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Author: Anna Kulaszewicz
E-mail: anna.kulaszewicz@amu.edu.pl
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 91-101
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017106
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017106.pdf

Streszczenie:

This paper aims to explain that the stable situation of Belarus is important for Western Europe and why any fluctuations may present a challenge for European integrity and stability. Belarus, since the beginning of its independence in 1991 seems to show a great willingness to cooperate closely with Russia, claiming Western Europe and NATO as a potential enemy. In reality, the Belarusian position is much more complicated and ambiguous. Despite it’s close military cooperation with Russia, different tensions between Minsk and Moscow regularly happen and Belarusian authorities are still looking for new foreign partners and new energy suppliers (what was clearly visible in the last months of 2016 and the first period of 2017). Russia, old Belarusian partner, may actually even pose a threat for Belarus, so the country’s authorities have a hard challenge to maintain its stability. Western countries may be open for a new chapter of cooperation with Minsk but any rapid changes in Belarusian foreign preferences may result in unpredictable results and Moscow reaction that – in turn – would be very challenging for the whole European stability and security. 

Lukashenko ZAPAD-2017 security Russia Belarus NATO Poland

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Author: Anna Kobierecka
E-mail: akobierecka@uni.lodz.pl
Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 105-120
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017107
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017107.pdf

Streszczenie:

The aim of the article is to examine whether Nordic area can be regarded as a homogenous and successfully cooperating region, which is providing one unified political front. Considering many similarities between Nordic states, as for example shared values (equality, women rights, common love of democracy, peace and welfare state), one could say that Nordic states constitute a single and unitary area. What is more, the linguistic, cultural and historical closeness of those states is a fact, but at the same time many differences can be pointed, especially considering their security and foreign policies. Those aspects seem to be the main obstacle in introducing full cooperation in the region. Nevertheless, it is worth noticing that current international developments and appearance of new threats to security are influencing the Nordic states which, as a result, are changing their attitudes towards security policy. Those factors could lead to introducing new dimensions of their cooperation. 

neutrality coopertion foreign policy Nordic states security

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Author: Michał Piechowicz
E-mail: piechowicz@umk.pl
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 121-137
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017108
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017108.pdf

Streszczenie:

The Amsterdam Treaty has established the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ). Since then, it is an example of a policy-making area creating its way quickly and comprehensively. However, in this paper the main dilemma is to what extent the Schengen development has modified the framework of AFSJ and how it adapts in this policy while being an example of enhanced cooperation and differentiated integration model. Developments in this area are part of a realisation that European states need to act together to better face new challenges to peace and internal security, while ensuring respect for democracy and human rights. It is important to add, that cooperation in the Area of Freedom Security and Justice has been driven by forces different from that seen in other policy areas.

smart borders security and justice area of freedom internal security European integration Schengen

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Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
E-mail: mkobierecki@uni.lodz.pl
Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 138-150
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017109
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017109.pdf

Streszczenie:

China is a country that has been using sport in order to reach political goals for many years. Lately such political exploitation of sport is directed at shaping the desirable international image of this country. This is done most of all through hosting sports events, but also through sports victories. The last aspect is the subject of this research. The aim of the article is therefore to investigate the issue of utilization of performance in international sport in order to enhance international image of a China. The research presented in the article is a case study concerning sport as a tool of nation-branding. Its main objective is to analyse motivation of China’s decision-makers to use sports performance in order to enhance the country’s international perception, and to observe how this goals is executed. The main hypothesis to be tested states that China perceives sports performance as an important tool of enhancing its international image. 

nation branding sports diplomacy elite sport Olympic Games China

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Author: Sabina Grabowska
E-mail: chatazawsia@wp.pl
Institution: University of Rzeszów (Poland)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 153-167
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017110
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017110.pdf

Streszczenie:

The paper aims to introduce the concept of constitutional liability of the President, and the institutions of the President’s constitutional liability. The author presents the liability and its relations with other types of head of state’s liabilities. The presented analysis includes all European countries. 

referendum constitutional court parliament constitutional liability head of state

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Author: Krzysztof Trzciński
E-mail: ktrzcinski@iksio.pan.pl
Institution: Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 168-185
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017111
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017111.pdf

Streszczenie:

The aim of this study is to demonstrate the validity of the thesis that in Indonesia one can find institutions that characterize two power-sharing models which are considered opposites of one another in political theory – centripetalism and consociationalism. In consequence, the Indonesian power-sharing system should be viewed as a hybrid, or mixed, system, and not a typically centripetal system as is usually the case in the literature. At the beginning of this article, a short analysis of Indonesia's political situation is given for the purpose of defining the factors which determined the introduction of inter-segmental power-sharing solutions in that country. This is followed by a description of the specificity of consociationalism and centripetalism. The article goes on to discuss specific institutions of both power-sharing models which exist in Indonesia and ends with some concluding remarks on the thesis advanced at the outset. 

consociational centripetal power-sharing territorial power-sharing hybrid power-sharing Indonesia

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Author: Małgorzata Babula
E-mail: malgorzata.babula@gmail.com
Institution: WSPiA University of Rzeszów (Poland)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 186-198
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017112
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017112.pdf

Streszczenie:

Nowadays peace became scarce. Expanding conflicts, terrorist attacks and the uncertainty so common to today's times put in question the value that was won after many years of war. The Constitution is free from regulations treating directly about peace. There are only few references to it. Perhaps, peace is a luxury for which we have to fight, and neither a right that must be protected nor freedom which we can/should use. Maybe it is not supposed to be talked about the right to peace, but about some kind of a privilege. Therefore, it would be necessary to admit, that there is a mistake done already in the subject of this paper. This area seems also to be interesting especially, when moving the optics and focusing on the actions and declarations of heads of states while implementing the common political objectives that are at odds with objectives of other/opposite countries. The word war is used like a substitute for terms ‘peace, freedom and prosperity’, or even worse, like a way to it. 

peace rights to peace area of freedom

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Author: Joanna Marszałek-Kawa
E-mail: kawadj@box43.pl
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University (Poland)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 199-217
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017113
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017113.pdf

Streszczenie:

The paper investigates legal funding of the right to petition in Poland. It starts from a comparative background and it introduces the institution in a wider context, as a transparent and accessible for citizens legal solution, that has become an essential instrument of contemporary direct democracy and civic society. The author discusses regulations of the 2014 Acts on Petitions with reference to the Constitution of Poland and organisation of the Sejm and the Senate proceedings. Moreover, the study has placed the right to petition in a fieldwork of Polish system of human rights protection and Polish legal system in general. Finally, the paper presents results of opinion polls on direct democracy and civic engagement in Poland to discuss them with reference to previously presented construction of the right to petition as a legal institution. The author concludes with a relevant question on its further development in times of deep polarisation of Polish politics and during the Constitutional Crisis in the county. 

Polish constitution law-making civic society direct democracy right to petition

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Author: Michał Lubina
E-mail: michal.lubina@uj.edu.pl
Institution: Jagiellonian University (Poland)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 221-238
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017114
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017114.pdf

Streszczenie:

This article deals with public, political discourse over One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative in Poland. OBOR has recently become very popular in Poland as it encapsulates the noticeable fascination on China and on geopolitics among parts of Polish society. This article describes this phenomenon and delaminates the mainstream political discourse over OBOR into two main strands: great geopolitical and/or geoeconomic chance (pro-OBOR discourse) and security threat (anti-OBOR). The advocates of the former see the project as a great geopolitical and economic opportunity for Poland; the supporters of the latter find it a threat to Polish security and/or economic interests. This discourse echoes internal divisions within current Polish government on its China policy and can be observed against the background of China’s dynamic enter to Central and Eastern Europe, particularly to Czech Republic, Hungary and Serbia. 

geoeconomics geopolitics New Silk Road OBOR Sino-Polish relations

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Author: Kamil Baraniuk
E-mail: kamil.baraniuk1@gmail.com
Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 239-255
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017115
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017115.pdf

Streszczenie:

There has been an increased interest in the field of informational and psychological warfare conducted by the Russian Federation directed at Western countries and their allies following the intensification of the conflict in Ukraine. The most visible example of this are the activities in the field of propaganda, disinformation and psychological operations accompanied the annexation of the Crimea and manipulate the American public during the presidential election in 2016. Trolling as one of using tools of such activity is a highly visible manifestation in which users or automatic comment generation programs manipulate online discussions. This phenomenon is visible and widely discussed in the media discourse. Efforts are being made to develop academically rigorous systems of identification and description. This paper presents the results and main conclusions reached through the application of the author’s method of analysing key words supported by corpus-based analysis in exploring this phenomenon. 

the Russian Federation corpus-based analysis propaanda informational warfare trolling

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