Китай

Przede wszystkim honor. Przyczyny i przejawy specyficznego postrzegania jeniectwa w kulturze Japonii – w kontraście do norm społeczeństw zachodnich

Author: Kamil Weber
Institution: Centralne Muzeum Jeńców Wojennych
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6904-0073
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 25-41
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2021202
PDF: so/20/so2002.pdf

Above All, Honor. Reasons Behind the Specific Perception of War Prisoners in Japanese Culture – A Comparison with Western Societies

Cultural differences between Western and Eastern civilizations are noticeable in the system of professed values and in many aspects of life. This also applies to the approach to captives, which was clearly demonstrated by the events of the first years after the end of World War II. An example could be the way in which former Japanese and German soldiers, who were captured after the end of the war, were treated after their return to homeland. This article aims to show the sources of these differences and, to a lesser extent, examples of behaviors which they caused. The analysis consists of references to historical, economic, social, religious, and psychological conditions, which, as intertwined, resulted in the emergence of different perceptions of an individual’s role in a society and his obligations toward the community. These conditions determined the specific attitudes of representatives of each culture in difficult war and post-war circumstances. Explaining the Japanese soldiers’ willingness to sacrifice and the importance of honor for them, reference was made to the influences of Confucianism, Buddhism, Shinto, and the bushido tradition. Showing the deeply rooted reasons for the attitudes described in the article was therefore supposed to enable their explanation.

Szanghaj jako międzynarodowe centrum finansowe - osiągnięcia i wyzwania dla dalszego rozwoju

Author: Ewa Radomska
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9503-534X
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 164-184
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20212908
PDF: npw/29/npw2908.pdf

Shanghai as an international finance center - the achievements and challenges for further development

The purpose of the study was to analyze selected actions, which were and are important for Shanghai to obtain the status of the international financial center, together with an initial assessment of the achievements and an indication of the challenges for further development. The carried out analysis shows, that Shanghai strengthens its position as the world’s leading international financial center. Whereas it is necessary for its further development to implement reliable market rules, that will give certainty to investors (domestic and foreign) that they have an open and fair access to the market and their interests are protected. The transparency and growing maturity of the stock market, the full liberalization of capital flows and the full interchangeability of the chinese currency play an important role. Whether Shanghai will be given the right to valuation global financial assets, depends to a significant extent on the alignment of China’s economic development and progress in the internationalization of the yuan. It also depends on whether the leading foreign financial organizations will see Shanghai as the most important platform to draw dividends from China’s economic development and the internationalization of the chinese currency. In the event of these basic conditions not being completed, Shanghai will not be able to become a fully global, mature financial center, integrated into the global financial system, taking into account, for example, the degree of internationalization of stock exchange operations.

The image of Chinese and Japanese Theatre in selected popular and artistic press printed in Poland in 1930s

Author: Katarzyna Michalewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1011-906X
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 144-164
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20213007
PDF: npw/30/npw3007.pdf

The image of Chinese and Japanese Theatre in selected popular and artistic press printed in Poland in 1930s.

Journalists who described Oriental theatres usually based their narrative on personal experience. Both specialist, mass and popular press paid particular attention to elements that distinguished Japanese and Chinese theatre from their European counterpart. The length of performance, innovative technical solutions, different acting style were the elements that received most attention. Nonetheless, sometimes it was impossible to explain the origins of those differences. Furthermore, the above-mentioned differences usually spoke against Chinese theatre. It was criticized for different music, moveable stage scenery, exaggerated acting that was hard to understand. Such attitude was the result of lack of understanding of Chinese opera’s conventions. On the other hand, press eagerly commended the richness of Chinese actors’ costumes and ,,shadow puppet theatre”. Moreover, Polish press also stressed that both classical and modern Chinese theatre enjoyed immense popularity among Chinese people. Polish press went easy on theatrical art in Japan depicting differences that were in many cases the same as in Chinese theatre as something neutral, even positive as it gave the play magical touch. Sometimes it was emphasized that Japanese theatre could become a source of inspiration for its European counterpart. It was praised for masks, costumes, moveable stage scenery and music. It is interesting that in the last two instances Chinese theatre was looked down on. Polish press also spoke favourably of puppet theatre and ,,Takarazuka” performances. On the other hand, magazines’ opinions on acting varied.

Семіотико-композиційні аспекти формування творів станкового живопису Китаю: загальнотеоретичний аналіз

Author: Khuan Sin
Institution: Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Arts
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0783-6786
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 177-193
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20220110
PDF: ksm/33/ksm3310.pdf

Semiotico-compositive aspects of the formation of Chinese equipment painting works: general theoretical analysis

The scientific article is devoted to the complex analysis of semiotic-compositional aspects of formation of works of easel painting of China. It established that taking into account the holistic and fundamental changes that took place in the spiritual life of society in the late XX –early XXI century and due to the transformations taking place in the fine arts of China, it is obvious that profound changes have affected the methodology of philosophical knowledge and the foundations of artistic creativity. In art, the practice of artistic creativity and the accompanying philosophical reflection always go hand in hand, fully determining each other. In turn, attention to some specific aspects of the formation of the compositional construction of a work of art is not only able to promote practice, but can deepen the degree of penetration into all aspects of the topic under consideration. Emphasis is placed on the fact that extrapolating such a method to the study of the phenomena of compositional construction, we can afford to trace the relationship between individual artistic styles and their relationship to the goals and objectives of composition. This allows us to distinguish two aspects of the study: the attitude to the composition, its goals, objectives, methods and techniques in the context of the analyzed individual artistic styles; attitude to the composition, its goals, objectives, methods and techniques, as a communicative model of “open” type, in which the message changes as codes change, and the use of certain codes is dictated by ideology, features of historical development, translational movement of semiosis.

Uwarunkowania instytucjonalno-prawne rozwoju przedsiębiorstw społecznych w Chinach: przepisy krajowe i lokalne programy pilotażowe

Author: Ewa Radomska
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9503-534X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 108-128
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223207
PDF: npw/32/npw3207.pdf

Institutional and legal conditions for the development of social enterprises in China: the national provisions and the local pilot schemes

The aim of the article is to assess the institutional and legal conditions for the development of social enterprises in China by analyzing the current national provisions, indirectly relating to these entities, the local pilot schemes and the accreditation systems of social enterprises operating within them, as well as to formulate recommendations to decisionmakers concerning further necessary measures for the development of social enterprises. The analysis carried out has drawn several key conclusions. China is at an early stage in the implementation of institutional and legal solutions which are important for the development of social enterprises. There are no national laws and policies regulating the status and functioning of these entities. The national provisions on non profit law and company law relate indirectly to social enterprises. A complementary set of rules is needed to take account of the hybrid organisational form of social enterprises. In addition, a comprehensive assessment of the existing institutional and legal arrangements implemented under local pilot schemes (in Chengdu, Shunde-Foshan, Shenzhen, Beijing) is needed. They provide the basis for national legislation and policies relating to social enterprises. Insufficient understanding of the concept and the importance of social entrepreneurship by decision-makers at the government level can be considered problematic.

Threats to national security arising from economic cooperation with the People’s Republic of China

Author: Tomasz Matras
Institution: University of Wrocław
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4136-2038
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 40-55
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2022402
PDF: so/24/so2402.pdf

In the last thirty years, China became one of the most important elements of the global economy. China is one of the leading investor countries. In 2020, the value of outward Foreign Direct Investment from China amounted to approximately 153.71 billion U.S. dollars. Therefore, the threat of making other countries dependent on Chinese pressure is growing. Chinese leaders tend to use the potential benefits of cooperation with them as a bargaining card in relations with other countries – both developing and developed. This research article aims to present aspects of economic cooperation with China that are usually overlooked in public discourse and to arouse the reader’s interest in the subject. This article is largely descriptive, based on scientific studies and analyses of Polish and foreign researchers. The author has used historical, comparative, and monographic methods in his research.

Środowisko pracy w Chinach

Author: Elżbieta Kolasińska
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6592-5598
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 161-180
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223508
PDF: npw/35/npw3508.pdf

Work environment in China

China is a country based on traditional values on the one hand, and on the other, oriented towards the modern advances of globalization. It has undergone a wide range of socio-economic changes. The working environment in China is influenced by both classic and contemporary factors. This article discusses dysfunctional phenomena occurring in the working environment in China. These include workaholism, karoshi, karojisatsu, the 996 model, and the “lying flat” movement. The study is a critical analysis of labor relations in China.

Polityka bezpieczeństwa jako narzędzie polityki Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej

Author: Wioleta Gierszewska
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 120-136
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2014207
PDF: so/6/so607.pdf

Security as a policy tool in the Republic of China

The purpose of this article is to explore ‚Security’ as a policy tool in the Republic of China. Defense policy of the ‚Middle Kingdom’ [China] is an inseparable element of China’s foreign policy. Increased spending on militarization raises questions about the intentions of China’s foreign policy. It is worth noting that the ‚Middle Kingdom’ belongs to the group of world powers military, but China’s foreign policy largely determines its political and military force in the world and in the macro-region of the state of China. The limited communications and lack of mutual understanding of reality between Beijing and the United States cause unreasonable security concerns. On the basis of the content analyzed herein, one can conclude that the ‚Middle Kingdom’ strives to to become a superpower while increasing its army. The ambition for further militarization stems from a desire to gain greater prestige in the international arena and to ensure internal security and economic development.

Reforma systemu bezpieczeństwa narodowego ChRL

Author: Adam Paweł Olechowski
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Stosunków Międzynarodowych i Amerykanistyki w Warszawie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4331-8428
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 7-19
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2023201
PDF: so/26/so2601.pdf

The Reform of the Chinese State Security System

With Xi Jinping’s assumption of power in China, large-scale reforms of the entire state system have begun in this country, especially those related to broadly understood security. The aim is to improve the functioning of the Chinese state in the 21st century and ensure its position as a world leader. It is also important that in the reform of the national security system, the Chinese state leadership paid attention not only to this system’s basic elements, i.e., the army and the police, but also to the rule of law and social and environmental security. Such a broad approach to the issue of national security proves strategic thinking as well as understanding and considering the processes taking place in the contemporary world./p>

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