Protocooperation as a Model for the Russia-UAE Partnership

Author: Andrzej Jacuch
Institution: Military University of Technology (Poland)
Published online: 10 July 2021
Final submission: 4 July 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Source: Show
Page no: 16
Pages: 105-120
DOI Address:
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202137.pdf

Russia’s intervention in Syria in 2015 marked the Russian Federation (RF) return as a key player in the Middle East and North Africa. In this context, the relations between Russia and the UAE are of utmost importance for both entities, for the region, and globally. This article seeks to fill a gap in scholarly knowledge by answering questions about the nature of the emerging cooperation between Russia and the UAE. How Russia seeks to use the UAE to expand its sphere of influence in the MENA region and how the UAE uses this cooperation to achieve its foreign policy goals. The article applies protocooperation (an analogy to the ecological relationship) as a model for the Russia-UAE partnership. The RF is strengthening its position in the MENA regarding the UAE as a key partner for regaining its political, economic, and military influence in the MENA region. Russia-UAE’s partnership aims at achieving conjunctural geopolitical interests benefiting from diminished Western, mainly the US, presence in the region.


  • Bailey, J. (2021). What to Expect from Russia’s UAE Supersonic Aircraft Partnership. Simply Flying.
  • Bani Salameh, M.T., & Mashagbeh, A.A. (2018). The American Russian Rivalry in the Middle East. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 8(1).
  • Bateman, M. (2015). Social and solidarity economy: Beyond the fringe. Zed Books.
  • Bhadrakumar, M.K. (2021, April 20). Gulf’s geopolitics twist and turn in new alignments. Asia Times.
  • Cikara, M., & Paluck, E.L. (2013). When Going Along Gets You Nowhere and the Upside of Conflict Behaviours. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7.
  • Czerny, M. (2021). Russia’s security mirage in the Gulf. RIDDLE Russia, Kennan Institute.
  • Daher, J. (2019). The Dynamics and Evolution of UAE-Syria Relations: Between Expectations and Obstacles. European University Institute.
  • Darczewska, J. (2015). Diabeł tkwi w szczegółach. Wojna informacyjna w świetle Doktryny Wojennej Rosji. Punkt Widzenia, 50.
  • Duarte de Carvalho, T. (2013). Protocooperative Social Networks. Journal of Communication, 7, 100-115.
  • Fenton-Harvey, J. (2019, November 8). Russia and the UAE Seek Greater Mutual Benefits. Inside Arabia.
  • “Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov’s answers to media questions during a special session of the Valdai International Discussion Club on the Middle East”. (2021, March 31). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the RF.
  • “Geostrategic Outlook, Middle East and North Africa, Volatility and the risk of disruption”. (2020). EY Global Geostrategic Business Group.
  • Герасимов, В. (2013, February 26). Ценность науки в предвидении, Новые вызовы требуют переосмыслить формы и способы ведения боевых действи. Военно-промышленный курьер, 8(476).
  • Griffin, R. (2019, October 15). Russia, UAE sign new energy cooperation agreements. S&P Global, Natural Gas | Oil.
  • Huggett, R.J. (2004). Fundamentals of Biogeography. Routledge.
  • “Iran-UAE Relations”. (2021). Financial Tribune.
  • Issaev, L., & Kozhanov, N. (2021, February 3). Diversifying relationships: Russian policy toward GCC. International Politics Journal.
  • Karasik, T. (2017, December 20). Russia’s Financial Tactics in the Middle East, Russia in the Middle East. Jamestown Foundation.
  • Katz, M.N. (2021, April 9). Russia is friendly with the Houthis in Yemen. But it’s complicated. Atlantic Council.
  • Keynoush, B. (2021, February 26). Diplomacy with Iran: Opportunities and Risks for the UAE. The Arab Gulf States Institute in Washington.
  • Kwong, M. (2009, April 19). “Democracy Wrong Choice for the UAE”, The National (UAE) News.
  • Popescu, N., & Secrieru, St. (2018). Introduction: Russia’s return to the Middle East. CHAILLOT paper, 146.
  • “Presentation on Russia’s Collective Security Concept for the Persian Gulf Region”. (2019, July 23). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation.
  • “Российская Концепция коллективной безопасности в зоне Персидского залива”. (2019, July 23). Министерство иностранных дел Российской Федерации.
  • Ramani, S. (2019, March 11). UAE and Russia Find Common Ground on Syria. The Arab Gulf States Institute.
  • Ramani, S. (2020). Russia and the UAE: An Ideational Partnership. Middle East Policy, 27(1).
  • Rodin, S. (2019). Cooperation Between Russia and the UAE in the Field of High Technology. Asia and Africa Today, 6.
  • Rodkiewicz, W. (2021). Aktywizacja polityki Rosji w rejonie Zatoki Perskiej. OSW.
  • “Russian and CIS relations with the Gulf Region: Current Trends in Political and Economic Dynamics”. (2020). Gulf Research Centre.
  • “Russia’s Putin signs deals worth $1.3 bn during UAE visit”. (2019, October 15). Al Jazeera English.
  • “Russia’s return to Yemen”. (2020, March 27). Abaad Studies & Research Centre.
  • Salami, M. (2021). Why is Russia Involved in Yemen, Again? Washington Report on Middle East Affairs.
  • Scaria, S. (2019, October 15). Snapshot: Investment, trade ties between UAE and Russia you should know about. ZAWYA.
  • Sim, Li-Chen (2018a). Russia’s return to the Gulf, External Powers and the Gulf Monarchies. Routledge.
  • Sim, Li-Chen (2018b, June 7). A Resurgent Russia and a Rising UAE in the Gulf. Rising Powers in Global Governance.
  • Sim, Li-Chen (2019). Russia and the Gulf States: Pragmatic Energy Partners. Routledge.
  • Sim, Li-Chen, & Fulton, J. (2020). Implications of a regional order in flux: Chinese and Russian relations with the United Arab Emirates. Cambridge Review of International Affairs.
  • Stepanova, E. (2018). Russia and Conflicts in the Middle East: Regionalization and Implications for the West. The International Spectator: Italian Journal of International Affairs.
  • Tariq, A. (2019, March 9). Emirati-Russian relations are profound, growing steadily: Abdullah bin Zayed. Emirates News Agency.
  • “Trade: Russia and United Arab Emirates”. (2021). The Observatory of Economic Complexity (OEC).
  • Trenin, D. (2018). Russia’s return to the Middle. What drives Russia’s policy in the Middle East? CHAILLOT paper, 146.
  • Tshikantwa, T.S., Ullah, M.W., He, F., and Yang, G. (2018). Current Trends and Potential Applications of Microbial Interactions for Human Welfare. Frontiers in microbiology, 9(1156).
  • “UAE buys $5bn of weapons during four-day arms exhibition”. (2017, February 23). Middle East Eye.
  • “UAE is the first Arab destination for Russian investments – economy – local”. (2021, June 8).
  • “UAE, Russia forge strategic partnership”. (2018, June 1). Gulf News.
  • “United Arab Emirates”. (2020). The Economists Intelligence Unit.
  • “Diplomatic success of decades-long relations between UAE and Russia”. (2019, October 10). Khaleej Times.
  • Wan, M. (2016). The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank: The Construction of Power and the Struggle for the East Asian International Order. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Wasser, B. (2019). The Limits of Russian Strategy in the Middle East. RAND.

UAE geopolitics Russia economy international relations

Wiadomość do:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart