Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 3-5
DOI Address: -
PDF: rop/2013/rop2013toc.pdf

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

table of contents

Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 7-8
DOI Address: -
PDF: rop/2013/rop201300.pdf

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INTRODUCTION

introduction

Author: Ewelina Cała-Wacinkiewicz
Institution: University of Szczecin
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 11-28
DOI Address: -
PDF: rop/2013/rop201301.pdf

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The actions indicated above and taken by the United Nations and the European Union (in spite of their different international law status) argue that objectives attributed to international organisations are not only postulates, but a basis for actions taken specifically, both in the legal and actual dimension. Therefore, the main research objective adopted for this study was to bring them closer, with particular emphasis on the UN and the EU joint actions for international security. Due to the complexity and multifaceted nature of the discussed subject matter of these considerations, they will be confined to the T-306/01 Ahmed Ali Yusuf and Al Barakaat International Foundation case recognized by the EU Court of First Instance. In there, as in a lens, interrelationships between the international organisations in questions are concentrated; and not only in terms of international cooperation, but, more importantly, in terms of the principle of the primacy of the United Nations law over other legal regimes.

United Nations international security European Union international relations

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Author: Tomasz Czapiewski
Institution: University of Szczecin
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 29-43
DOI Address: -
PDF: rop/2013/rop201302.pdf

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Scottish Independence Referendum will take place on 18 September 2014. There would be only one question during referendum: “Should Scotland be an independent country? The reform of devolution established by Scotland Act 2012 is sometimes overlooked by observers as too little too late. The most principal issues of the referendum will be: economy, oil resources, currency, defense and European Union. Main doubt around referendum is whether Scotland would be better economically after Independence. Scotland’s position within the EU is likely to be shaped more by any agreements between the parties than by pre-existing principles of EU law.
Doubts about Scottish membership in the EU have to be viewed in the context of the referendum on the UK’s membership in the European Union, that will take place if the Conservative Party wins the 2015. British political class have always behaved differently towards the European integration than continental elites The importance of the European dimension of the Scottish Independence Referendum was proved by Panelbase poll in May 2013.

United Kingdom Scotland devolution political systems referendum

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Author: Łukasz Donaj
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 44-58
DOI Address: -
PDF: rop/2013/rop201303.pdf

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Planning is a process of defining goals and identifying means and methods to achieve them, effective and relevant to future operating conditions, and therefore a diagnosis of a current situation, design and choice of goals, and ways to reach them. The main substance of this publication is to present research methods (methods of prediction) relating to the creation of the future of an organisation, especially a political organisation, or a country. They are: strategic planning and strategic review. In addition, the problems relating directly to the above methods such as limits to grand strategy, the Black Swan effect, the Tsunami effect, and the arguments against normative methods will be presented.

strategic management strategic planning grand strategy tsunami effect black swan

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Author: Łukasz Ho Thanh
Institution: University of Szczecin
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 59-82
DOI Address: -
PDF: rop/2013/rop201304.pdf

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The end of the twentieth century wars initiated a paradigm shift. Conflicts that emerged at the end of the last century and developed in the early 21st century revealed new aspects of the armed struggle. The classic perception of war has been blurred. In place of the bipolar symmetry appeared asymmetric threats. The former state monopoly on the use of force was lost. Some new members of armed conflict appeared, traditional battlefield setting disappeared and progressive imbalance between the parties for the disposition of potential violence leads to inequality and instability in the world. Asymmetry became a main factor in determining the image of modern warfare.

economy of war classic wars asymmetric threat modern warfare

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Author: Wojciech Jędrzejewski
Institution: University of Szczecin
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 83-104
DOI Address: -
PDF: rop/2013/rop201305.pdf

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Russian authorities have for years been proclaiming that in order to ensure energy security and to increase their economic presence in North-East Asia their priority is to diversify gas export and to increase cooperation with the Asia-Pacific region. Despite frequent meetings at interstate and business levels, and numerous formal – but no binding – agreements, no tangible progress in this regard has yet been made. This paper argues, from a game-theoretic perspective, that peril for Russian geopolitical and economic interests ensuing from both inception of EU energy policy and evolution of the European gas market has been one of the factors hindering Russian plans of eastbound gas export diversification.

international relations energy security Russio-foreign policy European Union

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Author: Rafał Kopeć
Institution: Pedagogical University in Krakow
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 105-125
DOI Address: -
PDF: rop/2013/rop201306.pdf

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The prospect of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) terrorism poses a danger for contemporary societies. However, the incidents related to an application of weapons of mass destruction (that is, nuclear, chemical, biological and radiological weapons) by non-state actors are relatively rare. The aim of the paper is to present recent incidents and to estimate the threat from particular types of WMD. The author focuses both on the question of motivation to undertake these operations and on the problem of technological capabilities. To sum up, the risk of a massive WMD terrorist attack should be perceived as quite moderate due to the technological barrier, but selective attacks carry a greater potential risk because of their higher probability and significant psychological effect.

non-state actors mega-terrorism neapons of mass destruction terrorism international relations

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Author: Karatayev Turdaly Zhaksylykuly
Institution: Kazakh-Russian International University
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 126-137
DOI Address: -
PDF: rop/2013/rop201307.pdf

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In the given article the issues concerning normative resolutions which are given by the Supreme Court of the Republic of Kazakhstan according to criminal cases are pointed out. The structure and mechanism of normative resolutions are discussed. Correlation of normative legal acts are investigated. Normative legal acts consist of legal norms, they regulate and manage social relations. It means that, as the normative legal acts play an important role on the judicial sphere, they create, change the norms and even can stop their activity. Here we may include constitutional laws, codes, laws, all charters of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan which have legal power. Normative resolutions are equal for all, according to definite cases it is used not for one person, but for several people. Also, normative resolutions are used in accordance with legal acts, and until the used norm loses its power it can have definite power.

Supreme Court of the Republic of Kazakhstan normative resolutions criminal law

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Author: Karol Kościelniak
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 138-149
DOI Address: -
PDF: rop/2013/rop201308.pdf

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In recent years, the South China Sea area has become the arena of competition between the countries of Southeast Asia that set up claims to maritime areas and the islands, and, all the more, want to control and exploit what can be found under the seabed, namely the deposits of oil and gas. The situation in the area cannot even be resolved by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (Montego Bay, 1982). Apart from the resources found in the sea and under the seabed, this body of water is an important shipping route, which makes it a strategically significant area for each of the countries located there, or those whose interests involve the South China Sea.
In this work, I describe the current situation in the waters of South China Sea: whether the countries bordering it strive for conflict or just secure their interests. It turns out each of the states will set up demands to the islands on this sea and especially to everything that lives in the sea and is to be found under the seabed. Minor, and also more significant incidents will happen, but it does not seem likely that any serious open conflict between the states of the region will break out in the close future. None of the countries pursues it and they do everything they can to maintain the status quo.

Southeast Asia South China Sea territorial disputes natural resources international law

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