Турция

Zewnętrzne uwarunkowania polityki zagranicznej Republiki Turcji

Author: Michał Dahl
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 20-33
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2017202
PDF: so/12/so1202.pdf

External determinants of Turkish foreign policy

The main purpose of the paper was to present external (international) determinants influencing the shape of Turkish foreign policy. The structure of the work is based on the scheme developed by R. Zięba, illustrating factors shaping the foreign policy of the state. Due to volume restrictions, it was decided to analyze the following conditions: evolution of the geopolitical situation in the region, the position of the state in the system of international relations and roles, and the range of contractual international connections (objective external determinants), as well as international perception of a given country and nation, and expectations and requirements formulated towards them by other countries (subjective external determinants).

Polityka zagraniczna Turcji – uwarunkowania wewnętrzne subiektywne

Author: Michał Dahl
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2803-2648
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 91-101
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2019206
PDF: so/16/so1606.pdf

Internal Subjective Determinants of Turkish Foreign Policy

The purpose of this article was to characterize selected subjective internal determinants affecting the foreign policy of the Republic of Turkey: the concept of foreign policy and the quality and activity of foreign service and diplomacy. The most important challenges that Ankara’s diplomacy was forced to address include the need for a clear statement on the side of one of the blocks fighting in World War II, reaching agreement with Greece, partially related to territorial disputes, arranging relations with the USA, Israel and Arab states, as well as conducting accession negotiations with NATO and the European Union. The assumption of power by the Justice and Development Party has started a new phase in Turkish foreign policy. The article indicates international initiatives undertaken by Turkish decision-makers after 2002, including the promotion of culture and language (Yunus Emre Institutes) and development assistance (Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency).

Wybrane czynniki kształtujące turecką politykę zagraniczną

Author: Michał Dahl
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2803-2648
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 91-101
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202405
PDF: npw/24/npw2405.pdf

Selected Factors Shaping Turkish Foreign Policy

The analysis of determinants shaping the foreign policy of modern states requires taking into account a whole range of internal and external factors, both of an objective and subjective nature. The use of the typology of foreign policy determinants should be supplemented with the characteristics of factors specific to a given country, most often included in the social or cultural sphere. The lack of this type of supplement not only impairs the analysis but also makes it impossible to obtain a full picture of the phenomena and processes studied. One of the countries in which the analysis of foreign policy conditions requires consideration of a whole range of additional factors is the Republic of Turkey. The Kemalist ideology, Turkish Islam and Kurdish separatism described in this article, have a significant impact on the shape of contemporary Turkish foreign policy, thus should be thoroughly studied by all attempting to understand Turkish foreign policy.

Neoosmańska polityka w Bośni i Hercegowinie i jej wpływ na stosunki etniczne w kraju

Author: Katarzyna Wasiak
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 92-114
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2020207
PDF: so/18/so1807.pdf

Neo-Ottomanism Policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Its Impact on Ethnic Relations in the Country

Turkish foreign policy for many years has been based on the concept of strategic depth formulated by Ahmet Davutoğlu. Nowadays, the concept remains a base of Turkish softpower diplomacy addressed to many countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina. The main sources of the foreign policy are the traditional historical experiences of the Ottoman empire and islamic culture. This article analyzes the Turkish softpower diplomacy in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Nowadays, Turkey is focusing on the Ottoman past, as well as on the events of the 1990s: the civil war and genocide. By This way Ankara is gaining just Bosnian-muslim community support. The main question is why Turkey is leading the foreign policy in such a way? And what impact does this have on Bosnian contemporary ethnic relations?

Polityka zagraniczna Turcji - uwarunkowania wewnętrzne obiektywne

Author: Michał Dahl
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 17-40
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2017102
PDF: so/11/so1102.pdf

Turkish foreign policy – internal objective determinants

The purpose of the article was to present selected conditions of the foreign policy of the Republic of Turkey, formulated on the basis of a scheme of factors shaping the foreign policy of the state, developed by R. Zięba. The analyzed group of determinants was limited to the objective internal conditions, therefore factors such as: the geographical environment of the state, potential of the population, economic potential and the socio-political system. Using the analysis of legal acts, reports of research institutes, statistical data and literature on the subject, the Author of the work showed the importance of the above-mentioned internal determinants on the shaping of directions of Turkish foreign policy.

Sytuacja Kościoła ortodoksyjnego w Turcji w 1949 roku

Author: Ahmet Burak
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 148-156
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2017107
PDF: so/11/so1107.pdf

The situation of the Orthodox Church in Turkey in 1949

Athenagoras I (born Aristocles Matthew Spyrou, 1886–1972), who became the new Patriarch of the Orthodox Church in Turkey in 1949, which bears the name of the Patriarchate Fener. First and foremost, however, it must be noted that for the first time in the history of the Patriarchate Fener, Athenagoras I was elected abroad to the Patriarch, who was not a citizen of Turkey. The article analyzed the situation of the Orthodox Church in Turkey, after the change of power in this organization in 1949.

Turecki ruch młodzieżowy w Turcji latach 1968–1971

Author: Ahmet Burak
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 59-69
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2016103
PDF: so/9/so903.pdf

Turkish youth movement in Turkey, 1968–1971

Turkey has the honor of being the first modern, secular state in a predominantly Muslim Middle East. From 1968–1971, the Turkish armed forces played a critical role in the political formation of modern Turkey, contributing to a watershed moment in Turkish history as the country’s youth began to split between the ideological left and the right. The country was in a state of chaos as of January 1971. Turkish universities closed their doors and students formed groups of urban guerrillas, robbing banks and targeting Americans for kidnappings. “Young Turks” as they were known, grew dramatically in strength, registering the most strikes between January 1 and March 12, 1971. Consequently, a Turkish military intervention came as no surprise to most people in the country at that time. This article analyzes the Republic of Turkey’s leftist youth movement from 1968 to 1971.

Szanse i perspektywy akcesji Turcji do Unii Europejskiej

Author: Czesław Partacz
Institution: Politechnika Koszalińska
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 83-93
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2014205
PDF: so/6/so605.pdf

Opportunities and prospects for Turkey’s accession to the European Union

The purpose of this article is to analyze the relations of the Turkish and the European Union, first of all the values and threats that it may bring into force the Old Continent. The article presents the history of European integration of Turkey and the challenges faced by this country before accession. The arguments for and against the country’s membership in the European Union from the point of view of both the Member States and Turkey are featured.

Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne Turcji

Author: Aleksander Olech
Institution: Baltic Defence College
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3793-5913
Author: Natalia Potera
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7556-9491
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 122-140
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233606
PDF: npw/36/npw3606.pdf

Turkey’s energy security

Türkiye is dependent on imports of energy resources from abroad, but its current economic strategy is based on the diversification of supply sources, which will make it less susceptible to possible manipulation by suppliers. The government’s energy policy focuses on increasing the share of renewable energy resources and domestic energy. Despite the ongoing armed conflict in Ukraine, Türkiye has not given up on energy cooperation with Russia, trying to balance between East and West. The main reason was the Covid-19 pandemic, which forced Ankara to intensify economic and energy contacts with Moscow again. The aim of the article is to present the challenges that Türkiye is currently facing in the sphere of energy security. The authors of the article will try to answer the following research questions: What is the primary objective of Ankara’s economic strategy? Does Türkiye have alternatives to energy cooperation with Russia? The role of Ankara in the NATO Alliance is crucial as well as its position in the international arena. For this reason the research on Türkiye must be carried out.

Польско-турецкие отношения: генезис, история развития, состояние на современном этапе

Author: Ahmet Burak
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1894-5948
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 20-30
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2023202
PDF: so/26/so2602.pdf

Polish-Turkish Relations: Genesis, History of Development, and State at the Present Stage

Türkiye and Poland are located in different geopolitical areas, so ideological and social factors strongly impede political dialogue between them. Turkish Polish relations have a long history. In 2014, both countries celebrated the 600th anniversary of diplomatic relations. Despite numerous conflicts in history, both states have consistently made efforts to maintain and improve mutual relations. Currently, in the language of diplomacy, bilateral relations between states are still friendly. The paper’s author demonstrates whether they can really be defined as such.

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