Китай

  • Wywiad Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej – zarys struktur i metod działalności

    The intelligence service of People’s Republic of China – an outline of structures and methods of activity

    Studying Chinese intelligence service brings researchers and their readers together to identify the specific ways in which the state achieves its goals internationally. Intelligence is deeply rooted in the Chinese understanding of interstate competition, and its essential effect, ie knowledge, is a key element in rational decision-making in foreign and security policy. Intelligence is also an important tool for reducing the technological gap between the PRC and Western countries. Years of tradition, size and international status make the intelligence service of the People’s Republic of China have certain characteristics that characterize its operation. Their description may help to understand the philosophy underlying the intelligence work on Chinese characteristics, the role of these institutions in foreign policy and their methodology of action. Authors decided to focus on two aspects: the structures responsible for the interview and the specificity of the approach to collecting information. The main reason for adopting such a perspective is the desire to outline the main differences in Chinese intelligence work in relation to Western countries of cultural or even Russian. A look at the structure of the intelligence and its place in the system brings us closer to understanding what role the Chinese attribute and what they expect from the institutions called to collect information.

  • Miękka siła Chin

    China’s soft power

    The notion of soft power introduced by American political scientist J. S. Nye is becoming increasingly popular not only in science but also in journalism. In short, this term should be understood as the use of ideology, culture and diplomacy to build the international position of a given state. The masters in the application of soft power are generally considered Western states. However, it is forgotten that for many centuries before the West soft power to build its power was successfully used by China. Also today, rebuilding its international power, China is using soft power in its mastery of the world.

  • Specyfika guanxi – pozytywny czy negatywny kapitał społeczny?

    The specificity of guanxi – positive or negative social capital?

    The text presents the problem of a Chinese-specific phenomenon known as guanxi. Their features and their connection with Confucianism were discussed. They emphasized their permanence and continuous presence in Chinese society, emphasizing their evolution after China adopted the principles of market economy. Also tried to look at guanxi in terms of social capital, showing elements connecting both phenomena. It has been noted that some researchers have a tendency to perceive guanxi in terms of negative social capital. This approach was considered as unauthorized as a result of Western ethnocentrism and pointed to the need to respect the cultural distinctiveness of the East and West. It has also been pointed out, that the interest in China and the role that guanxi play, especially in the sphere of economy, may be due to fears of Chinese domination, as well as the lack of understanding by the West that effective modernization based on other patterns is possible than those preferred in the Euro-Atlantic cultural circle.

  • Uwarunkowania mocarstwowości Chin

    Factors confirming China’s power status

    Nowadays it is no surprise to anyone that PRC is put on an equal footing with the USA. Current geopolitical situation is changing in inordinately dynamic way. The situation from a few years ago seems to be very different from what we have now. In a new, multipolar world China plays an increasing role. It has become the second world’s economy after USA. There are many reasons that contributed to the current situation and it is not possible to address all of them in one thesis. Nonetheless, the important thing is to understand the reasons why China is becoming a geopolitical power.
    The aim of this work is to analyze the strong and ceaselessly increasing China’s position at the national level. Firstly, the changes that occurred in China over the past 70 years were analyzed. Analysis of the historical context helps to understand the dynamics of China’s growth as well as immense potential of this country. The next part of the work addresses the events that took place in 21st century with particular focus on 2008 crisis as well as its policy and economic implications that are noticeable in the present day. This part of the work also includes the assessment of China’s dynamic development. In this work there is also a description of China’s One Belt, One Road Initiative. Financial institutions associated with initiative as well as the opportunities for Europe connected with huge funds were described.
    The work is based on the latest literature on the topic, online articles and statistics retrieved from People’s Republic of China’s official statistics website available in Chinese.
    The work shows that China plays an essential role in the new balance of power. Due to dynamic changes in the global balance of power China can become a leading superpower in the nearest future.

  • Rozwój chińskiej soft power w Azji Centralnej – szanse i wyzwania

    The development of Chinese soft power in Central Asia – opportunities and challenges

    The article presents analysis of the development of China’s soft power in Central Asia. Since 2005, China has been trying to promote Chinese language and culture in Central Asia. Institutes of Confucius began to appear in the region. There are currently 13 of them. More and more youth from this region are learning Chinese. They also go to China to study at Chinese universities. Learning Chinese language increases the prospects of professional development and employment for people from the region. However, China still has a long way to achieve a satisfactory level of promoting its culture in the region. There are accusations that Beijing wants to train the Central Asian elites in line with the Chinese model. Central Asian states are, however, particularly sensitive to their cultural heritage. Cultural independence is among the foreign policy priorities of these countries. Beijing should continue to increase efforts to create a positive image in the countries of the region. The new Silk Road is becoming an important element of diplomacy to promote Chinese soft power.

  • Konflikt na Morzu Południowochińskim Zarys historyczny, omówienie problemów natury politycznej i prawnej ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem elementów polityki zagranicznej Chin

    The South China Sea dispute: historical overview, discussion of problems of a political and legal nature with particular emphasis on elements of China’s foreign policy

    The South China Sea is one of the key interests of Chinese foreign policy. The author of the provided article will analyse geopolitical factors, including estimation of the total value of the resources of the South China Sea, further providing the reader with information about international law regulations regarding the analysed matter, as well as presenting the current situation on the South China Sea. During the realisation of said plan, the author will try to prove the thesis that the South China Sea is of utmost importance to the Republic of China, the thesis that international law is unable to resolve disputes arising from said sea, as well as the thesis that Chinese presence is gradually increasing on the South China Sea. After proving all of the highlighted theses, the author will present the most probable political forecast, as well as opinions presented in literature regarding this matter.

  • Chinese and Western Comedy – an Introduction into Cross-Cultural Humour Research between Taiwan, China and the West

    Chinese and Western Comedy – an Introduction into Cross-Cultural Humour Research between Taiwan, China and the West

    The use of humour, both proper and improper, can influence the outcomes of meetings and shape entire relationships. Hence, although often trivial in nature, humour can play a significant role in human lives and deserves to be taken seriously. The same is true when it comes to the analysis of humour across cultures. In today’s increasingly globalized world, where people from various cultures interact on an almost daily basis it is important to understand the other persons culture, including their sense of humour. Consequently, this article provides a basic overview of humour of the world’s two biggest and most prominent cultures: the English speaking West and the Sinitic world. There is no doubt Chinese and Western humour differ in history and contemporary structure, therefore this article presents the various forms of comedic expression found in both cultures, but also provides basic explanations as to the reasons behind these differences.

  • Znaczenie ropy naftowej w relacjach Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej z państwami Rady Współpracy Zatoki Perskiej w drugiej dekadzie XXI wieku

    The importance of oil in the relations of the People’s Republic of China with the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council in the second decade of the 21st century

    The development of the Chinese economy in recent years and the changing international situation has led to the People’s Republic of China increasingly seeking stable sources of energy that could feed its developing economy. The countries of the Middle East, especially the Islamic Republic of Iran, occupy a significant place in China’s energy security policy, but in the second decade of the 21st century, Beijing’s intensification of relations with Arab monarchies from the Gulf Cooperation Council can be observed. This article aims to show the role of energy security in Sino-Arab relations in the second decade of the 21st century and the importance of oil imports for the development of the economy of the People’s Republic of China.

  • Zasada nieingerencji w sprawy wewnętrzne innego kraju oraz jej miejsce w polityce zagranicznej Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej

    The principle of non-interference in another country internal affairs and its role in People’s Republic of China foreign policy

    This essay is an attempt to elaborate the role of state sovereignty and the resulting principle of non-interference in the law and practice of international relations. Authors undertook an attempt to map out the course of the evolutionary process of changing the perception of these rules and the relationship between the concept of state sovereignty and the principle of non-interference in the light of the most important acts of international law. Authors found a need to answer the question about whether and when interference in another country policy is legally and actually permissible. Moreover the goal of the article is to describe and to explain the role of non-interference principle in China’s foreign policy after year 1949. In order to achieve the stated assumption, authors analyze its historical determinant (dated back to the mid of nineteenth century) and also following, after the end of World War II, process of seeking support in international law, in face of two imperialism, which were adversarial to each other. Authors also consider the reasons for China’s economic success in Africa in the context of the principle of non-interference, to finally move into the issue regarding the evolution of the sovereignty perception and non-interference policy among Chinese decision-makers.

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