Author: Benon Zb. Szałek
Institution: University of Szczecin
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 86-97
DOI Address: -
PDF: rop/2015/rop201507.pdf

This paper deals with the concept of political topology in the light of geopolitics and hybrid warfare. Traditional geopolitics can be regarded as a point of departure for the search for better tools for political decision making. Comparison and confrontation of different, theoretical and practical, concepts of hybrid warfare can be heuristically inspiring and lead to a compact system of politically relevant knowledge – to political topology.


  • Bond, M. (2007). Hybrid war: a new paradigm for stability operations in failing states. Pennsylvania: Carlisle Barracks.
  • Boulding, K. (1964). Conflict and Defense: A general theory. New York: Harper & Bros.
  • Brzeziński, Z. (1986). Game Plan: A Geostrategic Framework for the Conduct of the U.S.-Soviet Contest. Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press.
  • Castree, N. (2003). Place: connections and boundaries in an interdependent world. In: S.L. Holloway, S.P. Rice, G. Valentine (eds.). Key Concepts in Geography. London: Sage.
  • Clausewitz, C.V. (1989). On War. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Deep, A. (2015, March 2). Hybrid War: Old Concept, New Techniques. Small Wars Journal.
  • Dolman, E.C., Gray, C.S., Sloan, G. (2003). Geostrategy in the Space Age, Geopolitics, Geography and Strategy. Portland: Frank Cass.
  • Dolman, E.C. (2005). Astropolitik: Classical Geopolitics in the Space Age. London: Frank Cass.
  • Domański, B. (2005). The development of Europe and its Central-Eastern periphery. In: A. Kukliński, K. Pawłowski. Europe – The Global Challenges (pp. 239 – 246). Nowy Sącz: Rewasz.
  • Dugin, A. (1997). Osnovy geopolitiki. Moskva: Arktogeja-Centr.
  • Essex, J. (2013). Development, Security, and Aid: Geopolitics and Geoeconomics at the U.S. Agency for International Development. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
  • Finlay, M. (1987). Powermatics: A Discursive Critique of New Technology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Fleming, B.P. (2011). The Hybrid Threat Concept: Contemporary War, Military Planning and the Advent of Unrestricted Operational Art. Fort Leavenworth: Staff College Press.
  • Freedman, L. (2004). Deterrence. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Friedman, G. (2009). The Next 100 Years. Forecast for the 21st Century. New York: Doubleday.
  • Gerasimov, V. (2013, February 27), The Value of Science in Prediction, Voyenno-promyshlennoy kuryer / Military-Industrial Kurier.
  • Gleick, J. (1987). Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Viking.
  • Grant, G. (2008). Hybrid Wars. Government Executive, 5 (40), pp. 218 – 24.
  • Gray, C.S., Sloan, G. (1999). Geopolitics, Geography and Strategy. London, Portland: Frank Cass.
  • Hart, K. Nagata, J. Vaughan, J. (2004). Encyclopedia of general topology. New York: Elsevier.
  • Hoffman, F. (2007). Conflict in the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid War. Arlington: Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.
  • Hoffman F.G. (2009), Hybrid warfare and challenges. Joint Force Quarterly, 51, pp. 34 – 48.
  • Huth, P.K. (1999). Deterrence and International Conflict: Empirical Findings and Theoretical Debate. Annual Review of Political Science, 2 (1), pp. 25 – 48.
  • Jervis, R., Lebov, R., Stein J. (1985). The Psychology of Deterrence. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
  • Kiel, L., Elliott, E. (1997). Chaos Theory in Social Sciences. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
  • Kisielewski. T.A. (2002). Średnioterminowe perspektywy rozwoju sytuacji geostrategicznej Rosja-Chiny-NATO. Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Adam Marszałek.
  • Kukliński, A. (2005). The four megaspaces of the XXI century. In: A Kukliński, K. Pawłowski (eds.). Europe –The Global Challenges. Nowy Sącz: Rewasz.
  • Lorenz, E. (1996). The Essence of Chaos. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Mackinder, H. (1904). The Geographical Pivot of History. The Geographical Society, 23(4), pp. 421 – 437.
  • Mackinder, H. (1996). Democratic Ideals and Reality. A Study in Politics of Reconstruction. Washington DC: National Defence University Press.
  • McCuen, J.J. (2008). Hybrid War. Military Review, 88 (2), pp. 107 – 113.
  • McDermott, R. (2014, October 10). Myth and Reality – A Net Assessment of Russia’s „hybrid warfare” Strategy Since the Start of 2014, Eurasia Daily Monitor, 184 (11).
  • Moran, D. (2007). Geography and Strategy. In: J.Baylis, J. Wirtz, C. Gray (eds.). Strategy in the Contemporary World: An Introduction to Strategic Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Motter, A.E., Lai, Y.-C. (2002). Cascade-based attacks on complex networks. Physical Review, 66(6), pp. 65 – 102,
  • Munkres, J. (2000). Topology, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Nazemroaya, M.D. (2014). From energy War to Currency War. Nexus, 22(2).
  • Paul, T.V., Morgan, P.M., Wirtz, J.J. (2009). Complex Deterrence: Strategy in the Global Age. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Raska, M., Bitzinger, R.A. (2015, April 14). Russia’s Concept of Hybrid Wars: Implications for Small States. RSIS Commentary, 091.
  • Rattray, G.J. (2001). Strategic Warfare in Cyberspace, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Roth, J. (2015). Verschlussakte S. Smolensk, MH17 und Putins Krieg in der Ukraine. Berlin: Econ Verlag.
  • RTWT (2014). Russia’s „hybrid war” against Ukraine. Democracy Digest. Retrieved from: (15.10.2015).
  • Rybczyński, A. (2015, March 13). Wojna hybrydowa – wnioski. Gazeta Polska, pp. 18 – 19.
  • Salmon, W. (1984). Scientific Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Sengupta, A. (2009). Heartlands of Eurasia: The Geopolitics of Political Space. Lanham : Lexington Books.
  • Sierpiński, W. (2000). General topology. New York: Dover Publications.
  • Song Hongbing (2012), Wojna o pieniądz. Kobierzyce: Wektory.
  • Spirtes, P., Glymour, C., Scheines, R. (1993), Causation, Prediction and Search. New York: Springer Verlag.
  • Sun Tzu (1963). The Art of War. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Szałek, B.Zb. (2013a). Geopolityczne uwarunkowania bezpieczeństwa energetycznego Polski. In: J. Piątek, R. Podgórzańska (eds.) Terminal LNG w Świnoujściu a bezpieczeństwo energetyczne regionu i Polski, Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek.
  • Szałek, B.Zb. (2013b). Some praxiological reflections on the so-called „Overton Window of Political Possibilities”, „framing” and related problems, Reality of Politics, 4, pp. 237 – 257.
  • Szałek, B.Zb. (2015). Kilka prakseologicznych refleksji na temat geopolityki i myśli politycznej. Od geopolityki do topologii politycznej. In: Od liberalizmu do nacjonalizmu. Myśl polityczna w XX i XXI wieku. (forthcoming).
  • Taleb, N.N. (2007). The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable. New York: Random House.
  • Thom, R. (1972). Structural Stability and Morphogenesis. Reading: W.A. Benjamin.
  • Tow, R. (2011). Strategy, Tactics, and Heuristics for Research: A Structuralist Approach. In: B. Larrell (ed.), Design Research: Methods and Perspective. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Verton, D. (2003). Black Ice: The Invisible Threat of Cyber-Terrorism. New York: Mac- Grow-Hill Company.
  • Walberg, E. (2011). Postmodern Imperialism: Geopolitics and the Great Games. Atlanta: Clarity Press.
  • Waltz, K.N. (1990). Nuclear Myths and Political Realities. The American Political Science Review, 84 (3), pp. 731 – 746.
  • Williams, B.S. (2010). Heuristics and Biases in Military Decision Making. Military Review, 90(5), pp. 40 – 52.
  • Zeeman, E.C. (1976). Catastrophe Theory. Scientific American, 234(4), pp. 65 – 83.

Wiadomość do:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart