural property lost by Poland between 1939-1945. This task was undertaken by the Provisional Government of National Unity, which was created on 28 June 1945. The demarcation of new eastern borders of Poland along the so-called eastern Curzon line resulted in leaving outside the country two cultural centers important to national interest of Poles – Vilnius and Lviv.

In March 1945 The Committee of Experts for Restitution and Compensation in Culture and Arts was created within The Ministry of Culture and the Arts, and the Ministry of Education established the Commission for Reparations and Restitution for Science and Schools. Their main task was to prevent looting by the so called “cultural battalions of the NKVD,” who treated the encountered cultural goods as “spoils of war”.

On the basis of the resolution of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Ukrainian SSR of 18 October 1945, 577 exhibits and 50 thousand books and manuscripts were transferred to Poland (as a gift!). The Catholic clergy could carry their fortune from the eastern borderlands of Second Polish Republic to Poland on the basis of an additional protocol to the repatriation agreement of 20 September 1945. With the resolution of 5 July 1946, The Council of Ministers of The Provisional Government of National Unity appointed a committee for the recovery of Polish cultural property from the former eastern provinces of the Republic of Poland, which were included in the Ukrainian SSR after the change of borders. Despite the recovery of many Polonicas, the loss of the greater part of Lviv museum collections remained a fact. Changes in the USSR began on 11 March 1985. In May 1987, 2450 Polish books from the Ossolineum collections in Lviv were given to the Polish side. At the end of November 1989, although the Soviets agreed to return Poland the Ossolineum collections in Lviv, the promise was not fulfilled. The disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 and regaining the independence by the former republics made it necessary to conduct negotiations on the Polish cultural heritage with each of the successors of the USSR separately - including Ukraine.

revindication national heritage Polish culture Ukraine international relations

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Razvitie muzykalno-dramaticheskogo iskusstva Kirgizii v predvoennye gody

Author: Iria Vladimirovna Gorina
Year of publication: 2015
Pages: 131-147
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015206
PDF: npw/09/npw2015207.pdf

The article is seeing as being build the cultprosvetrabota for the prewar years in Kyrgyzstan. It was the great time for many urban and rural clubs, which attached to the creativity of the population have become a solid foundation for future theater staffs.

At the end of the 1930s, Philharmonic and 16 theaters were already actively functioning in the Soviet Kyrgyzstan. They worked in different fields: cities and regional level, state and collective farms. They staged their productions in three languages: Kyrgyz, Russian and Uzbek. The regular holding of parades and creative competitions boosted artistic level of performances, mastery of artists expanding the repertoire theaters.

The most important step in the preparation of national professionals was opening of musical, artistic, musical and choreographic schools, choreographic studio in the capital of republic. For the prewar years markedly increased choreographic art of Kyrgyz groups. The clear evidence was the Kirgiz musical performance of classical choreography “Cholppelia”, “Rivals” and the first national balet “Anar” in the Kyrgyz Ballet Theatre.

The Kyrgyz ballet “Evening of Ballet” included some of the compositions of the Kyrgyz and the other nations dances, few classic passages of Russian and foreign authors.

Russian choreographers Holfin N. Kozlov, composers V. Vlasov and Fere, painters J. Shtoffer producers Vasiliev, K. Dzhantoshev and many more actively worked on Kyrgyz scene. The skills of Kyrgyz ballet and opera artists A. Umetbaeva, A. Moldobaeva, K. Niyazalieva, M. Ryskulov, and A. Mamakeeva continuously improved.

first teams of theatres stage art amateur theatres cultural and educational activities socialist art Kyrgyz arts

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Rossijjskaja integracionnaja politika v Centralnojj Azii po otnosheniju k aktivnosti Evropejjskogo Sojuza na ehtojj territorii Chast 1

Author: Sylwester Gardocki
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski, Poland
Year of publication: 2015
Pages: 13-27
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015101
PDF: npw/08/npw2015101.pdf

The competition of Western states and Russia for influence in the area of Central Asia has a long history. Located in the centre of the continent, the Central Asian region is a kind of link between China and the countries of Southeast Asia, Afghanistan, the Middle East and a number of Islamic countries in the south, the Caucasus, Turkey, Europe and Russia – to the west and north. The beginning of the current development of the geopolitical situation in Central Asia falls on time of disintegration of the Soviet Union and emergence of independent republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The presented article describes the geopolitical situation of the region.

integration policies Central Asia Russia competition the European Union

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Ukraińska lekcja 2014 Czy możliwy jest powrót do koncepcji „Międzymorza”?

Author: Zbigniew Girzyński
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, Poland
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 28-41
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015102
PDF: npw/08/npw2015102.pdf

To 1654 Ukrainians were creating one country with Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, but at the same time they were feeling as a second class citizens. For this reason in XVII century with the help of neighbouring Tsardom of Russia they’ve started the uprising and detached themselves from Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth without creating new country. Instead according to the council of Pereyaslav from 1654 they choosed to be under rule of the Tsardom of Russia. After the mentioned council Republic of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth become weakend to the benefit of Tsardom of Russia. From this moment on Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth have been in decline to the point when in XVIII century they lost their independance. After the First World War when Poland regained freedom under Józef Piłsudski an attempt was made to create an Alliance of independent countries lead by Poland as reaction to the Russian imperialism. The alliance called “Intermarium” included: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belaruse as well as Finland and Romania. To make the idea succesful Ukraine needed to be created but the idea failed to succeed. Instead independent Ukraine was created after the dissolution of Soviet Union even so Ukraine was still under immense influence of Russia. In 2014 Russia annexed during the war with Ukraine part of it – Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Till then Russia is trying to detach eastern provinces Ukraine. It is obvious that diplomatic relations between Russia and Ukraine became frozen. For this reason Poland and Ukraine may have opportunity to ally with other countries from region to stand against russian imperialism.

ntermarium The Council of Pereyaslav Russia Poland Ukraine

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Ukraina i Federacja Rosyjska – przyczyny i konsekwencje kryzysu ukraińskiego

Author: Jakub Potulski
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 42-66
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015103
PDF: npw/08/npw2015103.pdf

2014 was a breakthrough year. Ukraine’s crisis of 2013–2014, February 2014 revolution which removed Viktor Yanukovych and his government, annexation of Crimea by Russia, war in Donbas caused changes in the geopolitical map of the world. The crisis had many effects both domestic and international. Author argues that the crisis is a part of the wider changes on the geopolitical map of the world. The main effect of the crisis is that Ukraine was transformed into shatterbelt – regions that are both deeply divided internally and caught up in the competition between Great Powers.

shatterbelt geopolitics Russia Ukraine political system

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Modernizacja modelu państwa opiekuńczego w warunkach wyzwań globalizacyjnych III tysiąclecia

Author: Natalia Khoma
Year of publication: 2015
Pages: 67-77
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015104
PDF: npw/08/npw2015104.pdf

The peculiarities of foreign models of the welfare state caused by modernization processes have been elucidated. The modern political concept of welfare state models has been created. The main tendencies in the development of the welfare state under the circumstances of modern globalization challenges have been defined. The parameters of the long-range national welfare state model have been traced on the basis of the analysis of the Ukrainian welfare state formation processes.

welfare state model welfare state globalization

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Ku demokracji informacyjnej poprzez formy online udziału politycznego

Author: Antonina Mytko
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 78-89
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015105
PDF: npw/08/npw2015105.pdf

This article presents tests of information democracy process model. Its basic forms were defined as – direct, semi-direct, open source democracy. Following subjects were analyzed: electronic voting, on-line election, on-line referendum, electronic parliament and other process models of information democracy. The paper presents the opportunities and benefits to the citizens in the sphere of information, including the management process and the political system.

i-democracy process model on-line elections electronic voting

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Recognition and propaganda of Kazakh history in press

Author: Ilesken Albatyr
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 90-98
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015106
PDF: npw/08/npw2015106.pdf

The aim of the work is to investigate the cultural heritage of Turkic-speaking people. The key questions of the article: What are the history and theory of the Old Turkic script? What influence does the old ancient heritage provide on modern spiritual process?

Turkic language Orkhon inscription Turkic people

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Losy polskiego dziedzictwa kultury na radzieckiej Ukrainie (1922–1991) Część I: 1922–1945

Author: Dariusz Matelski
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 99-138
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015107
PDF: npw/08/npw2015107.pdf

The article deals with the fate of Polish cultural heritages in Eastern Borderlands from the establishment of Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in December 1922, to its collapse in December 1991. The first part of the article ends at 1945 (end ofSecond World War). Under international law in relation to Soviet Russia and Ukraine the issues of repatriation and revindication – after the war in 1920 – was normalized by 11 Article of the Treaty of Riga (18 March 1921) with executive instructions. Lithuanian Metrica, however, did not return to Warsaw, but remained in Moscow, while the Polish side received a summary of the Metrics Lithuania (made in the years 1747–1750 in the royal Office) held by the former Chief of Staff Library in Leningrad.

On September 17, 1939 Soviet invasion completely surprised Polish authorities, evacuation plans did not provide for such an eventuality. Ukrainian SSR authorities took control not only of museums, archives and libraries in the areas occupied by the Red Army, but also have taken over the Polish heritage evacuated to the area before and during the war with the Third Reich. Quite often Polonica

were destroyed or put to scrap paper.

The German occupation in the Eastern Borderlands of the Second Republic lasted from 22 June 1941 until the summer of 1944. At that time – in fear of the approaching Red Army – the German occupation authorities started the evacuation of Polish cultural goods to Krakow and Silesia. Along with the Red Army returned the Soviet authorities. In Lvov organizational state of archives, libraries and museums of 1941 was restored. Many Poles were released from positions in these institutions, and the newly appointed directors were reluctant to refer to anything associated with Poland. In the years 1944–1945 all cultural goods in areas beyond the Bug River – after numerous robberies carried out by the Red Army – went to the central or regional USSR archives or museums.

Polish preparations for the restitution of cultural property continued throughout the war. Office of Cultural Losses Revindication was formed in the Ministry of Congress Works of Polish government in exile. It was directed by Charles Estreicher Jr. (1906–1984), who managed to get to France and, at the beginning of 1940, formed the nucleus of the Office of Cultural Losses Revindication under the Ministry of Information and Documentation. It gathered information from archivists, museum curators and librarians from the occupied country and transferred them to the Central Institute of Art and Design at the National Gallery in London – formed by Polish initiative in 1941. In the spring of 1944 Poland was the only country that had prepared the materials and developed methods in the field of revindication. In 1945 in Warsaw Office of War Revindication and Compensation was established in the Ministries of Education and of Culture and the Arts, with Karol Estreicher Jr. as their expert.

revindication national heritage Polish culture Ukraine international relations

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Rol Sefevidskogo bratstva v obshhestvenno-politicheskojj zhizni Azerbajjdzhana srednikh vekov

Author: Asker Sudzhajat Ogly Akhmed
Year of publication: 2015
Pages: 139-153
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015108
PDF: npw/08/npw2015108.pdf

The article reflects some analysis about the role of Safavi sect in the socio-political life of Azerbaijan. It should be mentioned that, the innovation brought by Safavis and their practical activities along with the role they played in socio-political life of Azerbaijan, had become main factor for its future development. Because of sect activity the centralized state was established, the feudal disorder was raised, the new opportunities were created for more comprehensive development. Th rising of Azerbaijani (Turkish) language to state level in the middle ages was exactly connected with their name. Since XV century, the Safavi sect which formed new form of culture in this area brought Shia ideology to state policy and thus could make its positive contribution to socio-political relations of the region.

Safavi State Gizilbashs (a military class in the army of Shah Ismail) Ardabil Sheiks Safavi sect

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Białoruś Zachodnia w interpretacji polskiej: wybrane wątki historyczne i motywy liryczne Część II: Polska wizja Białorusi w II wojnie światowej: widmo zdrady i obudzenie skruchy

Author: Swietłana Czerwonnaja
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 154-176
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015109
PDF: npw/08/npw2015109.pdf

The main theme in the Polish science and fiction literature, which in the postwar era evolved primarily in exile (in the works of Józef Mackiewicz and other authors whose interest was concentrated on Second World War times), are issues related to the lack of understanding and reconciliation between the Polish resistance movement, the history of the Home Army and the guerrilla groups of various nationalities (Belarusian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Russian) in the Polish Eastern Borderlands occupied by the Nazis and national organizations and liberation movements of nations that sought their own solutions to national problems by means of collaboration with the occupants. Misunderstandings, war clashes among themselves caused fatal misfortune, irreparable damage to the lives of these people and for the common cause against the occupant. At first the Polish literature was dominated by the desire to find the culprits of this situation among neighbours, among others to prove the guilt of the Belarusians in what formed in Polish Eastern Borderland during the war and occupation, then the creation of the communist regime, when, supposedly, Belarusians willingly and on a mass scale served in the Soviet authorities “gosbezopasnosti” and in the ranks of the Polish Department of Security (UB). Such a drive in the works of writers and scientific studies of recent decades is changing to a more objective approach and indepth analysis of the dramatic situation in which were nations of Eastern Europe, deceived by their own leaders, blinded by false illusions, pulled into a fratricidal war. In Polish literature, whose attention is paid to the situation of the Belarusian minority in post-war “People’s Poland” – situation in many aspects hard and unlawful – new intonations of repentance and reconciliation can be heard much louder. Evidence of this poetic light Belarus-Dobrorus image can be.

repentance in Polish literature studies under the communist dictatorship Belarussian minority in Poland World War II Polish and Belarusian people after 1989

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