- Year of publication: 2014
- Source: Show
- Pages: 243-248
- DOI Address: -
This paper analyzes judicial review (concentrated and abstract) exercised by the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court (STF) and the methods for and theories that allow an empirical approach to this phenomenon as a decision-making process, making use of political institutions (distribution of powers and competences) and legal interpretation (legal literature and concepts). The institutional context of the decision-making process assigned by the Brazilian Constitution to the Federal Supreme Court (STF) makes it act by means of concentrated judicial review, ascribing to it the power to judge the constitutionality of federal and state law or normative acts, judicially reviewing these norms. The objective of this study is to determine the role of judicial review and the extent of concentrated judicial review, using as empirical basis the decisions of the Supreme Court in 5011 Direct Actions of Unconstitutionality (ADIs), adjudicated between 1988 and 2013. In the empirical test, there are the following main and mutually exclusive hypotheses: H1- Judicial review adds an institutional collective veto player in decision-making (institutional analysis), increasing policy stability while reducing size the winning set of the status quo or expanding the core of unanimity; H2- Judicial review does not add an institutional/collective veto player, because, institutionally, the constitutional design and the process of appointment of the members of STF indicates the validity of the absorption rule of the Court in concentrated judicial review by other veto players. Secondly, there are the following hypotheses: H3 – The number of legitimized plaintiffs for the petition of judicial review cases (ADI) increases policy stability and reduces importance of agenda setting and decision-making capacity of majority coalitions in decision making; H4 – The number of legitimate plaintiffs for the petition of judicializing measures increases the state/federative policy stability and is innocuous to federal policy stability and decision-making. Conclusions: The data demonstrates that H1 is supported in federative/state decision-making and little evident national level, partially refuting H2. However, given the number of legitimized plaintiffs, the massive introduction of judicializing measures at the national level indicates that judicial review is used by minorities as signaling for political positioning and maximizing future electoral opportunities without effectively restricting government (H3). Judicial review is directed preferentially to increase federative/state policy stability, reducing the role of opposition majorities or restricting decisions to extend the federal decentralization by state decision making (H4).
In the article author analyses the experience of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Latvia in applying temporary adjustment in examining constitutional complaints submitted by persons. In view of the case law of the Constitutional Court, the rulings of the Constitutional Court regarding issues not envisaged in the Constitutional Court procedure are analysed as well. Thus, the article provides answers to questions – whether the Constitutional Court may suspend legal proceedings and legislation procedure.
The constitution of the Helvetic Republic of 1798 was the first act of constitutional rank in the history of the State. Developed by the Swiss, foreign institutional solutions separate Swiss tradition contained and to the resistance of the cantons has been imposed by force under the pressure of the French troops. For 5 years of duration, based on her settlement had taken place political experiment where a total rupture with the centuries-old model of Confederation of cantons to the State of a „One and indivisible”. The Constitution also created the first legislative authority of the Republic (the Senate and the Great Council), the Executive – Directorate and Judicial power – the Supreme Court. In addition, a set of freedoms and civil liberties.
The article presents an issue of evolution of radical version of the French state laity proclaimed in the law of 9 December 1905 about separation of Churches from the state. The author recognizes that expression of a consent by the state to establishment of catholic diocesan congregations, apart from worship congregations, numerous forms of indirect subsidizing of religious communities with the use of public funds or implementation of constitutional standards with respect to the principle of laity emphasizing a guarantee function of the principle as regards the freedom of conscience and religion, constitute significant examples of mitigation of the French version of the separation. On the other hand, the author, indicated to recently observed cases of exacerbation of laity in some fields, which is well illustrated by implementation of a prohibition to wear religious symbols or garment, which are used by pupils of state schools for the purposes of ostentatious manifestation of their religious affiliations, prohibition to cover faces in public space or implementation of the charter of secularity in schools. Consequently, the author assumes that the contemporary models of relationships between the state and church in France is ambiguous, which makes one adopt a sceptical approach to any attempt to define it in a general manner.
The topic of the article is the analysis of legal basis governing the right to health in the Polish Republic. Polish health care system, which, in practice, implementing the right to health is characterized by far-reaching instability, but its basic foundations remain the same. Statutory regulations of 1989 are subject to constant change, and the solutions implemented constitutionality was challenged by the Constitutional Court. Also, the- re is currently no comprehensive vision of the health system, and all the changes were made so far is partial. Lack of comprehensive reforms, as well as the disorder in some areas of the health system by adopting the law uniformly regulating specific issues cau- sing adverse situations for beneficiaries and does not contribute to the stabilization of the legal system in this sector.
The present paper is an analysis of the legal regulations on national anthem in Polish Constitutional Legal system. The author claims that national anthem is a part of intangible national heritage and as a consequence individual can realize his cultural right thanks to the participation in anthem’s heritage. Paper presents constitutional regulation in relation to legal resolutions in different Member States. Art. 28 of Polish Constitution positioned in 1 st Chapter has very special meaning for the right to participate in national heritage’s fulfillment that was characterized in last part of the article.
Article aims to demonstrate that applied the doctrine of constitutional law constitutional division due to their mode of change is anachronistic. Distribution of basic laws on flexible and rigid, introduced in the late nineteenth century became – in part because of the defects of the proposed classification, partly for other reasons – dysfunctional. The author makes a two-step verification scale through its reference to contemporary European countries and this example shows its flaws. In place of the above. scale suggests a much modified and based on stringent criteria of a three-stage scale, corresponding to cover identified diversity of the procedures used to change the constitution of modern European states.
The Constitution of 1997., is the first post-war Polish basic law which includes the guarantee of the right of access to the public service. In the art. 60 of the Constitution, the legislator has decided that Polish citizens enjoying full public rights shall have a right of access to public service on equal terms. Interpretation of the normative content of this provision may not be clear. Those rules do not contain a definition of „public service” or other indications that overcome the problems of interpretation as to the scope of the constitutional guarantee referred to in art. 60 of the Constitution. The purpose of this article is to determine the personal scope of the public service, and in particular to show that both the notary and bailiff, as a public official, but also a lawyer, legal advisor and tax advisor or patent attorney practicing in the so-called aid law perform a public service.
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