Znaczenie relacji rosyjsko-czeczeńskich dla współczesnego bezpieczeństwa międzynarodowego

Author: Paweł Bielicki
Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5015-6869
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 117-140
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20181906
PDF: npw/19/npw1906.pdf

The significance of Russian-Chechen relations for contemporary international security

The main purpose of my work is to present the determinants and dependencies that characterize the Russian-Chechen relations for international political and economic security in the former Soviet Union and the Middle East, especially the Russian Federation.
At the beginning, I intend to trace the process of the Chechen war and consolidate the power of the current leader of the country, Ramzan Kadyrov with the help of the President Russia, Vladimir Putin. At the same time, I will present the geopolitical significance of Chechnya in the international security system. In the following, I would like to present the implications of Russian-Chechen relations for other countries of the former USSR area- Ukraine, where in all probability Chechen “volunteers” participated in the fighting in Donbas. Finally, an important element of this work will be signaling, that President Kadyrov, despite aware of the Kremlin’s dependence on many matters, especially in economic terms, is starting to pursue an increasingly independent policy, as exemplified by the growing islamization of Chechnya, the participation of Chechen the Syrian conflict, Kadyrov active participation in the persecution of the Russian opposition, and finally the defense by the Chechen policy of the Muslim population of Rohingya in Myanmar against Moscow abstemious position. I would like to present the possible consequences of the above actions for the Russian Federation. It is not a secret that President Putin, despite the declared support for Kadyrov, is increasingly disapproving of some of his actions. In addition, it will be reasonable to present the reception of Kadyrov’s activities in other post-Soviet areas.
In summary, I intend to answer the question whether major changes in the relations of both countries should be expected – and whether and how any changes will affect the architecture of international security.

Bałkański tygiel bezpieczeństwa kulturowego – radykalizacja w Bośni i Hercegowinie

Author: Magdalena El Ghamari
Institution: Pałac Kultury i Nauki
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 158-177
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018108
PDF: so/13/so1308.pdf

Balkan melting pot of cultural security – radicalization in Bosnia and Hercegovina

After the end of the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1995, radical Islam spread in the country. The process of radicalization was influenced by the activity of Islamic charities and development assistance from Saudi Arabia and the settlement of former Arab fighters in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The article aims to argue the importance of the problem of cultural security and radicalization in the Balkans, and in particular in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the authorities try to implement educational policy that tackles multiculturalism and religion, as well as to open a dialogue with radicals who have become a threat to the majority of residents. Nonetheless, there are many people in Bosnia and Herzegovina who are vulnerable to radical ideology, which in extreme cases resulted in them taking a journey to Syria and Iraq and joining the so-called Islamic State. The reasons behind this decision were, among others: unemployment, poverty and lack of faith in a better future for the young generation.

Znaczenie ropy naftowej w relacjach Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej z państwami Rady Współpracy Zatoki Perskiej w drugiej dekadzie XXI wieku

Author: Marzena Mruk
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3529-0365
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 71-85
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20192005
PDF: npw/20/npw2005.pdf

The importance of oil in the relations of the People’s Republic of China with the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council in the second decade of the 21st century

The development of the Chinese economy in recent years and the changing international situation has led to the People’s Republic of China increasingly seeking stable sources of energy that could feed its developing economy. The countries of the Middle East, especially the Islamic Republic of Iran, occupy a significant place in China’s energy security policy, but in the second decade of the 21st century, Beijing’s intensification of relations with Arab monarchies from the Gulf Cooperation Council can be observed. This article aims to show the role of energy security in Sino-Arab relations in the second decade of the 21st century and the importance of oil imports for the development of the economy of the People’s Republic of China.

Sekurytyzacja islamu w Azji Centralnej

Author: Nartsiss Shukuralieva
Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4046-9738
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 33-54
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018202
PDF: so/14/so1402.pdf

Securitization of Islam in Central Asia

The aim of the article is to analyse mechanisms of constructing Islam in the discourse and practices of undemocratic Central Asian countries. This objective will be accomplished through the references to securitization theory located within the framework of the constructivist paradigm. The major argument of the paper is that the discursive transformation of various dimensions of Islam’s existence into a homogeneous threat to the security was an important securitizing move. Its relevance is related to the national and international level of legitimacy. The strength of the securitizing move results from the amount of resources of the authoritarian Central Asian elites as the dominant securitizing actors. In the first part, the text critically discusses the radicalization of Muslims in Central Asia thesis and the practices of the state structures towards Islam. In the next part it will present various manifestations and dimensions of the securitization of Islam in the discourse and practice of the incumbent elites in Central Asia countries.

Bezpieczeństwo ładu ustrojowego w kontekście prawa do samorządu

Author: Agnieszka Lipska-Sondecka
Institution: Akademia Pomorska w Słupsku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8911-4087
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 11-20
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20192102
PDF: npw/21/npw2102.pdf

Safety Defense in the context of the law to local government

Presented article shows current problems regarding the lack of compliance by public authorities of the fundamental principles and values defining the democratic systemic order.Failure to obey the constitutional rules of social life, circumventing the law, and even breaking them, weakening civic institutions, inevitably threats the security of the democratic systemic worked by Poland after 1989.In this context, the right to selfgovernment ceases to be one of the most important, elementary values allowing the fullfilling of the principle of a democratic state of law.

Krytyczna analiza postzimnowojennych relacji chińsko-indyjskich w perspektywie realizmu strukturalnego

Author: Marcin Adamczyk
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3432-0358
Author: Patrycja Rutkowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9660-9528
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 7-28
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2019201
PDF: so/16/so1601.pdf

Critical analysis of post-Cold War China-India relations in the perspective of structural realism

Our article is an attempt to answer the question of whether it is possible for two neighbouring countries, which aspire at the same time to the role of superpowers, to cooperate and have peaceful relations with each other. In order to answer this question, we intend to prove the thesis that the state of China-India relations, despite the appearance of good neighbourly relations, is defined by growing security problems. In order to do this, we intend to conduct a system-level analysis based on the current of structural realism in international relations using historical and comparative methods. The aim of this article is to critically analyze China-Indian relations in the post-Cold War period. At the same time, we intend to show that the thriving diplomatic relations between New Delhi and Pakistan are in fact a façade concealing poorly functioning economic relations and, above all, a number of security problems. The first chapter is a brief description of the theoretical framework of the article in the form of a realistic current in international relations and security research and an explanation of the applied concepts of power balance, security dilemma and bandwagoning. The second and third chapters are a brief description and analysis of political and economic relations after the Cold War. In chapter four, we identify the leading security issues in India-China relations. In summary, we try to answer the research question and confirm the thesis.

Zagrożenia dla bezpieczeństwa dzieci zamieszkujących w strefie konfliktu na wschodniej Ukrainie

Author: Tomasz R. Dębowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9933-8911
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 136-153
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202407
PDF: npw/24/npw2407.pdf

Threats to the safety of children in the conflict zone in eastern Ukraine

Publications on the conflict in eastern Ukraine rarely describe the situation of children living in the combat zone. More attention is paid to the political, economic and military aspects of this confrontation. The author has set himself two goals. The first one is to check how the war affects the biological and mental aspects of children’s lives. The second is an attempt to answer the question whether there is a possibility of improving the situation of minors. The paper on the problematic system is divided into three parts. The first part draws attention to the following problems: difficulties with access to medical care, increased incidence of infectious diseases, growing drug addiction, drinking water pollution, as well as the threat of unexploded ordnance. The second part describes: threats to mental health of children, socialization problems (pre-school and school education, family crisis, shaping of national identity), as well as participation of child soldiers in the conflict in Donbass. The last section of the article contains conclusions. The considerations were prepared on the basis of carefully verified materials in English, Ukrainian and Polish. Many publications were downloaded from the websites of international organizations, analytical centers and scientific institutions.

Wpływ środków transportu na śmiertelność uczestników ruchu drogowego w Unii Europejskiej

Author: Mariusz Nepelski
Institution: Szkoła Główna Służby Pożarniczej w Warszawie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4183-8809
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 107-123
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20213106
PDF: npw/31/npw3106.pdf

The impact of means of transport on the mortality of road users in the European Union

Road safety is one of the priorities of the European Commission, which is referred to in strategic documents of the European Union. For many years, ambitious goals have been set to reduce the number of road accidents and their deaths. Annual statistics confirm their gradual decline, but not in the amounts assumed. The aim of the research aimed at solving a practical problem, the conclusions of which were included in the article, was to demonstrate the impact of means of transport on the mortality of road users in the European Union. The main research problem to be solved by the quantitative and qualitative analysis of road accidents in the EU for 2010-2019 was included in the question: What impact do means of transport have on the mortality of road users in the European Union? Road accidents that occurred in 2010-2020 in all Member States were investigated. Nevertheless, statistical data on road accidents for 2010-2019 were used for detailed research. The resignation from the presentation of data for 2020 was caused by the lack of their reliability. The European Commission estimated that lower traffic volumes related to the COVID-19 pandemic could have contributed to fewer road accidents and fatalities. Seven main categories of vehicles that were involved in fatal road accidents were selected for the study. They include bicycles, mopeds, motorcycles, passenger cars, delivery vans, trucks (<3.5t), buses and coaches. Due to the significant share of pedestrians as victims of road accidents in the total number of fatalities, this category was also examined. The conducted research confirmed that the number of road accidents with the participation of the analyzed means of transport had a direct proportional influence on the number of fatalities, while maintaining the percentage ratio at an almost unchanged level. This statement shows that the goals of reducing the number of road fatalities set by the European Commission are incorrect, especially the vision of zero road fatalities by 2050.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - a Lethal Weapon of Tomorrow for Terrorists

Author: Aleksander Olech
Institution: Baltic Defence College
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3793-5913
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 44-60
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223203
PDF: npw/32/npw3203.pdf

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - a Lethal Weapon of Tomorrow for Terrorists

Terrorism has been used as a form of combat for centuries. Over the years, the tools used by terrorists have evolved. While attacks with cold weapons still take place, nowadays terrorists also use explosives, machine guns, guided missiles and increasingly often drones. The present growth of the arms market has led to terrorist groups being heavily militarized, as they can successfully acquire modern weapons and subsequently use them in their attacks. This state of affairs has directly affected the security of states and societies, and subsequently became a principal subject of discussion on international security forums. Contemporary global terrorist threats also harness artificial intelligence that supports weaponized robots, missiles, as well as clusters of killer drones. This narrative arose a few years ago, indicating that terrorists may have a vastly greater array of options at their disposal because they may cooperate with some states that would back them up. The chance for terrorist organisations to gain access to artificial intelligence technologies only increased due to the global competition surrounding it. Due to this potential spreading, terrorists will have a chance to operate weapons supported by AI. These events then merge into a deeply concerning scenario which conceivably may have to be confronted. The threat of terrorist organisations possessing and using swarms of drones does not seem to be very distant.

Kryzys migracyjny na granicy polsko-białoruskiej i jego wpływ na bezpieczeństwo Polski

Author: Andrzej Wawrzusiszyn
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7587-136X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 45-65
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223303
PDF: npw/33/npw3303.pdf

The migration crisis on the Polish-Belarusian border and its influence on the safety of Poland

Poland is under controlled migratory pressure on the border with Belarus. The influx of third-country nationals is supported by Belarusian state services. These activities are hybrid in their nature, and their aim is to destabilize the situation in Poland and the European Union. Although Poland has taken adequate measures to protect and defend its border, these events are a test of the effectiveness and efficiency of the functioning of the state security system. The purpose of this considerations is to present the events taking place on the PolishBelarusian border and their impact on the security of our state. In the methodological aspect, media and press reports, analysis of source materials and observation of the development of the situation were used. The result of the above is the fact that the migration crisis has not ended and continues to generate serious threats to Poland.

Polityka bezpieczeństwa jako narzędzie polityki Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej

Author: Wioleta Gierszewska
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 120-136
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2014207
PDF: so/6/so607.pdf

Security as a policy tool in the Republic of China

The purpose of this article is to explore ‚Security’ as a policy tool in the Republic of China. Defense policy of the ‚Middle Kingdom’ [China] is an inseparable element of China’s foreign policy. Increased spending on militarization raises questions about the intentions of China’s foreign policy. It is worth noting that the ‚Middle Kingdom’ belongs to the group of world powers military, but China’s foreign policy largely determines its political and military force in the world and in the macro-region of the state of China. The limited communications and lack of mutual understanding of reality between Beijing and the United States cause unreasonable security concerns. On the basis of the content analyzed herein, one can conclude that the ‚Middle Kingdom’ strives to to become a superpower while increasing its army. The ambition for further militarization stems from a desire to gain greater prestige in the international arena and to ensure internal security and economic development.

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