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2016

Społeczeństwo obywatelskie: mit czy warunek konieczny stabilnego rozwoju demokracji

Author: Ewelina Wojciechowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, Poland
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 15-24
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016201
PDF: npw/11/npw2016201.pdf

This essay aims at taking reflection on the civil society. The author tries to prove the validity of the thesis that civil society is a precondition for stable development of democracy. For this purpose, author invokes the Polish and foreign studies and sources of public opinion surveys, referring mainly to the example of Poland. Atthe beginning terms such as civil society and stable democracy are explained. Then the arguments are given and critical private opinions of the author. They confirm this thesis. There is no shortage of the scientific data and references to personal experiences of the author, which is professionally associated with many non-governmental organizations for several years. This texts aim is to deepen the theme of the development of civil society and encourage the substantive discussion of the condition of contemporary democracy in Poland.

nongovernmental organizations civic participation stable development civil society democracy

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Sotrudnichestvo Turcii s subektami Rossijjskojj Federacii v period 2000–2010 gg.

Author: Ahmet Burak
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, Poland
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 25-42
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016202
PDF: npw/11/npw2016202.pdf

In its 90 years of modern existence, Turkish foreign relations with Russia reflect contentious issues with which the two republics have grappled during the twentieth century and following the collapse of great empires, civil wars and radical changes in the international political system. Moreover, it is safe to say that the degree of constructiveness of these relations is directly dependent upon macropolitical processes in Eurasia, and that the success of foreign political contacts reflects the level of political and cultural thinking of state elites in both countries. One of the most important directions of Russian–Turkish bilateral relations is inter-regional cooperation on the subject of the Russian Federation and Turkey. This paper analyzes the main directions and pace of economic cooperation development between Turkey and Russia’s constituent entities, and evaluates the prospects of these relations.

Russian Federation subjects Turkey cooperation

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Belorussko-rossijjskie otnoshenija s perspektivy Minska: formalnyjj sojuz i fakticheskaja dezintegracija

Author: Ryhor Astapenia
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski, Poland
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 43-56
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016203
PDF: npw/11/npw2016203.pdf

This article is devoted to the analysis of integration and disintegration processes that occurred between Belarus and Russia after the signing the 1996 Treaty establishing the Community of the two countries. Particular attention is paid to the state of relations in 2014-2015 – after the beginning of the military conflict in Ukraine and the economic crisis in Belarus and Russia. The author points to several trends on three levels of cooperation. Politically, the countries disintegrate, as they become aware of the difference between their interests in bilateral relations and on the international arena. Economic cooperation remains at a high level, but deep integration is impossible, as the economic crisis forced Belarus to seek opportunities for economic development elsewhere. Military cooperation, in turn, reaches the limit of integration that Minsk is willing to accept: its manifestation was a refusal of Belarus to place a Russian military base on its territory. Moreover, Belarus has taken several steps to reduce its military dependence on Russia. Thus, the dynamics of the Belarusian-Russian relations allows to say that in the near future the country will continue formal integration, while in practice that means maintaining the “status quo” or even further disintegration.

Collective Security Treaty Organization Belarusian-Russian integration Eurasian Economic Union Russia Belarus

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Procesy etniczne, historyczne i wyborcze zachodzące na Ukrainie w kontekście budowy koncepcji „Noworosji”: weryfikacja poprawności, zasadności i aktualności Część II

Author: Tomasz Białobłocki
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Gospodarki Krajowej w Kutnie, Poland
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 57-70
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016204
PDF: npw/11/npw2016204.pdf

The purpose of this article is to verify the correctness, actuality and purposefulness of the ‘Novorossia’ concept in relation to Ukraine. The author presents ethnical, historical and electoral processes in Ukraine in the context of development of the idea and concept of Novorossia, he rebuts the concept of Novorossia as both ethnically and electorally inadequate to meet political realities in Ukraine.

electoral processes ethnical processes South-East Novorossia Russia Ukraine

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Zakonodatelstvo o vyborakh v Uzbekistane: novejjshie tendencii

Author: Аkmal H. Saidov
Institution: National Human Rights Centre of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 71-78
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016205
PDF: npw/11/npw2016205.pdf

The article presents the latest trends in the electoral legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan, which has passed successive evolutionary way of formation and development since independence. It is carried out a planned systematic work on improvement of electoral legislation in view of own national experience in conducting democratic elections and a referendum.

The adoption of new norms of electoral laws will contribute to the full implementation of the principle freedom of choice, the further democratization of the electoral system of Uzbekistan, strengthening the principles of openness and transparency of the elections.

voters election legislation The Republic of Uzbekistan election campaign referendum elections

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Przywództwo i polityka etnokratyczna w Tatarstanie Część II: Format przywództwa i style uprawiania polityki

Author: Piotr Zuzankiewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski, Poland
Author: Tadeusz Bodio
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski, Poland
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 79-98
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016206
PDF: npw/11/npw2016206.pdf

Authors in this article present the findings of the second stage of the research project on the leadership and the ethnopolitics in Tatarstan. From the chronological and problematic perspective they analyze the transformation of the model of leadership in the republic. Much attention has been paid to the relationship between the format of leadership of the following presidents and their styles of doing politics. On the basis of the analysis the authors come to the conclusion that ethnocratism, which in Tatatarstan has been an important source of the political leadership of the leader and the local elite, seems to lose its ability to adapt and create and generates more and more dysfunction and pathology. Moderate policy of ethnopolitisation and Islamisation promoted by the leader and ethnoelite, which can be perceived as a major justification for its power in relations with the federal center, is being challenged by many social groups. The evidence of this tendency is inter alia the increase of the inter-ethnic tensions and progressive Islamisation of political life in the republic.

politicization of Islam Islamization of politics separatism opposition, nationalism the axes of conflict relations with federal center ethnocratism as a tool of doing politics ideology of moderate ethnocratism scope of power Rustam Minnihanov Mintimer Shaimiev evolution of leadership rustication of ethnoelites

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Mechanizm rozwoju społeczeństwa obywatelskiego na Ukrainie – propozycja partycypacji budżetowej

Author: Mateusz Radziszewski
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki, Poland
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 99-117
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016207
PDF: npw/11/npw2016207.pdf

In my article I suggest two models of social participation which can positively influence on the process of building the civil society in Ukraine, especially in the area of local government. I want to consider two types of the participatory budgeting, first comes from Porto Allegre in Brazil and the second one from Lodz in Poland. The first model, 27 years old, is the example of representative democracy and is characterized by hierarchical structure. On the other hand, we have different model which is the representative of participatory democracy without any gradation. In this area of research I’m going to choice the best proposition which fit in the process of political transition on Ukraine.

social capital participation participating budget political culture civil society Ukraine

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Koncepcje rozwoju obwodu kaliningradzkiego w polityce regionalnej Federacji Rosyjskiej

Author: Jakub Potulski
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański, Poland
Year of publication: 2016
Pages: 118-144
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016208
PDF: npw/11/npw2016208.pdf

Kaliningrad is a unique Russian region due to its history and geopolitical location. During the Cold War era it was considered an important Soviet military outpost in the confrontation with the NATO. After collapse of the Soviet Union region found itself in a completely new situation as a Russian enclave in Europe. The new geopolitical situations led to numerous problems. After the Poland and Lithuania joining the UE a new set of problems looms ahead. The regional and central governments tried to found a development strategy for Kaliningrad enclave. Now Kaliningrad is open for international cooperation and has one of the most liberal economic and border regime in Russian Federation. Russian government establish on Kaliningrad region Special Economic Zone to attract foreign investment. However Kaliningrad is still a problem form both partners: Russian Federation and UE.

special economic zone Kaliningrad regional politics

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Таможенный союз и развитие миграционных процессов в Кыргызстане

Author: Nyrgylya K. Isakova
Institution: Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, Russia
Author: Kumen I. Isakov
Institution: Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, Russia
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 145-152
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016209
PDF: npw/11/npw2016209.pdf

The article discusses the impact of the Customs Union on the development of migration processes in Kyrgyzstan.

employment labour force labour migration unemployment Customs Union

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Ethnicity and ethnicities Part I

Author: Isaac Scarborough
Institution: University of London Senate House, Great Britain
Author: Olga Brusina
Institution: Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Author: Shokhrat Kadyrov
Institution: Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 153-170
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016210
PDF: npw/11/npw2016210.pdf

Scientific paradigm changes are frequently accompanied by the reconsideration of central terms and ideas. This article demonstrates how this process is currently underway in Russian anthropological studies [narodovedenie] as part of a broader move away from ethnography to theoretical ethnology. The article also shows lines of succession and divergence between various paradigms currently dominant in Russian anthropology, including primordialism and constructivism, and presents the author’s vision of a definition of “ethnicity”, instruments needed to study ethnicities, the nature of “ethnicity,” the underlying axioms on which ethnicities are conceptualized. An initial attempt has been made in the article to outline the central positions that would provide for a principally new ethnological paradigm by way of a new definition of the phenomenon of ethnicity.

constructivism primordialism anthropology definitions of ethnicity scientific paradigms

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Sprawa katyńska w podręcznikach polskich i rosyjskich na przełomie XX i XXI wieku

Author: Henryk Składanowski
Institution: Toruńska Wyższa Szkoła Przedsiębiorczości, Poland
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 171-187
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016211
PDF: npw/11/npw2016211.pdf

Katyn crime, also known as the Katyn massacre, was one of those historical facts that were kept secret for a very long time. From 1943 when it was revealed to 1990 the soviet Union denied their responsibility for the massacre. Eventually, publishing the original documents on the order of Borys Jecyn and handing tchem down to Poland on 14 October 1992 definitely confirmed the perpetrators of the crime. In the historic consciousness of both Polish and Russian societies there are still many questions and doubts about “the background of the picture” of Katyn crime. Therefore I found it very sensible to analyze the problem of Katyn crime in various history course books in Poland and Russia.

After the collapse of the communist political system both countries Poland and Russia introduced new history course books in all types of schools. The new course books not only mention the problem of Katyn crime but also say who was responsible for it. However, the Russians try to neutralize the crime by so called anti-Katyn, emphasizing the death of several thousands of Soviet soldiers imprisoned in Poland in the war of 1920 and after it.

Russian Fed The Republic of Poland Katyń massacre communism

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Politicheskie otzvuki vosstanija 1916 goda

Author: Akylbek Lenbaevich Saliev
Institution: Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, Kyrgyzstan
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 202-210
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw201614
PDF: npw/11/npw2016214.pdf

The article talks abuth the political echoes of the 1916 revolt in Kyrgyzstan and their influence on relations with Russia up to present times.

interstate relations Kyrgyzstan political echoes 1916 revolt Russia

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Prichiny tragicheskikh sobytijj 1916 goda na territorii Turkestanskogo kraja

Author: Elena Niyazovna Zakirova
Institution: Yugra State University, Russia
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 211-219
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016215
PDF: npw/11/npw2016215.pdf

This article reveals the main reasons, stages and consequences of the Central Asian peoples revolt against the Russian authorities during the World War I.

Central Asia Turkestan World War I revolt Kazakhstan

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A. Sydykov: geroicheskaja i tragicheskaja sudba perevodchika perioda vosstanija 1916 g.

Author: Vladimir Mikhailovich Ploskih
Institution: Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences, Poland
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 220-233
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016216
PDF: npw/11/npw2016216.pdf

The article reveals the importance of A. Sydykova, one of the founders of the Kyrgyz national statehood.

the Social Party Turan Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast Mountain Region national demarcation Alash Orda

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Vosstanie 1916 g. v Kyrgyzstane v chelovecheskom izmerenii

Author: Shayyrkul Dzholdoshevna Batyrbaeva
Institution: Kyrgyz National University of Zh. Balasagyn, Kyrgystan
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 234-242
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016217
PDF: npw/11/npw2016217.pdf

In article the author analyses the reasons of contradictory data in a Kyrgyzstan historiography on scales of demographic consequences of revolt of 1916. The author presents her original concept explaining the presented problem.

perspective calculation demographic losses human measurement revolt

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Przywództwo i polityka etnokratyczna w Tatarstanie (część I: Etnizacja regionalnego przywództwa politycznego)

Author: Piotr Zuzankiewicz
Author: Tadeusz Bodio
Year of publication: 2016
Pages: 11-28
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016101
PDF: npw/10/npw2016101.pdf

Authors in this article present the findings of the research project on the leadership and the ethnopolitics in Tatarstan. They are making an attempt to conceptualise the ethnocratic leadership, they characterise the existing model of leadership through the ethnopolitics and Russian regionalism. The research leads to the conclusion that as a result of the Tatarisation of the political regime an ethnocratic model of leadership has been formed in the republic. The model shows some hybrid characteristics and constitutes peculiar synthesis of ethno-politics, authoritarianism and clannishness with the elements of the facade democracy. This model of leadership is manifested in different forms and shapes depending on the specific environment, as well as political and situational contexts. Much attention was paid to the genesis and evolution of this model of leadership and its links with the republican elite which recruitment, circulation and legitimacy is strongly connected with the ethnicization of politics.

Tatarsisation of political regime political ethno-clans ethnoelites ethnocratic leadership ethnopower ethnocratism ethnopolitics Tatarstan the Russian Federation

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Nowe otwarcie w polityce Litwy wobec Białorusi? Relacje litewsko-białoruskie po 2006 r.

Author: Arkadiusz Czwołek
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 29-59
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016102
PDF: npw/10/npw2016102.pdf

In the first half of 1990s, Lithuanian–Belarusian relationships were characterised by their low intensity. This situation remained unchanged also when Alexander Lukashenko came to power in Belarus in 1994. Lithuania and Belarus followed a completely different course in their political, economic and military integration. The European and Atlantic course won in the Lithuanian politics, while in the Belarusian politics the Eastern direction prevailed. After presidential elections in 2001, bilateral relations in Belarus were frozen. Only in 2007 there was a convergence of Lithuanian and Belarusian interests, when increasing Russian influence started to pose a threat to their sovereignty. There was a new opening in Lithuanian policy towards Belarus. Political and economic cooperation tightened. An extent of Lithuanian investments in Belarus also increased. Belarus has played an increasingly important role in Lithuanian politics. Lithuania also acts as a mediator in a conflict between Belarus and EU. Both countries also criticised Russian involvement in the Ukrainian conflict. In the nearest future, further development of economic and political cooperation between these two countries should be expected.

energy political and economic cooperation Lithuania Belarus investments the European Union

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Procesy etniczne, historyczne i wyborcze zachodzące na Ukrainie w kontekście budowy koncepcji „Noworosji”: weryfikacja poprawności, zasadności i aktualności Część I

Author: Tomasz Białobłocki
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 60-81
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016103
PDF: npw/10/npw2016103.pdf

The purpose of this article is to verify the correctness, actuality and purposefulness of the ‘Novorossia’ concept in relation to Ukraine. The author presents ethnical, historical and electoral processes in Ukraine in the context of development of the idea and concept of Novorossia, he rebuts the concept of Novorossia as both ethnically and electorally inadequate to meet political realities in Ukraine.

electoral processes ethnical processes South-East Novorossia Russia Ukraine

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Trudne początki współpracy wyszehradzkiej w dobie transformacji systemowej

Author: Paulina Błażejewska
Year of publication: 2016
Pages: 82-94
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016104
PDF: npw/10/npw2016104.pdf

Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary established a closer relationship in the late eighties and early nineties of the twentieth century as a result of the fight against the communist system. In these difficult times interconnection helped to develop common goals to achieve. A similar level of development and the geopolitical situation in the three countries activated the society to act. Accession to the European Communities and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was the main priority in those years. However, accession criteria were quite a challenge and only joint actions in this direction enable the challenges posed by the Member States of these organizations. This article presents the beginnings of cooperation Polish, Czechoslovakia and Hungary formed mainly within the Visegrad Triangle, included the difficulties that were to be overcome. It shows all steps in the development of regional relations and the way to democracy and a market economy. The complexity and spontaneity of this process is an important example of informal, and effective cooperation between countries, which has been going for over two decades.

Visegrad Triangle Regional Cooperation Central Europe

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Stereotypy narodowe jako narzędzie pomocne w kreowaniu wizerunku marki państwa? Badanie odbioru kampanii „Poland. Come and complain”

Author: Agnieszka Zakościelna
Year of publication: 2016
Pages: 95-111
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016105
PDF: npw/10/npw2016105.pdf

Effective process of creating the national brand should be related to the current image of the country, perceived by international public opinion – also through the prism of stereotypes existing in society. Wondering if the there is a possibility to make use of existing beliefs as a method to create brand of the country, the survey among viewes of “Poland. Come and Complain” advertisement was conducted. The study presented in this article, attempt to answer the question about the possible risks and benefits which may result from using stereotypes in the branding process. The outcome of research conducted among a group of international students indicate differences both in their opinions about Poland and Polish people and campaign reception, allow to draw a conclusions. These however may be useful in the process of national branding creation, especially for Eastern European countries which still face the problem of negative image.

national stereotypes polish national brand national image national brand

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Polska a Republika Korei: ogniwa współpracy

Author: Marian Tadeusz Mencel
Year of publication: 2016
Pages: 112-138
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016106
PDF: npw/10/npw2016106.pdf

Relations of Poland with the Korean Peninsula countries are determined by liberal paradigm set on the development of economic cooperation, especially in the areas of relations with the Republic of Korea, strengthened by the development of cultural relations. South Korea is an important partner of Poland and the development of bilateral cooperation should mainly be concentrated in the areas of modern technologies, environment protection and power industry. Polish foreign policy is oriented on winning direct foreign investments, access to up-todate technologies and winning trade areas for Polish products, mainly from agricultural sector.

cultural cooperation direct foreign investments political contacts Republic of Korea economic cooperation trade

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Poszerzanie pola bezpieczeństwa energetycznego w ramach Grupy Wyszehradzkiej

Author: Norbert Obara
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 139-152
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016107
PDF: npw/10/npw2016107.pdf

The Visegrad Group (V4) is an informal, regional form of cooperation: Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. The article is about making intensify cooperation in the field of building energetic safety between four countries and a mechanism of cooperation with third countries in the “V4+” format, building energetic networking with countries outside Group, for example Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria. There were several political declaration about building market coupling to strength energetic safety. The documents sets out the conditions of cooperation in the fields of energetic safety and the reinforcement of energy security in the region. The main problem in the group is Russia. Hungary is seen as having taken a ‘special path’ with relation with Russia. The deal Hungary-Russia about blocks of Paks nuclear power covers constructing the new blocks and fuel supplies for increase Hungary’s energy independence. It could be against main aim of UE energetic policy to making one UE energetic policy, in the V4 group also. The perspective for V4 are not very optimistic because of different geopolitical interest of members Group in spite of political declaration for strengthening Energy cooperation.

interconnector marketing coupling energetic cooperation The Visegrad Group (V4) Russia cooperation

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Problem katyński w podręcznikach polskich i sowieckich w XX wieku

Author: Henryk Składanowski
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 153-171
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016108
PDF: npw/10/npw2016108.pdf

Katyn crime, also known as the Katyn massacre, committed on the orders of the authority of the Soviet country, then treated as classified information, finally totally denied, was one of those historical facts that were kept secret for a very long time. From 1943 when it was revealed to 1990 the soviet Union denied their responsibility for the massacre. It changed on 13 April 1990 when the government agency TASS released the official statement confirming the soviet commission of the crime. Therefore I found it very sensible to analyze the problem of Katyn crime in various history course books in Poland and Russia, formerly The Soviet Union.

In the communist times in Poland the authors of history course books generally omitted the problem although surprisingly it appeared in so called Stalin times and in the eighties when Poland was governed by general Wojciech Jaruzelski.

It looked similar in the Soviet Union. The situation changed at the end of Michail Gorbaczow pierestojka and glasnost period when the students of the 11th grade were informed in their history course books about the death of Polish officers in Katyn in 1940.

The Soviet Union The People’s Republic of Poland Katyń massacre communism

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Sino-Poland cooperation on publishing fosters the flower of friendship

Author: Tian Yuan
Institution: China Renmin University Press, China
Author: Gao Ya
Institution: China Renmin University Press, China
Author: Liu Yehua
Institution: China Renmin University Press, China
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 262-265
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016222
PDF: npw/11/npw2016222.pdf

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