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Vol. 2(5)

Otdelnye aspekty ehkonomiki katastrof

Institution: N. EHrnesova
Author: N.S. Attokurova
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 15-26
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2013201
PDF: npw/05/npw2013201.pdf

The work discloses the main results of the study of the effect of earthquakes on the economic safety of the Kyrgyz Republic, in particular, the increase in unemployment, the growth of governmental expenses. The article also presents the technique of calculating the cost of human life in order to assess the actual loss due to the under-produced GDP.


Proces integracji Ukrainy z Unią Europejską

Author: Wojciech Stankiewicz
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 27-53
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2013202
PDF: npw/05/npw2013202.pdf

The article emphasizes that Ukraine is not completely ready for the accession to the European Union structures, which is caused by internal political and economic problems. The accession is being hindered by a kind of dilemma between West and East, where Russia, considering Ukraine to be its exclusive area of influence, has a serious impact. Pro- European Ukrainian policy reflects its aspirations to become economically independent from Russia and integrate with European countries. On the other hand the European Union’s policy towards Ukraine is not a uniform conception; it is based on interactions directed for gradual reinforcement of cooperation. In Ukraine expressing a tendency to soft authoritarianism, which might be observed in the government’s activity, especially president’s Yanukovych could turn out to be the greatest threat. Ukraine’s ministrations are a kind of border that wishes to keep a similar distance between the European Union and Russia. Democratic standards are one of the most important premises of the evaluation of government’s pro- European attitude.

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Czy Azji grozi kolejna wojna, tym razem w basenie Morza Kaspijskiego?

Author: Maciej Franz
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 54-70
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2013203
PDF: npw/05/npw2013203.pdf

The Caspian Sea has been perceived as one of the most important regions of the world for a very long time, mainly thanks to huge oil deposits and the accompanying petroleum gas. States situated at the waters shared zones of influence and the situation has been stable for many years. The collapse of the Soviet Union lead to rapid changes in this region. As a result of new countries coming into existence, there appeared a need for one more demarcation of zones of sea influence. Unfortunately, such a treaty has not been signed yet and the situation in the region is getting more and more severe. Azerbaijan as well as Turkmenistan wants to build pipelines towards Western Europe while Russia at any price wants to prevent it. There is also an intense situation concerning Georgia and the really hard Iranian problem – American relations. Maybe the region of the Caspian Sea is not the Persian Gulf but a threat of a war there is really possible as well as the so called „Georgian scenario”.

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Indie jako kierunek zagranicznej polityki kulturalnej Francji

Author: Karolina J. Helnarska
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 71-90
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2013204
PDF: npw/05/npw2013204.pdf

India is currently in third place in terms of the number of activities in the area of university cooperation (total in 2013 was 36 projects carried out), 24 French universities declared their cooperation with India. Signed agreements between universities which relate primarily to education, student exchange and research. Training in the field of humanities, management, political science. It should be noted, however, that university cooperation between France and India is not part of the steps taken in the area signed by the partnership.

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Problems of the Development of the Environmental Policy and Law in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Author: A. D. Izbasarova
Author: I. K. Kuderin
Author: D. L. Baideldinov
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 91-100
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2013205
PDF: npw/05/npw2013205.pdf

В статье представлены вопросы развития экологической политики Республики Казахстан с момента обретения независимости в декабре 1991 года по настоящее время. Далее в тексте описываются изменения в политике по охране окружающей среды и рациональному использованию природных ресурсов. Мы представили три основных периода изменения в экологической политике страны. Первый, охватывающий 1991–1997 годы, характеризуется процессом строительства независимости и развития законодательства на принципах государственного суверенитета. Второй, охватывающий 1997–2006 годы, этап развития природоохранного законодательства Республики Казахстан характеризуется включением правового регулирования общественных отношений рыночных механизмов, основанных на учреждению частной собственности. Заключительный этап, с 2006 по настоящее время, начинается с системы управления экологического права в совокупном законе: Экологический кодекс Республики Казахстан.

Wyspy Aleuckie i Komandorskie w kontekście rywalizacji wielkich mocarstw o hegemonię na Północnym Pacyfiku

Author: Przemysław J. Sieradzan
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 101-113
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2013206
PDF: npw/05/npw2013206.pdf

The subject of this article is the history of the discovery and colonization of the Aleutian and Commander Islands, the situation of the indigenous peoples and the geostrategic position of the archipelago. This region, although it is of minor importance for global security, is an important element in the history and politics of both the United States and Russia. The author describes the discovery and colonization of the region by Vitus Bering and follow activities of the Russian-American Company of Commerce. Further he discusses the related oppression and exploitation of the local population, forced into slave labour for the trade posts. The author then describes the sale of Alaska and the adjoining Aleutian Islands, and the times of the Cold War, when the archipelago was used as a place of military provocation with the use of strategic weapons of mass destruction. The last discussed historical event is the signing of the Baker-Shevardnadze agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union, which marked the border between the two countries on the Bering Sea. Up until today the agreement has not been signed by the Russian side.

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Wybrane aspekty działalności polskiej delegacji w Komisji Nadzorczej Państw Neutralnych w Korei w latach 1953–1989

Author: Przemysław Benken
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 114-129
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2013207
PDF: npw/05/npw2013207.pdf

The aim of this article is to present several certain issues concerning the activityof the Polish Mission serving in the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission in Korea. This Mission has been in existence since 1953, however the author chose to describe its activity only until 1989. Several important problems, connected mostly with Poles’ living conditions, relations with their North Korean hosts and undertaken counterintelligence measures, has been pointed out in this text. While working on the article, the author exploited archives of the Institute of National Remembrance that have not been widely used by other scholars until this day. It seems however that those documents present considerable value and enable us to perform better research on various aspects of the Polish Mission’s activity. Despite the existence of several works devoted to Pole’s service in NNSC, this subject has not been fully completed. This article, as a matter of fact, is also nothing more than pointing at several potential possibilities of undertaking further research.

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„South Stream” i „North Stream” jako narzędzia realizacji rosyjskiej polityki zagranicznej

Author: Robert Kłaczyński
Year of publication: 2013
Pages: 130-142
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2013208
PDF: npw/05/npw2013208.pdf

The paper describes the most important issues related to Russia`s energy empire project. Building of South Stream and North Stream are key issues for the success of the Russian project that envisages a gas resources as a tool of shaping political and economical reality in Europe. If successful, Russian monopoly for gas supplies would be strengthen, relations between key EU players would be closer and Russia`s position in Europe, so important for the international relations, would be finally stabilized. However it`s hard to predict if demand for Russian gas in Europe would be permanent. Competitive prices for LNG resources and possible shelf gas import from the USA are the symptoms of the possible problems that could be a threat for the Russian vision in which international relations are shaped by the energetic resources.

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Zabiegi Trzeciej Rzeczypospolitej o restytucję polskiego dziedzictwa kultury z Federacji Rosyjskiej (1992–2012). Część II: Lata sukcesów i porażek (1996–2012)

Author: Dariusz Matelski
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 143-171
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2013209
PDF: npw/05/npw2013209.pdf

The election of Aleksander Kwaśniewski for president of Poland in December 1995 vastly improved Poland-Russia relations. In 1996 Moscow set up an exhibition of documents relating to the years 1939-1941, including the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. During the ten years, four volumes of Katyn. Documents of crime. were completed. Further claim negotiations with Russia were interrupted by a bill passed on 5th February 1997 by the State Duma (the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia) concerning law of possession of cultural goods, transferred into the Soviet Union as a result of the Second World War, staying on Russian Federation territory. It recognized all works of art and archives seized by the Red Army as the property of Russia. The lack of access to Russian archives because of limitations introduced by the Russian president’s decree of 2nd June 2001, about state security. In 1997 the Polish side managed to negotiate the return of the Wilanów collection an 18th century painting by Pompeo Batoni, showing Apollo and two Muses, from Pavlovsk palace, located near Saint Petersburg. Poland, as a part of the Council of Europe programme Reconstruction of the Memory of Poland, gathers information about sources concerning Poland and Polish people during the years 1772–1945, as well as works on methodology of research and on completing in formation about sources scattered around the world, in different countries. Furthermore, Poland within the programme schedule, supported financially Russian activists working on digitalisation and computerisation of the Comintern Archive. Russian President Vladimir Putin during his visit to Poland in January 2002 passed to President Aleksander Kwaśniewski’s hands copies of more than a dozen private documents of Władysław Sikorski. The Polish Ministry of Culture identified ten works of art taken away from Poland to the Soviet Union in 1945, by the trophy brigades, including church goods that complied with the Duma’s conditions from 2004, such as Głogów Madonna by Lukas Cranach The Elder (from the collegiate church in Głogów) and the 15th century Forest Landscape by Jan Brueghel the Elder (from the City Museum in Gdańsk). The presidency of Lech Kaczyński during the years 2005–2010 cooled Polish- Russian relations. Russiaphobia reached the level of an official policy of the Polish state. From that moment on, Polish claims towards Russia were seen in Moscow as proof of anti-Russia views, not as a natural right to regain lost property, private or public. Not until the president’s plane crash on 10th April 2010, in which 96 people died, did Polish-Russian relations become a little warmer. Russian TV even broadcast Andrew Wajda’s film Katyn, giving Russian society a chance to find out about one of Stalin’s crimes. On 28th April 2010 the President of the Russian Federation Dmitrij Miedwiediew informed, that some unknown to historians up until then documents about Katyn were found. A part of them were published on the Federal Archive Service of Russia’s website (about 400 thousand pages). In 2010 the Madonna with child painting by Lukas Cranach The Elder was recovered from Russia. In 2012 the Republic of Poland took action in order to recover other cultural goods, including a) Juliusz Słowacki’s manuscript, the Journal of travel to the East, b) almost ten thousand items from the Malbork Numismatics Collection, c) two altar wings from the Silesian Museum of Artistic Craft and Ancient Times in Wrocław, d) miniatures by Hans Holbein the Younger, portraying Gdańsk merchant, Johann Schwarzwaldt, e) a silver whistle of Gdańsk skippers from the 15th century, f) hand-written inventory of new purchases of the Jacob Kabrun’s collection from the City Museum of Gdańsk, g) an unknown painter’s work: Madonna with the Infant and a parrot against a landscape background. Polish diplomatic note however, remained without any response...

Łemkowie i Karaimi – charakterystyka i inicjatywy wspierające mniejszości etniczne w Polsce

Author: Monika Bielińska
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 172-188
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2013210
PDF: npw/05/npw2013210.pdf

The history of the Lemko and Karaim minority in the territory of Poland oscillates mainly around the struggle to preserve the ancient customs, tradition, and culture, while aiming at coexistence in contemporary society. The statutes of the associations and foundations established over the years imply diligent care about history, thus enabling the neighbouring society to become acquainted with the distinctness of these minorities. Various actions provide equal opportunities in education and also contribute to the appeasement of the stereotypes and prejudice accumulated throughout the years.

Loyalitätsprobleme von Protestanten in den Ostgebieten Polens

Author: Elżbieta Alabrudzińska
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 189-209
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2013211
PDF: npw/05/npw2013211.pdf

The Protestants in the Eastern Borderlands were a part of a diverse environment regarding religion – there were Orthodox Christians in Volhynian, Polesie and Nowogródek Voivodeships, Greek Catholics in Lviv, Stanisławów and Tarnopol Voivodeships, as well as Roman Catholics in Vilnius and Białystok Voivodeships. Members of the Evangelical Church were also strangers there when it comes to their nationality, since the society consisted mainly of Poles, Ukrainians, Jews and Belarusians. The role of churches was much more extensive than in other regions of the Second Polish Republic. In Volhynia it was particularly difficult to separate certain branches of the Church’s activity. With the absence of social, cultural, national or political organisations, the Church took over all their duties. The clergymen were the unquestionable leaders of the German community and the Church took up the task of organising the Germans nation-wide. Evangelical churches in the Eastern Borderlands were basically not politically active and they also showed a loyal attitude towards the Polish state. The fact that on the threshold of the Second Polish Republic they broke the reliance on foreign centres was very significant – this was not done for example by the Evangelical United Church in Greater Poland or Pomerania. Evangelical churches from the territories annexed by Russia and Austria had a positive attitude towards the issue of Polish nationality, which derived from the fact, that those churches were never privileged, as opposed to the Evangelical United Church. German Protestants were always living there, far beyond the reach of German authorities, apart from the German occupation period during the First World War. That is why they considered their status of a national and religious minority as completely natural. German Protestants lived there in harmony with fellow believers of other nationalities: Polish, Czech, Jewish and Ukrainian. This mosaic of nationalities distinguished churches in that region from those located in Western or Central Poland. This peaceful coexistence was interrupted only by single Polish-German incidents. They were mainly caused by the state authorities’ activities, who wanted to grant Polish Protestants greater control over churches. This happened for instance in Białystok and Lviv.

Współczesne Niemcy wobec państw Europy Wschodniej

Author: Krzysztof Garczewski
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 210-226
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2013212
PDF: npw/05/npw2013212.pdf

There are main problems of contemporary German foreign policy towards Eastern European countries presented in this article. Crucial issues such as relations with Russia, also from the Partnership for Modernisation’s point of view, are analyzed herein. German-Polish relations in the view of Eastern Policy are described as well as triangular cooperation between Berlin, Warsaw and Moscow. There is also Germany’s attitude towards the Eastern Partnership and Germany’s standpoint on conflicts in Transnistria or the Russia–Georgia War of 2008 analyzed in this paper.

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