• facebook

“The Gateway to Europe”. The Discourse on Poland in the Chinese Press (2015-2020)

Author: Cao Yang
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6365-7817
Author: Paweł Płaneta
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9757-9570
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 98-132
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20213005
PDF: npw/30/npw3005.pdf

“The Gateway to Europe”. The Discourse on Poland in the Chinese Press (2015–2020)

The aim of the article is to present the results of the survey on the structure of the discourse on Poland present in the content of various Chinese newspapers and magazines. In the first part, we provide an overview of the history, characteristic and development trends of the Chinese newspaper market. In order to construct the collection of messages about Poland and Poles, a query was carried out in 172 journalistic materials published in 2015-2020. The first step of analysis performed in this research was the lexical analysis of the Chinese print media gathered in the text corpus of app. 160 thous. words. Additionally, the authors of the article used text mining analytics software to extract the main concepts. The next phase of the survey was the computer assisted content analysis. For the research purposes 150 categories dictionaries were created. Those dictionaries consisted of the set of words gathered on the same semantic basis. The unit of the analysis in this phase of the research was a single paragraph (N=2465 units) and the results of this analysis were the hierarchy and key-ness of collective symbols, themes, actors and places present in the press discourse on Poland. In the last part of the research—as a result of factor analysis—the structure of the discourse on Poland in the Chinese press was reduced to 9 strongest factors determining which different (detailed) categories have the tendency to co-occur and that is why they create easily distinguishable configurations.

Ворота в Европу. Дискурс о Польше в китайской прессе (2015-2020)

Цель статьи - представить результаты исследования структуры дискурса о Польше, присутствующего в содержании различных китайских газет и журналов. В первой части сделан обзор истории, характеристик и тенденций развития китайского газетного рынка. Для подборки сообщений о Польше и поляках был проведен анализ 172 публицистических материалов, опубликованных в 2015-2020 годах. Первым шагом в данном исследовании стал лексический анализ китайских печатных СМИ, собранных в текстовом корпусе приложения, содержащего 200 000 слов. Кроме того, для анализа текстов авторы статьи использовали программное обеспечение для извлечения основных концепций. Следующим этапом исследования стал компьютерный контент-анализ. Для исследовательских целей создано 150 категорий словарей. Эти словари состояли из набора слов, собранных на одной семантической основе. Единицей анализа на этом этапе исследования был отдельный абзац (N = 2465 единиц), а результатом - иерархия и значимость коллективных символов, тем, актеров и мест, присутствующих в печатном дискурсе относительно Польши. В последней части исследования - при помощи факторного анализа - структура дискурса о Польше в китайской прессе была сведена к 9 сильнейшим факторам, определяющим, какие различные (детализированные) категории имеют тенденцию к совместному появлению и именно поэтому создают легко различимую конфигурацию.


  • Berelson, B. (1952). Content analysis in communication research. New York: Free Press.
  • Deng, T. (2018), Zouguo Fanrong Xingsheng Guaidianhou Zaixunlu -Zhongguo Baoye 40 Nian Huimou 走过繁荣兴盛拐点后再寻路——中国报业 40 年回眸 [China’s newspaper industry finds its way after a prosperous inflection point -A look back at 40 years of the Chinese newspaper industry], Culture Industry, 112(15), 1-6.
  • Góralczyk, B. (2017). Geostrategia Xi Jinpinga -Chiny ruszają w świat. Rocznik Strategiczny, 22.
  • Góralczyk, B. (2018). Wielki renesans. Chińska transformacje i jej konsekwencje. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Akademickie Dialog.
  • Guo, K. (2010). Newspaper: An Industry in Transition. In: J.F. Scotton, W.A. Hachten (eds.), New Media for a New China (41-57). Malaysia: Wiley -BlackWell.
  • Hu, S.Y. (2009). Zhongguo Baoye Fazhan De Xianzhuang Yu Qushi 中国报业发展的现状与趋势 [Current situation and trends in the development of China’s newspaper industry], News Outpost, 2, 14-18.
  • Kelly, E., Stone, P. (1975). Computer Recognition of English Word Senses. North-Holland Linguistic Series.
  • Krippendorf, K. (1980). Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology. Beverly Hills, CA.: Sage Publications.
  • Kupś, H., Szatkowski, M., Dahl, M. (red.). (2021). 70 lat Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej w ujęciu interdyscyplinarnym. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Akademickie Dialog.
  • Lula, P. (2005). Text mining jako narzędzie pozyskiwania danych z dokumentów tekstowych. Retrieved from: https://media.statsoft.pl/_old_dnn/downloads/text_mining_jako_narzedzie_pozyskiwania.pdf.
  • Lv, S.B. (2010). Zhongguo Baoye Zhuanxing Fazhan De Sida Zhanlue Zouxiang 中国报业转型发展的四大战略走向 [Four strategic directions for the transformation and development of China’s newspaper industry], China Newspaper Industry, 1, 19-24. DOI:10.13854/j.cnki.cni.2010.03.010.
  • Marszałek-Kawa, J. (ed.). (2014). Globalna potęga Chin. Czynniki i perspektywy. Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek.
  • Marszałek-Kawa, J., Dmochowski, T. (eds.). (2018). Rozważania o kierunkach współczesnej polityki Chin. Toruń, Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek.
  • McCombs, M., Shaw, D. (1972). The Agenda Setting Function of the Mass Media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36, 176-187.
  • Nan, C.S. (2011). Zhongguo Dalu Baozhi Zhuanxing -Lv Shangbin《Zhongguo Dalu Baozhi Zhuanxing》Pingzhi 中国大陆报纸转型—吕尚彬《中国大陆报纸转型》评骘 [Transformation of Newspapers in Mainland China -Review of “Transformation of Newspapers in Mainland China” by Shangbin Lu], Publishing Research, 1, 63-64.
  • Osgood, C.E., et al. (1975). Cross-Cultural Universals of Affective Meaning, Urbana.
  • Pisarek, W. (1983). Analiza zawartości prasy. OBP RSW „Prasa -Książka -Ruch”.
  • Pisarek, W. (2007). O mediach i języku. Kraków: Universitas.
  • Płaneta, P. (2018). Komputerowa analiza tekstu w dyskursach medialnych. In: A. Szymańska, M. Lisowska-Magdziarz, A. Hess (eds.), Metody badań medioznawczych i ich zastosowania (65-88). Kraków: Instytut Dziennikarstwa, Mediów i Komunikacji Społecznej.
  • Shoemaker, P., Reese, S. (1996). Mediating the Message: Theories of Influence on Mass Media Content. New York: White Plains, Longman.
  • State Press and Publication Administration. (2020, Sep.). 2019 Nian Quanguo Xinwen Chubanye Jiben Qingkuang 2019 年全国新闻出版业基本情况 [Basic information on the national press and publishing industry in 2019]. Retrieved from: http://www.nppa.gov.cn/nppa/upload/files/2020/11/a0fbd38dab39dd1f.pdf.
  • Stone, P.J., et al. (1966). The General Inquirer: A Computer Approach to Content Analysis. The MIT Press.
  • Yan, Z.H. (2014, May 10). Dangbao Toutiao Yaosu Yanjiu ——Yi Xinhua Ribao (1978-2003Nian) Weili 党报头版要素研究——以新华日报(1978-2003年)为例. Retrieved from: https://kreader.cnki.net/Kreader/CatalogViewPage.aspx?dbCode=cdmd&filename=1014418685.nh&tablename=CDFDLAST2015&compose=&first=1&uid=.
  • Selected press materialsChang, M.S. (2015, Aug. 4), Sidaxin Yu Nacui Ruhe “Hemou” Cuihui Bolan 斯大林与纳
  • 粹如何“合谋”摧毁波兰 [How Stalin and the Nazis „conspired” to destroy Poland], Pengpai. Retrieved from: https://cul.qq.com/a/20150804/018078.htm.
  • Che, B. (2016, Jun. 19), Zhexie Bolanren, Tamen De Caihua Shuyu Shejie 这些波兰人,他们的才华属于世界 [These Poles, whose talent belongs to the world], People’s Daily. Retrieved from: http://world.people.com.cn/n1/2016/0619/c1002-28456568.html.
  • Chen, Q.Y. (2018, Jan. 18), Bolan Yeyao Tuoou? Zhuanjia: Kenengxing Buda 波兰也要脱欧?专家:可能性不大 [ Poland also want to leave the European Union? Experts: it’s unlikely], People’s Daily. Retrieved from: https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?id=1589891300370243561&wfr=spider&for=pc.
  • Feng, R. (2019, Sept. 9), Bolan Weihe Yu Meiguo Yibuyiqu 波兰为何与美国亦步亦趋 [Why Poland is following in the footsteps of the US], Hunan Daily. Retrieved from: https://hnrb.voc.com.cn/hnrb_epaper/html/2019-09/09/content_1410766.htm.
  • Guo, C.L. (2019, Dec. 30), Jindai Bolan Huangtang De “Xuanwangzhi” Yu “Fou Juequan” 近代波兰荒唐的“选王制”与“否决权” [The absurd „king-election”and the „veto” in modern Poland], China Social Science News. Retrieved from: http://www.cass.cn/xueshuchengguo/xscg_lsyjy/201912/t20191230_5066569.shtml.
  • Han, M. (2015, May 27), Bolan Zongtong Xuanju Yuanhe Chu Heima 波兰总统选举缘何出黑马 [Why there’s dark horses in Poland’s presidential election?], Hainan Daily. Retrieved from: http://hnrb.hinews.cn/html/2015-05/27/content_11_7.htm.
  • Han, M. (2016, Dec. 16), Bolan Falvyugongzheng Dang: Shiyongzhuyi De Mincui Zhengdang 波兰法律与公正党:实用主义的民粹政党 [Poland’s Law and Justice Party: A Pragmatic Populist Party], Cankao Xiaoxi. Retrieved from: http://www.cankaoxiaoxi.com/world/20161216/1525463.shtml.
  • Han, S. (2021, Feb. 16), Zhongguo-Zhongdongou WenhuaJiaoliu Zoushen Zoushi 中国—中东欧文化交流走深走实 [Cultural exchange between China and CEE goes deeper with mutual appreciation], People’s Daily. Retrieved from: http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrb/html/2021-02/16/nw.D110000renmrb_20210216_1-03.htm.
  • He, F. (2020, Nov. 2), Qianxi Bolan “Huangjinshidai” De Xingshuai 浅析波兰“黄金时代”的兴衰 [An analysis of the rise and fall of the “Golden Age” in Poland], China Social Science News. Retrieved from: https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?id=1682234399687728081&wfr=spider&for=pc.
  • Hu, J.Y. (2020, Dec. 14), Bolan Xin Duotai Fagui Yin Kangyi 波兰新堕胎法规引抗议 [Poland’s new abortion law draws protests], Sina. Retrieved from: https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?id=1686044308554095878&wfr=spider&for=pc.
  • Ji, P.J. (2017, Dec. 27), Meiyici Huxi Doushi Wenxue De Qixi 每一次呼吸都是文学的气息 [Every breath is full of literature (foreign correspondent’s handbook)], People’s Daily. Retrieved from: http://www.cssn.cn/wh/wh_wtsy/201712/t20171227_3795641.shtml.
  • Ji, P.J. (2018, Jan. 9), Oumeng Tiyi Yancheng Bolan Zhongdongouguojia Baotuan Fandui 欧盟提议严惩波兰 中东欧国家抱团反对 [EU proposes tougher penalties for Poland, CEE countries unite against it], People’s Daily. Retrieved from: http://world.people.com.cn/n1/2018/0109/c1002-29752982.html.
  • Li, X.H. (2016, Feb. 19), Bolan “N Xiaozu” Xinong Nacui Gaishitaibao 波兰“N小组”戏弄纳粹盖世太保 [Poland’s „N-Team” teases Nazi Gestapo], Xinmin Evening News. Retrieved from: http://xmwb.xinmin.cn/html/2016-02/19/content_27_2.htm.
  • Li, X.Y. (2019, Nov. 6), Anjieyi Wayida: Shenfen Zhanzheng Yu Shuqing 安杰伊·瓦伊达:身份、战争与抒情 [Andrzej Wajda: Identity, War and Lyricism], Literature and Art News, Retrieved from: http://www.chinawriter.com.cn/n1/2019/1106/c419388-31440027.html.
  • Li, Z.W. (2016, Dec. 26), “Gaoshang Baoguo” Ji Wenqing “高尚包裹”寄温情 [A “noble parcel” of warmth], People’s Daily. Retrieved from: http://world.people.com.cn/n1/2016/1224/c1002-28973671.html.
  • Li, Z.W. (2017, Apr. 5), Yingguo Touou Chongji Bolan Laowu Shichang 英国“脱欧”冲击波兰劳务市场 [Brexit hits Polish labor market], People’s Daily. Retrieved from: http://www.xinhuanet.com/world/2017-04/05/c_129524698.htm.
  • Liang, X.J. (2015, Nov. 4), Bolan De Weilai Rengzai Ouzhou 波兰的未来仍在欧洲 [Poland’s future still lies in Europe], Arts & Culture News. Retrieved from: http://world.people.com.cn/n/2015/1104/c157278-27774774.html.
  • Mao, L. (2019, Dec. 16) You Bolan Wuda Jingxi Dengzhe Ni 游波兰,五大“惊喜”等着你 [Five “surprises” await you when you visit Poland], People’s Daily. Retrieved from: https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?id=1653025562167598243&wfr=spider&for=pc.
  • Qin, H.& Jin, Y. (2015. Aug. 15), Ruou Shinian: Bolanren Zenyang Kan Shijie 入欧十年:波兰人怎样看世界 [Ten years in Europe: How Poles see the world], Oriental Morning Post. Retrieved from: https://cul.qq.com/a/20150811/024058.htm.
  • Sun, X. (2017, Mar. 29), Ximei Wenzhang: Bolan Youyi Huibi Pohai Youtairen Lishi 西媒文章:波兰有意回避迫害犹太人历史 [Article in the Western media: Poland intends to avoid the history of persecution of Jews], Cankao Xiaoxi. Retrieved from: http://column.cankaoxiaoxi.com/2017/0329/1824713.shtml.
  • Tan, Z.P. (2016, Jan. 29), Bolan Nanzihan Guanche Fangeluxian “波兰男子汉”贯彻“防俄路线” [The “Polish man” follows the “anti-Russian line”?], Xinmin Evening Daily. Retrieved from: http://xmwb.xinmin.cn/lab/xmwb/html/2016-01/29/content_26_1.htm.
  • Tang, L.B. (2018, Feb. 8) Bolan Banbu “Datusha” Falv Yin Zhengyi 波兰颁布“大屠杀”法律引争议 [Poland’s controversial law on ‘Holocaust’], Cankao Xiaoxi. Retrieved from: http://www.cankaoxiaoxi.com/world/20180208/2255225.shtml.
  • Wang, B.K., &Wang, Z.Y. (2016, Jun. 20), Dazao Zhongbo Jingmao Huligongying “Shuangxiang Tongdao” 打造中波经贸互利共赢“双向通道” [Building a mutually beneficial „two-way channel” for China-Poland trade and economic cooperation], Economic Daily. Retrieved from: http://paper.ce.cn/jjrb/html/2016-06/20/content_303966.htm.
  • Wang, H.Z. (2020, Aug. 25), Mei Zengbing Bolan Yin Eluosi Jingti 美增兵波兰引俄罗斯警惕 [U.S. troop’s surge in Poland alerts Russia], China National Defense News. Retrieved from: https://mil.gmw.cn/2020-08/25/content_34116881.htm.
  • Wang, Z.Q. (2017, Feb. 8), Ai Haizi Ying Weilai 爱孩子 赢未来 [Love for children can win the future], People’s Daily. Retrieved from: https://www.sohu.com/a/125706350_114731.
  • Wei, J. (2019, Feb. 12), Jingwaimeiti: Bolan Nuli “Bajie” Meiguo Huo Ling Qi Zai Ouzhou Gengxian Guli 境外媒体:波兰努力“巴结”美国 或令其在欧洲更显孤立 [Foreign media: Poland’s efforts to „befriend” the United States may make it more isolated in Europe], Cankao Xiaoxi. Retrieved from: http://www.cankaoxiaoxi.com/world/20190212/2371378.shtml.
  • Wu, X.Y. (2020, Mar. 30), Bolan Yinyue Dashi Laopan Zoule 波兰音乐大师老潘走了 [Polish music master “Laopan” (Penderecki) has gone], Xinmin Evening News. Retrieved from: http://paper.xinmin.cn/html/xmwb/2020-03-30/11/63634.html.
  • Wu, Z.L. (2018, Sept. 10) ,,Hunhoubuxing” De Zhongdongou Guojia Weihe Ganga “婚后不幸”的中东欧国家为何尴尬 [Why the Central and Eastern European countries are unhappy after “marriage with EU”], Jiefang Daily. Retrieved from: http://www.cssn.cn/sjs/sjs_rdjj/201809/t20180910_4557083.shtml.
  • Xiong Y.Z. (2020, Jul. 31) Zuowei Jingjian Yu Yinyu De Bolan 作为镜鉴与隐喻的波兰 [Poland as a mirror and metaphor], China Social Science News. Retrieved from: https://xuewen.cnki.net/CCND-SHKX202007300080.html.
  • Xinmin Evening News. (2016, May 11), Bolan Ruzhipin Kanhao Zhongguoshichang Qianli 波兰乳制品看好中国市场潜力 [Polish dairy products bullish on China’s market], Xinmin Evening News. Retrieved from: http://xmwb.xinmin.cn/home/html/2016-05/11/content_13_4.htm.
  • Yang, J. (2020, Feb. 10), “Qingmiaodanxie”: Zhajiayefusiji Lun Yishu Yu Rensheng “轻描淡写”:扎加耶夫斯基论艺术与人生 [“An understatement”: Zagajewski on art and life], Arts & Culture News. Retrieved from: http://www.chinawriter.com.cn/n1/2020/0210/c404092-31578888.html.
  • Yu, S. (2020, Feb.10), Ouerjia Tuokaerqiuke : Zai Bei Kuayue De Suoyou Jiexian Zhong 奥尔加·托卡尔丘克《云游》:在被跨越的所有界限中 [Olga Tokarczuk’s “Cloudwalking”: In all the boundaries that are crossed], Arts & Culture News. Retrieved from: https://new.qq.com/rain/a/20200217A06HE600.
  • Yu, Y. (2018a, Apr. 17), Bolan Mianlin Yonggonghuang Jiongjing 波兰面临“用工荒”窘境 [Poland faces ‘labor shortage’ dilemma], People’s Daily. Retrieved from: http://world.people.com.cn/n1/2018/0417/c1002-29930029.html.
  • Yu, Y. (2018b, Aug. 6) Bolan Sifa Gaige Jiaju Yu Oumeng Fenqi 波兰司法改革加剧与欧盟分歧 [Polish judicial reform exacerbates divsions with EU], People’s Daily. Retrieved from: http://world.people.com.cn/n1/2018/0806/c1002-30209999.html.
  • Yu, Y. (2018c, Aug. 27), Zhongqi Zai Bolan Shechang Daidong Dangdi Chanye Fazhan (Gongshang Gongjian Gongxiang·Yidaiyilu Changyi Wuzhounian) 中企在波兰设厂带动当地产业发展(共商 共建 共享·一带一路倡议五周年)[Chinese enterprises set up factories in Poland to boost local industries (Five years’ implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative)], People’s Daily. Retrieved from: http://www.cssn.cn/jjx/jjx_gdxw/201808/t20180827_4549761.shtml.
  • Yu, Y. (2018d, Sept. 19), Juyu Buduan Ouzhou“Dongxi Liehen”Chixu Jiashen 龃龉不断,欧洲“东西裂痕”持续加深 [Disagreements continue, Europe’s „East-West rift” continues to deepen], People’s Daily. Retrieved from: http://world.people.com.cn/n1/2018/0919/c1002-30301536.html.
  • Yu, Y. (2019, Apr. 10), Bolan Zhuzhong Pingheng Senlin Baohu He Liyong 波兰注重平衡森林保护和利用 [Poland focuses on balanced forest protection and use], People’s Daily. Retrieved from: http://travel.people.com.cn/n1/2019/0410/c41570-31021519.html.
  • Yu, Y. (2020, Sept. 20), Zhongguo Shichang Chengwei Zhongdongou Nongchanpin Chukou Xinzengzhangdian中国市场成为中东欧农产品出口新增长点 [Chinese market becomes new growth point for CEE agricultural exports], People’s Daily. Retrieved from: http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrb/html/2020-09/20/nw.D110000renmrb_20200920_1-03.htm.
  • Zai,W., et al. (2017, May 9), “Yidaiyilu” Zhu Bolan Nainong Zoushang Zhifulu “一带一路”助波兰奶农走上致富路 [The Belt and Road Initiative helps Polish dairy farmers embark on the road to prosperity], Xinmin Evening News. Retrieved from: http://www.xinhuanet.com/world/2017-05/09/c_129596905.htm.
  • Zhang Z., & Chen X. (2020a, Jul. 13) Tongji Jieguo Xianshi Bolan Zongtong Duda Shengxuan Lianren 统计结果显示波兰总统杜达胜选连任 [Polish President Duda wins re-election, according to statistics], Xinhua Daily. Retrieved from: http://www.xinhuanet.com/world/2020-07/13/c_1126232404.htm.
  • Zhang Z., & Chen X. (2020b, Nov. 11), Bolan Ruzhipinshang Qidai Jiezhu Zhongguo Shichang Dazao Liangli Mingpian 波兰乳制品商期待借助中国市场打造亮丽名片 [Polish dairymen look to make their mark in the Chinese market], Xinhua Daily. Retrieved from: http://www.xinhuanet.com/fortune/2020-11/11/c_1126727704.htm.
  • Zhu, R.T. (2018, Jun. 25), Dang Bolan Xiju Jiaofu “Zaoyu” Shitiesheng 当“波兰戏剧教父”遭遇“史铁生” [When the “Godfather of Polish theater” (Lupa) met „Shi Tiesheng”], Southern Metropolis Daily. Retrieved from: https://www.sohu.com/a/237119756_161795.

образ Польши в прессе press image of Poland discourse foreign news content analysis Chinese press

Wiadomość do:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart