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Uwarunkowania instytucjonalno-prawne rozwoju przedsiębiorstw społecznych w Chinach: przepisy krajowe i lokalne programy pilotażowe

Author: Ewa Radomska
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9503-534X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 108-128
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223207
PDF: npw/32/npw3207.pdf

Institutional and legal conditions for the development of social enterprises in China: the national provisions and the local pilot schemes

The aim of the article is to assess the institutional and legal conditions for the development of social enterprises in China by analyzing the current national provisions, indirectly relating to these entities, the local pilot schemes and the accreditation systems of social enterprises operating within them, as well as to formulate recommendations to decisionmakers concerning further necessary measures for the development of social enterprises. The analysis carried out has drawn several key conclusions. China is at an early stage in the implementation of institutional and legal solutions which are important for the development of social enterprises. There are no national laws and policies regulating the status and functioning of these entities. The national provisions on non profit law and company law relate indirectly to social enterprises. A complementary set of rules is needed to take account of the hybrid organisational form of social enterprises. In addition, a comprehensive assessment of the existing institutional and legal arrangements implemented under local pilot schemes (in Chengdu, Shunde-Foshan, Shenzhen, Beijing) is needed. They provide the basis for national legislation and policies relating to social enterprises. Insufficient understanding of the concept and the importance of social entrepreneurship by decision-makers at the government level can be considered problematic.

Институциональные и правовые условия развития социальных предприятий в Китае: национальные положения и местные пилотные схемы

Цель статьи - оценить институциональные и правовые условия развития социальных предприятий в Китае путем анализа действующих национальных положений, косвенно касающихся этих субъектов, местных пилотных схем и действующих в них систем аккредитации социальных предприятий, а также сформулировать рекомендации лицам, принимающим решения, относительно дальнейших необходимых мер по развитию социальных предприятий. Проведенный анализ позволил сделать несколько ключевых выводов. Китай находится на ранней стадии внедрения институциональных и правовых решений, важных для развития социальных предприятий. Отсутствуют национальные законы и политика, регулирующие статус и функционирование этих организаций. Национальные положения о некоммерческом праве и законе о компаниях косвенно касаются социальных предприятий. Дополнительный набор правил необходим для учета гибридной организационной формы социальных предприятий. Кроме того, необходима всесторонняя оценка существующих институциональных и правовых механизмов, реализованных в рамках местных пилотных схем (в Чэнду, Шунде-Фошань, Шэньчжэнь, Пекин). Они обеспечивают основу для национального законодательства и политики в отношении социальных предприятий. Проблема по-прежнему заключается в недостаточном понимании концепции и важности социального предпринимательства лицами, принимающими решения на государственном уровне.

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Пекин social enterprise pilot schemes accreditation systems Chengdu ShundeFoshan Shenzhen Beijing Китай China

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