- Year of publication: 2014
- Source: Show
- Pages: 371-376
- DOI Address: -
The article presents the status of the President of the Republic of Poland in the executive structure in Poland, taking into account the judgment of the Constitutional Tribunal on the dispute settlement between the Prime Minister and the President of the Republic of Poland (Kpt 2/08). The author also defines the Presidential power of „supreme command” over the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland (Polish Constitution, Article 134) and the manner in which it is exercised it in times of peace (through the Minister of National Defence), as well as in times of war (through the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces). The article also shows selected specific powers of the President provided for in the statutory law.
The article concerns the internal legislation adopted by the President. These acts should correspond to the characteristics set out in the Article 93 of the Polish Constitution. Under this provision, resolutions of the Council of Ministers and orders of the Prime Minister and ministers shall be of an internal character and shall bind only those organizational units subordinate to the organ which issues such an act. Orders shall only be issued on the basis of statute. They shall not serve as the basis for decisions taken in respect of citizens, legal persons and other subjects. Resolutions and orders shall be subject to scrutiny regarding their compliance with universally binding law. The president has few legal options to enact this type of legislation. The law-making power in relation to the head of state in a few cases is vested in the Constitution. This applies to the Presidential Chancellery, the National Security Council and the Cabinet Council. These cases are described in the article.
Ever since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan has still been the state undergoing political transformations, in search of the way of changing their constitutional system. This also concerns particular elements of the system, such as the Constitutional Council, established by virtue of the Constitution of 2007. Earlier, however, during the period of 1993–1995, there functioned in Kazakhstan the Constitutional Court which was abolished. The article concerns the evolving position of the Constitutional Council, the legal status of the Council Member, principles of its organization and functioning. The competences of the Constitutional Council are of a mixed nature combining both the judicial and non-judicial competences. The Council remains in relatively intense, constitutional relations with the office of the President of the Republic. In formal and normative terms the Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan indicates certain similarities with the French Constitutional Council, which was meant to be its constitutional prototype.
Canada, as an Anglo-Saxon law system arose, with influences of the American legislation, it has not regulated the status of political parties on the constitutional level. Basis of the existence of political parties in Canada, is the Canadian Charter of rights and freedoms. Rules for the registration and financing of political parties in Canada was systematized in the second half of the 20th century. Currently, the activity of political parties shall be governed by the Canada Elections Act of 2004 and Financial Administration. As a general rule, political parties in Canada should be divided into registered and unregistered. In addition to a number of other rights, registered parties are entitled to special conditions of the financing of their activities. Canadian financing of political parties is the subject of discussion since the 1960s and is based on three pillars: donations from private individuals, funding from the state budget (CA. 2 Canadian dollars for each vote) and reimbursement of election campaign expenses (50% in the case of an overrun of the threshold of 2% of the vote on a national scale). It should be noted that supervision of the activities of political parties in Canada have the Chief Electoral Officer and Chairman of the Central Election Commission.
This article applies to a few selected theoretical problems associated with the concept of conflict of jurisdiction between the highest authorities of the state. Polish Constitution entrusts the settlement of such conflicts to the Constitutional Court. In the initial section describes the author the various methods known in the history of the settlement of such conflicts. Next, the author tries to present different definitions of competence disputes concerning the interpretation and application of the Constitution (constitutional conflict of jurisdiction) and some of their typologies, as well as the political aspects and causes. The final part of the article contains a brief reflection on the assessment from a theoretical point of view, the applicable regulation in Poland (constitutional and statutory), as well as the proposals contained in the draft of the new law on the Constitutional Court.
Analysis of the regulation of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of April 2nd, 1997 leads to the conclusion that the provisions of its XIth chapter provide for a hierarchy of the rights and freedoms of a person during a period of introduction of the extraordinary measures. The Polish legislator linked the type of the applied extraordinary measure with the possibility of limitation of certain human rights – a solution not known in international documents. Hence, it established a hierarchy of the human rights during the period of introduction of the extraordinary measures with three levels of protection. The hierarchization of the rights and freedoms of a person in the constitutional provisions regarding the extraordinary measures is not crafted to determine the hierarchic supremacy of some rights above the others, but just a particular level of protection of some of them from the intervention of the state.
At the turn of the XXI century it has been realized that the elements of the intangible cultural heritage in fact determine the meaning, sense and values that are represented by elements of tangible heritage. The purpose of the hereby article is to determine what should be understood by „intangible heritage” and what phenomena pose a threat to this heritage. In 2003, the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage has been adopted by UNESCO, in which Convention the aforementioned concept had been defined and exemplary manifests of intangible heritage had been indicated. However, due to the fact that the awareness regarding the necessity of protection of the aforementioned heritage has appeared only recently and the Convention is the first binding act of international law that relates to intangible heritage, a necessity to thoroughly understand all aspects of the phenomenon arises. Thus, the article refers not only to particular provisions of the Convention. It presents also the standpoint of the representatives of doctrine and refers to studies available on the website of NID – an organization competent in regard to cultural heritage, the purpose of which is the realization of the provisions of the Convention on the territory of the Republic of Poland.
światowe dziedzictwo ludzkości ochrona dziedzictwa niematerialnego zagrożenia dziedzictwa niematerialnego niematerialne dziedzictwo kulturalne dziedzictwo kulturalne Konwencja o ochronie niematerialnego dziedzictwa kulturalnego tożsamość kulturowa
The text is an analysis of the Bulgarian legal regulations concerning the constitutional responsibility of the President. President of Bulgaria for committing a constitutional delict is responsible before the Constitutional Court. The proposal in this regard may submit a group of parliamentarians and parliament puts indictment. If the Constitutional Court decides the merits of allegations made in the indictment, the president shall be deposited with the office.
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