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Vol. 4(15)

Współpraca Unii Europejskiej z Kazachstanem w zakresie dobrego rządzenia, demokracji, praw człowieka i wsparcia reform instytucjonalnych

Author: Krystyna Gomółka
Institution: Politechnika Gdańska, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 15-29
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017401
PDF: npw/15/npw2017401.pdf

The European Union supported Kazakhstan in carrying out political, economic and social reform twice. For the first time EU did so within the framework of the TACIS program in the years 1991–2006 when Kazakhstan has received $ 166 million mainly for the restructuring of state-owned enterprises, agriculture, infrastructure, energy, telecommunications, transport, environmental protection, administrative reform and health care and education. Again, the European Union has granted funds to Kazakhstan in the framework of the Strategy for Central Asia in 2007–2013. The main burden of support has been designed to prepare for institutional reforms for good governance and human rights protection. There were implemented 17 projects within four sectors: legal services and the judiciary; human rights, economic policy and development, strengthening civil society. In assessing the changes in some regions of the country reported good practices in the field of dialogue between local authorities and non-governmental organizations, increase the efficiency of public services and the transparency of budgetary expenditure. It was emphasized, however, that the authorities of Kazakhstan do not show understanding for the concept of good governance and democratization processes.

projects Kazakhstan democracy human rights the European Union governance

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Borders of the Central Asian countries under the international law

Author: Michał Pietkiewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 30-42
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017402
PDF: npw/15/npw2017402.pdf

In the article the international legal status of the territory, and the territory of the state was ascertained, and the features of the legal status of a state border were identified. The main problem of the thesis is to show the causes of conflicts in determining the borders of the Central Asian states from the perspective of Russian scholars. The main issues of regulating international relations in the sphere of the delimitation of state borders under the international law in Central Asia are outlined.

state territory international legal status state border Central Asia delimitation demarcation

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„Tulipanowa rewolucja” w Kirgistanie – wybrane aspekty

Author: Agnieszka Miarka
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 43-60
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017403
PDF: npw/15/npw2017403.pdf

The purpose of this article is to characterize the Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan (2005). The author presents the causes of the revolution, among other things: the importance of the tribal structure of Kyrgyzstan, nepotism and corruption during the presidency of Askar Akayev. The article presents the course of developments Tulip Revolution. Finally, the author focuses on the presentation of the most important implications of this revolution, such as the a revolution in 2010 and the resignation of President Kurmanbek Bakiyev.

Askar Akayev tribes Tulip Revolution Kyrgyzstan elections

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Rosyjski system penitencjarny w ujęciu wybranych polskich i rosyjskich opracowań

Author: Kazimierz Pierzchała
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Przedsiębiorczości w Warszawie, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 60-76
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017404
PDF: npw/15/npw2017404.pdf

The object of the article are aspects of penitentiary system of Russian Federation based on two pints of view: Polish and Russian. The aim is to highlight the essence, the content and range but also conditioning and tendencies for changes in the context of international ambitions and role of Russia but also widely knowing term like security of nation I case of penitentiary system of such country. Popularised and worked out in 2006 by European Prison Rules (Recommendations Rec (2006)2) the idea of normalisation, meaning minimalization some effects of imprisonment, will have a long way to find appropriate using in Russian penitentiary practice, which is directed mostly on giving a penalty for somebody. It is such seen both by the society and the government. The most accurate opinion is management policy of Federal Prison Service became as it were the model of country in which monopoly to rule belong to weight structures. In all, there is no humanisation of current justice, because the cult of prison is constantly observed and judicial reform transpired strongly illusory. The lack of control for penitentiary system by the social organisation is the effect of many omissions. In the source literature is appeared many opinions that in Russia the prison culture permeated to the every spheres of life.

Russia penitentiary system prisoners prisoner work camp camp

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Surowce energetyczne postradzieckiej Azji Centralnej: zasoby, produkcja, polityka energetyczna

Author: Robert Kłaczyński
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 77-95
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017405
PDF: npw/15/npw2017405.pdf

A paper entitled Energy resources of post-soviet Central Asia: reserves, production, energy policy covers topics that refer to production and transport of the petrol and natural gas through the so called “Asian five” states. Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan are over-regional leaders in the production of petroleum and natural gas. New natural resources reserves has been also discovered in Tajikistan and Kirgizstan. The post-soviet states of Central Asia are making an effort to raise their shares in the global petrol market however their abilities are limited by the Russian Federation`s position in the global market, corruption and nepotism. Only the overcoming of this negative tendencies might lead to positive change of the perception, as the region countries will be perceived as a key players in the petroleum and natural gas export.

Gas petroleum transfer Central Asia energy policies the Russian Federation

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Velikijj Shelkovyjj put i tengrianstvo v strategijakh kulturnojj politiki sovremennogo Kazakhstana

Author: Zhanerke N. Shaygozova
Institution: Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University, Republic of Kazakhstan
Author: Madina E. Sultanova
Institution: Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University, Republic of Kazakhstan
Author: Aktolkyn Kulsariyeva
Institution: Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University, Republic of Kazakhstan
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 96-112
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017406
PDF: npw/15/npw2017406.pdf

In the paper, the chosen aspects of Kazakhstan’s contemporary cultural policy were examined, i.e., the new shape of the Silk Road, and the concept of Tengriism. Tengriism, being and open ideological and world-view shaping system, had an enormous influence on forming, developing and functioning of the unique and fundamental principles of peace and concord, which were recognized by the people of Kazakhstan as their political, economic, and cultural guidance. The nature of Tengriism, perceived in Central Asia, and in Kazakhstan in particular, not as a religion, but as an idiosyncratic worldview, was solidified due to tolerance principles, on which the Great Silk Road, among others factors, had a great influence throughout the years. Nowadays, the current contexts of Tengriism and the Silk Road have become essential components for the process of ethnic and cultural memory regeneration in modern Kazakhstan, thus fostering the national identity consolidation. The presented research focuses on three basic aspects: the specificity of cultural and historic landscape of the Great Steppe, conditioned by the historic presence and influence of the Silk Road; the various traces of Tengriism in modern Kazakhstan; and the potential of both Tengriism and the Silk Road evidenced in the present-day cultural policy of Kazakhstan.

the Great Silk Road Tengriism Kazakhstan identity

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Azja Centralna – szanse i bariery współpracy gospodarczej

Author: Tomasz Waśkiel
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 112-127
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017407
PDF: npw/15/npw2017407.pdf

3Central Asian countries in trade structure with Poland are not a priority partners, also the involvement of Polish companies in this region is relatively small. While it is a region with high potential for cooperation, for example due to the considerable energy resources. Poland’s most important economic partner in this region is Kazakhstan, but even in this case it seems that the potential for cooperation is much greater than its current level. There are still many barriers that make it difficult to establish wider economic cooperation with all countries in the region. The aim of this article is to present the most important of them, obviously they have different character and intensity in each country of the region. They occur in international trade conditions, as well as in business environment. The custom policies of some Central Asian states are very unfavorable to the improvement of level of trade. Market access is often hampered by the creation of a number of restrictive formal conditions. Problems of the Central Asian economies, such as infrastructure challenges, high levels of debt and high rates of corruption should also be recognized as obstacles. However, despite many barriers, there are some chances and opportunities for the development of mutual economic cooperation, which are worth mentioning.

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Wpływ zmian w procedurze dostępu do polskiego rynku pracy na współpracę gospodarczą z Ukrainą

Author: Mariusz Tywoniuk
Institution: Kancelaria Prawna Tywoniuk & Partners, Poland
Author: Nina Skórska-Książek
Institution: Kancelaria Prawna Tywoniuk & Partners, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 127-141
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017408
PDF: npw/15/npw2017408.pdf

The conflict in Ukraine continues unabated since April 2014. At that time armed separatist attacks began (also supported by the Russian army and special forces), which strive to break the Donetsk and Lugansk districts from Ukrainian territory. This was a direct consequence of March’s Pro-Russian speeches and so-called – Crimean crisis which took place after the Euromaidan Revolution. Poland remains an undisputed ally of Ukraine, representing its interests in the European forum. This attitude positively influences the migration of Ukrainians into Poland, where they are looking for employment. The authors, aware of the above-mentioned circumstances, try to take up a rather complex subject of the impact of changes in the procedure of accessing the Polish labor market to restrictions on trade with Ukraine. They refer to a number of documents, with a view to better and more complete coverage of the topic. At the beginning the current state of affairs will be characterized and its influence on the current situation in the above field. On this basis changes are discussed and characterized and in conclusion the expected effects are indicated. The authors address a number of problems and answers appearing in the public debate more and more often like the demand for cheap labor from Ukraine, which can be a chance, but also a challenge for the Polish labor market.

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Stosunki handlowe i inwestycyjne Polski z Armenią po 2004 roku

Author: Izabela Borucińska-Dereszkiewiecz
Institution: Politechnika Gdańska, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 142-166
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017409
PDF: npw/15/npw2017409.pdf

The paper explores the development of trade and investment relations between Poland and Armenia in conditions of EU membership and in the first year of Armenia presence within the Eurasian Economic Union. The aim of the study is to determine the changes in the size and structure of trade and foreign investment both partners, as well as the identification of key factors influencing the evolution of the Polish-Armenian cooperation in this regard. Armenia both economically and politically is the relatively minor significant Poland’s partner. In the analyzed period, one can observe an increase in bilateral trade, but the growth of value and dynamics of Polish exports was more stable than imports. Small foreign investment, both Polish in Armenia and Armenian in Poland, is the area with untapped potential of bilateral cooperation. Poland’s membership in the EU was one of the factors that positively influenced on the intensification of bilateral trade and investment relations. In turn, Armenia’s entry to Eurasian Economic Union leads to the prediction that it will be a determinant which would have negative impact on Polish-Armenian cooperation in the long-term. There are a serious risk that the new agreement between the EU and Armenia will not be able to significantly reduce the impact of that factor.

Poland Armenia trade European Union the Eurasian Economic Union

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Modernizacja czy kolonizacja? Recepcja okresu radzieckiego w polityce historycznej Kazachstanu i Uzbekistanu

Author: Michał Kuryłowicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 167-189
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017410
PDF: npw/15/npw2017410.pdf

The article describes the politics of memory of the Soviet Union in post-soviet Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan (1991–2016). The analysis is based on the following documents: Presidents N. Nazarbaev and I. Karimov statements, their publications, the politics of commemoration and historical education in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan after 1991. Author tries to compare two national historical narrations over the Soviet regime and argues that Uzbeks and Kazakhs were used two different approach of criticism of soviet colonialism, related to their foreign policy towards Russia

postcommunism The Soviet Union colonialism The Republic of Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Russia politics of memory

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Wymuszone małżeństwo w wyniku porwania w krajach Azji Centralnej

Author: Kacper Mirosław Milkowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 190-204
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017411
PDF: npw/15/npw2017411.pdf

It would seem that the twenty-first century is a time in which the marriage is concluded only with love, and the woman herself can decide whom she will marry. Author of the paper presents the phenomenon which is the abduction of women for marriage. History proves that kidnapping wives have been practiced all over the world. Today, this tradition has survived primarily in Central Asia. The phenomenon of forced marriages by abduction occurs in Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Bride kidnapping is a violation of basic human rights. This state of Central Asia are signatories to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, which forbid this type of acts It should combat all manifestations of this kind of phenomena in the world. The publication shall define the phenomenon. Central Asian states bound by many treaties, but has not led to the introduction of effective legislation. In the publication the author shall identify the factors that influence the perpetrator. Presented are also criminal law in these countries. It is worth noting that as a result of the occurrence of this kind of inhumane phenomenon occurs very frequently that the injured person is a child.

bride kidnapping forced marriage kidnapping marriage Central Asia Kyrgyzstan

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Polityka eksterminacji obywateli Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej przez Trzecią Rzeszę i Związek Sowiecki w latach 1939–1945 Część II: Polityka Związku Sowieckiego

Author: Dariusz Matelski
Institution: Instytut Wschodni Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 205-226
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017412
PDF: npw/15/npw2017412.pdf

One of the basic instruments in the implementation of an anti-Polish nation policy was an unprecedented on such a scale forced displacement of population. In the case of Moscow, it was a reference to the tsarist policy of mixing the peoples of the empire. It has been systematically implemented since the days of Tsar Ivan the Terrible (1530–1584), and under Joseph Stalin’s rule, it has grown into the official ethnicity policy of the Soviet state. The extermination policy of the Soviet Union was aimed at full unification of the looted territories with the rest of the Soviet empire. It was realized through physical liquidation of Polish intelligentsia, officials of Polish state administration, police and army. Already on September 18th, right after the invasion of Poland, several thousand Poles were shot by Soviet soldiers and military police; without a trial. Forced deportations, public executions, mass murders and concentration camps are a common feature of both murderous systems: Nazism and Stalinism. Except for the gas chambers, all methods of destroying humans were already earlier applied in the East (since November 1917), and later in Nazi Germany (since January 1933). The only difference was that from June 22, 1941, Stalin was counting on emergence of a territorially unspecified Polish state, which Hitler had never planned. Poland as the only member of the Allied side in World War II was shifted territorial (and reduced by 100 thousand sq. Km compared to August 31, 1939) and forced to exchange population, and became a satellite of the Soviet Union for 45-year – all at the request of Moscow.

extermination Soviet occupation Belarusians Ukrainians Poles the Jews genocide

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