- Year of publication: 2014
- Source: Show
- Pages: 202-207
- DOI Address: -
Amendments to the constitutions indicate that they are not timeless, unchanging. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the fundamental for constitution are political settlements which, in the form of a – more or less – detailed regulations (standards) determine the legal foundations of the political system of the state. The dichotomy of basic standards, such as standards of competence (Kompetenznormen) and standards of conduct (Verfahrensnormen) must be complemented by the revision standards, also known as standards permitting the change (Revisionsnormen). Presented so, let’s call it here, the flexibility of the state law proves functioning of the state or in the state does not occur exclusively by legal norms, but also social and political ones. These are moral principles, customs or other rules of conduct, which reflection – as it seems at first glance – would be vain to seek in our collective life. Meanwhile, the presence of even just the rules of fairness or any other code of honor is the best proof that, without the socio – political touch, legal norm would remain only a dead letter provision.
This article present the origins of contemporary election administration bodies and their evolution during the twentieth century in Poland. The paper elaborate institutions organizing elections in the Second Republic, the Polish People’s Republic, and in the early period of the Third Republic of Poland. The key authorities at that time were the National Electoral Commission and the General Electoral Commissioner at the central level and provincial and district electoral commissions. The author have discuss the operation of the electoral authorities based on existing in those days electoral law. The article describes the tradition of election administration in Poland and simultaneously exposes the policies of individual governments to bodies, which was set up to guard the freedom and integrity of electoral procedures. Without a shadow of a doubt, the experience accumulated in the years 1918–1991 led to the creation of one of the best functioning institutions, which is nowadays the basis of democracy in the Third Republic of Poland.
The aim of the article is to present the issue of the nation-wide referendum in contemporary Belarus, country called ‘the last European dictatorship’. The paper is first study devoted to this issue in Polish literature. The author, basing on Belarus’ constitution and other legal acts investigates theoretical and practical aspects of the referendum. The author also describes all cases of implementation of the nation-wide referendum in Belarus after 1991 and discuses their role in the process of shaping contemporary political system of this country. He concludes that referendum in Belarus is rather a tool of political mobilization of the society under authoritarian regime than a form of exercising citizens’ voting rights.
In a democratic state ruled by law limitation of the constitutionally guaranteed freedoms and rights may be an exception to the general principle of the protection of freedom. The Constitution does not confer the status of the individual libertarian absolute and provides in certain cases of specific conditions the possibility of its limitations. Among these requirements are the formal and material aspects of limitations, the principle of proportionality and prohibition of violating the essence of freedoms and rights.The essence of the concept is indeterminate, general and undefined in the complete way It stands as judgement criterion and includes in its function a number of demands. Analysis of the Constitutional Court cases elucidates elements of the concept of the essence of freedoms and rights, and the formal aspect of restrictions.
The paper concerns the phenomenon of parliamentarisation of the Moroccan system of government in the light of the constitution of 2011. The act was adopted as a result of civil unrest known as the so-called Arab Spring. The new constitution replaced the basic law of 1996. According to the new constitutional provisions, the role of the monarch has been limited. At the same time, the constitution has improved the position of the government headed by the prime minister. Moreover, the status of the parliament has been changed. By the way of example, the king appoints the prime minister from within the political party, which wins the parliamentary elections, and with a view to their results. In comparison with the previous constitution, the government seems to be more strongly connected with the parliament – especially with the first chamber. The latter has better tools for parliamentary oversight. Currently, the Moroccan system of government is closer to the European model of parliamentarianism.
The subject of the article below is the appearance of Czech Republic President’s political position under the newest amendments to the Constitution from February 8, 2012. At the beginning, reasons for the Constitution to be corrected were pointed out, which among all, had a political background. Later, the article focused on the presentation of detailed analysis of each change. With the historical support, a comparison was made between the current basic law and its previous version, as well as the comparison between the traditions of Czech and Czechoslovakian constitutionalism. The most important change was the introduction, common for the presidential or semi-presidential system method of choosing the head of the state in common elections, which occurred by limiting president’s prerogatives and normalization of the range of president’s responsibilities, stepping out of the rules of law and the constitutional irresponsibility of the head of the state.
The issue of permissibility of limitation of the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens in extraordinary measures causes a lot of problems. They are consequence the imposition two different regulations relative the limitations: the general regulation appearing from article 31 paragraph 3 Constitution and the special regulation including in the Chapter XI Constitution concerning exclusively the extraordinary measures. The answer for the question, when and in which circumstances it shall adapt the special rules concerning the limitation of the freedoms and rights in extraordinary measures and when the general regulations appears from article 31 paragraph 3 Constitution, depends on a few matters. Firstly, it depends on the type of introducing extraordinary measure.Secondly, it depends on the type of the freedom or right, which it have to be limited. The next problem, it is the method of interpretation and applying the rules concerning the limitations. In this area, the rule of proportionality in interpretation of the Constitutional Tribunal is of great importance.
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