- Year of publication: 2018
- Source: Show
- Pages: 5-12
- DOI Address: -
The article presents the genesis of the republican Head of State in Poland after the First World War. It was a particularly important moment when the election of the form of government of the Polish State being rebuilt took place. The Author draws attention to the significant relationship between historical events taking place during the First World War, including especially political changes happening in the partitioning states influencing the decision for choosing the republican path.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the provisions of the “draft Constitution of the Polish State” of July 1917 – an original achevement of the Polish doctrine of state law. In the opinion of the majority of contemporary representatives of Polish constitutional law, the activities of the Provisional Council of State of the Kingdom of Poland, as well as the Regency Council – bodies composed of Poles, but appointed by the German occupation authorities in 1916–1917, were meaningless, and the bodies themselves were imposed from outside and pursuing foreign interests. As a consequence, the value of the systemic achievements of these bodies and its meaning is denied. However, the analyzed document developed under the auspices of the Provisional Council of State of the Kingdom of Poland was chronologically the first full draft constitution for Poland after the state regained its independence. It is an interesting and original testimony to the high substantive level of Polish science of constitutional law developing in the absence of Polish statehood. It is also a proof that a mixed (constitutional) monarchy was considered to be the optimal political system for rebuilding statehood after more than 120 years of non-existence. The fact of fully Polish authorship of the project (mainly in the persons of prominent professors of law) may be a counter-argument against the thesis that the idea of a monarchical system for the Polish state reactivated in 1918 was completely foreign and imposed from the outside. Although the Polish political elites in 1918 ultimately gave up the idea of introduction of a constitutional monarchy in Poland, some of the solutions contained in the 1917 draft constitution became an inspiration for later systemic projects, both submitted during the work on the first full constitution of an independent Polish state enacted in 1921 as well as during the subsequent discussions on its revision.
The subject of this study is to present principles of the system determine political character of the state and the system ruling in it of power. The analysis is covered constitutional regulations referring to the following principal principles: principle of the sovereignty of Nation, principle of democratic legal state, principle of freedom and of laws of individual, principle of the division of authorities, principle of the political pluralism, principle of the supreme position of the Constitution, principle of the decentralization of the official authority, principle of the decentralization of the official authority. The work is based on the legal-dogmatic method.
The subject of the article is to identify factors and conditions that determined the system of government of the IInd Republic of Poland under the Small Constitution of 1919. This act served as a temporary constitution until the March Constitution of 1921 came into force, which happened completely only at the end of 1922. Under the Small Constitution there has been made an attempt to introduce the system of supremacy of the parliament. It turned out to be impossible because of high authority of the head of state – Józef Piłsudski, who also served as the Commander-in-Chief. Therefore, the system of balance between the Legislative Sejm and the Chief of State was shaped in the political practice.
In August 1926 and April 1989 the Polish constitutions in force at that time were amended. Substantively these amendments have nothing in common, yet they have many common features, which the author of this article tries to show. In particular, the author draws attention to the fact that they have been used in a way that goes far beyond a formal system correction. The political practice based on them, which differed from the constitutional assumptions, brought fundamental changes in the political system and its evaluation has not been and still is not carried out from the point of view of observance of constitutional standards and the nature of undertaken actions, whether they were aimed to authoritarianism as after May 1926, or to democratization as after April and especially after June 1989.
The March Constitution of 1921, which was to set the framework of a democratic state, but turned out to be an act that would not fit into the balance of power in the state. As a result of the crisis of Polish parliamentarism and the political situation in Europe, the desire to change the system quickly increased. The effect of this was the adoption of the April Constitution April 23, 1935. It was supposed to constitute a kind of compromise between authoritarian and nationalistic tendencies – which in Polish society raised wider opposition and liberalism, which in Polish political conditions did not gain support. The April Constitution denied the classical principle of the division of powers. It was replaced by the principle of concentration of power in the person of the president. This was due to the need to adjust the authoritarian system to the new concept of power and to remodel a decision center that would concentrate the process of governance in all the most important state matters. Centralization of power in the person of the president was aimed at strengthening the state, especially in international relations, and was in line with trends visible in other European countries. In emerging concepts of political changes, the president was perceived as the only organ that implemented the legal order and the superior of the state. The article is to bring the problem of the functioning of the power structure under the April constitution.
The article is devoted to discussing the solutions of electoral law to the Constituent Sejm, one of the most important electoral regulations for the history of modern Polish state. It presents the specific character of its main solutions, in that the decree concerned the territory, which for the most part was not within the power of the emerging Polish state. It was also shown that the voting took place at different times and some of the Sejm deputies did not come from the elections. The influence of the indicated solutions of the electoral law on the further development of constitutional law in Poland was also presented.
The subject of this article is to present the evolution of the constitutional and legal position of the Marshal of the Sejm, which covers the time from regaining independence by Poland to 1997 when the current constitution came into force. Assuming that both the scope of the competences connected with the operating of the Sejm and the powers beyond that area decide on the political position of the Marshal, the constitutional and regulatory solutions concerning that office were analysed. The result of those analyses proves that the position of the chairman of the Polish Sejm changed significantly over the analysed time. The changing political trends were the most important factor determining the constitutional and legal position of the Marshal of the Sejm. In the normative perspective they were reflected in the constitutional acts which were binding successively in Poland. The Marshal has always had the status of the constitutional body; however, this fact has not always determined his strong position in the Sejm.
In the article, the authors compare the institutions of the Senate of the Second Polish Republic on the basis of the Constitutional Act of March 17, 1921 and the Constitutional Act of April 23, 1935. In the first part, the article presents the the way of functioning and selecting the senators in accordance with the provisions of the Constitutional Act of March 17, 1921. The second part of the article is a description of the regulations contained in the constitutional Act of 23 April 1935, on the basis of which then Senate of the Republic of Poland functioned. At the end of this article, the authors indicate similarities, but above all differences, in the functioning of the first chamber of the parliament of the Second Polish Republic.
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Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart