Россия

Barbarzyńca ze Wschodu. Od stereotypu do mitologizacji Rosjan

Author: Aleksander Zbirański
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1397-9356
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 107-119
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20192007
PDF: npw/20/npw2007.pdf

Barbarian from the East. From the stereotype to the mythologization of the Russians

The text presents the transformations of the image of Russia and Russians in Polish culture throughout history (from the eighteenth century to the present day). The aim of the article is to show ways to create stereotypes and national myths in order to achieve political goals. The political context of the changes taking place in the relations of Poles and Russians and its influence on shaping the image of the eastern neighbor is shown. The subject of creating stereotypes and national autostereotypes and the mythologization of one’s own history was already discussed at the moment of current events of significant importance. The text shows the relationship between politics, identity and international relations in the context of the history and aspirations of independence of the Polish nation.

Ataki terrorystyczne w Federacji Rosyjskiej w XXI wieku

Author: Aleksander Ksawer y Olech
Institution: Akademia Sztuki Wojennej
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3793-5913
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 109-127
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20192306
PDF: npw/23/npw2306.pdf

Terrorist attacks in the Russian Federation

The high level of terrorist threat to the security of the Russian Federation, which has been persisting for decades, is a process of many aspects. The conducted internal policy, involvement in armed conflicts in Ukraine and in Syria, the unstable situation in the Caucasus and the undertaken international co-operation have a significant impact on the activation of terrorist groups in Russia. Already in 2012, before the series of attacks in the French Republic, the on-going conflict in the North Caucasus was described as the most brutal in Europe. Since 2007, Russia has started to cope with international terrorism. What is even worse, it has undergone evolution, permanently destabilizing the internal security of the state. The recent attacks have been associated with the emergence of extremist groups from the Middle East, such as Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State, and their cooperation with rebels from the South and North Caucasus. International terrorist groups began their expansion into the whole territory of the Russian Federation, mobilizing the local government to undertake activities counteracting terrorism. Nowadays, the situation is slowly returning to normal, but new threats are still worth noting. The past experience and new threats of attacks urge us to re-analyse the current situation and define the goals of the anti-terrorist actions of the Russian Federation. This is also important in view of the consequences for other countries which are immediate neighbours of Russia, including possible terrorist consequences for Poland.

Ономастикон польских фамилий в документах новейшей истории Ярославского региона

Author: Анджей Гутовский
Institution: Компания «Северный aрхив»
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 102-113
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2019207
PDF: so/16/so1607.pdf

Onomastikon Polish surnames in documents of modern history of the Yaroslavl region

The article is devoted to the study of Polish and polonized surnames of the Yaroslavl region of Russia on the basis of a database formed from diverse documents of recent history, mostly modern authors. A range of sources of information about contemporary surname carriers is consecrated; an etymological analysis of the surnames is carried out, they are graded according to special features. The history of the repressiveness of the Soviet system in relation to the carriers of Polish surnames is traced. The conclusion is made about the strength of the essence and purpose of the foundations of Polish surnames as the most resistant element among the bearers of historical memory to the aggressive totalitarian environment.

Prawosławie i katolicyzm na Ukrainie w latach 1989-2014 - podejście ilościowe

Author: Tadeusz Dmochowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7609-6350
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 36-60
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202502
PDF: npw/25/npw2502.pdf

Orthodoxy and catholicism in Ukraine in 1989-2014 - a quantitative approach

The complex reality of religious and institutional situation in Ukraine (three orthodox churches; two catholic churches), imposed on ethnic relations, has a significant impact on the balance of power in Ukraine, reinforcing existing divisions: between Ukrainians and Russians, between west and east Ukraine, between Orthodox and Catholics. Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) is the most conservative force, with canonical and political ties (specially part of hierarchy) with Russia. It is the best organized religious structure in Ukraine with 12485 parishes and 10068 priests. Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyiv Patriarchate (4536 parishes and 3141 priests) and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (1205 parishes, and 731 priests) are much more related to Ukrainian statehood and are supported by the Ukrainian state and the Ukrainian political parties on their road to autocephaly and canonical independence from Moscow Patriarchate. The most aroused nationalist forces (the All-Ukrainian Union “Svoboda”, Right Sector) are often associated with the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (3734 parishes and 2594 priests), the main supporter of the Ukrainian nationalism.

Polityka zagraniczna Rosji. Determinanty, interesy i środki

Author: Sylwester Gardocki
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1703-0172
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 7-31
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2020201
PDF: so/18/so1801.pdf

Russia’s Foreign Policy. Determinants, Interests, and Measures

The paper addresses the conditions, objectives, and measures of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation. The first part of the paper presents - both in theoretical and practical terms - foreign policy’s determinants. In particular, it addresses their following types: internal objective, subjective internal, objective external, as well as subjective external ones. The second part of the paper uses the example of Russia to present interests and foreign policy goals constituting an extension of these interests. The author attempts to answer the question how to identify the interests, goals, and values of modern Russia. The final part of the paper presents - again both in theoretical and practical terms - the instruments for achieving the foreign policy objectives.

Dżadidyzm i reforma szkolnictwa muzułmańskiego w Rosji na przełomie XIX i XX wieku

Author: Andrzej Stopczyński
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9795-725X
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 138-154
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2020210
PDF: so/18/so1810.pdf

Jadidism and the Reform of Muslim Education in Russia at the Turn of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

The concept of Jadidism - the reform movement among Muslims in the Russian Empire - at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and to the present day has beeen of interest to researchers. Scientists discuss it not only the issues of terminology, but also in regard to determining the exact date of the occurrence of this phenomenon and determining its most important stages. Representatives of this movement have been recorded on the pages of history, and their achievements today are an extremely rich source for analysis, mainly due to the ideas they proclaim, which at the turn of the centuries were courageous, and sometimes innovative. The article aims to present the concept of Jadidism in the context of socio-religious changes among the Muslim (Tatar) community in the Russian Empire at the turn of nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

China as a Strategic Economic Partner in the Concepts of Russian Foreign Policy in the 2020s

Author: Rafał Lisiakiewicz
Institution: Cracow University of Economics
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8649-6518
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 43-65
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20212803
PDF: npw/28/npw2803.pdf

China as a Strategic Economic Partner in the Concepts of Russian Foreign Policy in the 2020s

The article presents an idea of the possible Russian - Chinese strategic economic partnership at the beginning of the 21st century. The author indicates the main factors influencing Russian Federation foreign policy towards China from the perspective of a neoclassical realism.The author stands that according to J. Rosenau, the main factors determining the Russian foreign policy are idiosyncratic and role. Then he analyses the Russian documents of foreign policy, economic data and geopolitical ideas. On that ground, he makes a simple analyse using the neoclassical realism model, that’s integrates Foreign Policy Analyse and International Relations Theory, joining independent and intervening variables, to support the article’s hypotheses. That hypotheses say that, firstly, The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) plays a role of diversification of Russia’s international economic ties; and secondly, The PRC status as a Russia’s strategic partner is at issue, despite the official declarations of both sides.

Federalne państwo irackie rozwiązaniem problemów etnicznych i wyznaniowych na przykładzie Kurdystanu

Author: Amin Zangana
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7487-4737
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 27-42
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2021102
PDF: so/19/so1902.pdf

The Federal State of Iraq as a Solution to the Ethnic and Denominational Problems on the Example of Kurdistan

Federalism is one of many political solutions to the situation in the Iraqi state. The reason is that it was a political solution most frequently used in the world. It was applied mainly in multicultural countries. The complex political and administrative situation compels to look for a political compromise that will find justification and legal basis in the constitution of a given country. The federal system appears to be the compromise. Meanwhile, the Russian model can be used as an example for Iraqi Kurdistan, particularly in the case of Dagestan. In the early twentieth century, the newly established Iraqi state incorporated a part of the Kurdish region, while at the same time there were plans to create the Kurdish state. The difficulties would not let up. Problems related to nationality were becoming more acute. The second phase of the Iraqi problem arose after the collapse of Saddam Hussein’s regime. A diversified country was beginning to face a problem not only on national, but also religious grounds. The Russian model, predominantly exemplified by Dagestan, could prove successful in Iraq. Both ethnic and religious similarities speak for it.

Zjawisko borderyzacji w polityce gruzińskich i osetyjskich elit władzy

Author: Agnieszka Tomczyk
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7063-5130
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 124-144
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20212906
PDF: npw/29/npw2906.pdf

Borderization in the politics of Georgian and South Ossetian power elites

The dissolution of the Soviet Union led to both the restoration of independent states and the emergence of entities with the status of unrecognized states. In the aftermath of the five-day Georgia-Russia conflict of August 2008, the borderization incidents have intensified. The process involves the installation of barbed fences along the Administrative Boundary Line (ABL) between Georgia and South Ossetia, and shifting border marks deep into the Georgia-controlled territory to transform the official ceasefire line into an international border by the Russian FSB border guards. The paper aims to examine how ‘borderization’ activities have affected the politics of Georgian and South Ossetian ruling elites. By becoming a part of the political and social debate, border incidents have allowed victimization the Georgian nation to be presented to the world. However, especially in 2012-2013, the two main political parties in Georgia differed in their perceptions of borderization. From South Ossetian perspective, in turn, the process has served as a manifestation of strengthening national identity, independence from Georgia, and above all, the belief in Ossetian statehood guaranteed by Russia’s military presence and the growing importance of the military elite. The methodology of the work is based on the case study approach, as well as critical analysis of literature, documents, web content and a review of archival materials. The paper also includes data obtained during the 2018 and 2019 field research in Abkhazia and in the IDPs camp in Shavshvebi, near the Georgian-Ossetian border.

Społeczność żydowska w Czeczenii i Dagestanie. Rys historyczny

Author: Kamil Pietrasik
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Studiów Międzynarodowych w Łodzi
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 211-224
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2017111
PDF: so/11/so1111.pdf

The Jewish community in Chechnya and Dagestan. Historical view

The author proposed a text in which he showed the most important events of Jewish people in Dagestan and Chechnya. Author showed statistics the number of Jews in the late years too and problems between Jewish and Chechens, other citizens in Dagestan.

Przywłaszczenie historii jako sposób walki informacyjno-psychologicznej Rosji przeciwko Ukrainie

Author: Olga Wasiuta
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0481-1567
Author: Sergiusz Wasiuta
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3402-963X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 21-44
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223302
PDF: npw/33/npw3302.pdf

History usurpation as a method of the information and psychological fight of Russia against Ukraine

In the article, the authors analyze the activities of Russian Federation, which falsifies, rewrites, substitutes concepts, deals with the heroization and deheroization of some outstanding historical figures and appropriates the historical past of the Ukrainian nation, arguing that Ukraine is an integral part of Russia’s history and its cultural space. The aim of the article is to analyze the usurpation and falsification of history as a means of war, including information war of Russia against Ukraine.

Эссе о провинции (заметки о дефиците власти в современной России)

Author: Aleksandr Skiperskikh
Institution: Bunin Yelets State University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8587-7415
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 333-357
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201918
PDF: siip/18/siip1818.pdf

Essay About The Province (Notes About the Lack of Power in Modern Russia)

In this article, the author using sketches of Russian culture, tries to understand, how institutions of power can function in the Russian province, and how they can be perceived by the society. The power is distributed unevenly, and this has a full effect on its deficit in relation to provincial political discourse. The Russian example is not an exception. From the author’s point of view, modern practices may have significant cultural grounds, hiding in a special relation to the province, which traditionally accompanied political discourse. The author sees this attitude in various sketches from the texts of Aleksandr Pushkin, Andrey Platonov, Anton Chekhov, Ivan Bunin and other Russian classics. The author’s interpretation of the problem required an appeal to the theoretical works of political philosophers, such as Giorgio Agamben, Albert Camus, Niklas Luhmann, Michel Foucault and Max Scheler. The author believes that in the space of the Russian province there is an objective deficit of institutions of power, which speaks, on the one hand, of a certain disregard for the province, and, on the other hand, testifies to the strength of resistance to local initiatives and legal nihilism that has become part of the political philosophy of the Russian provincial. In turn, the provision of a person to himself, affects a fairly critical attitude toward the political power. A person is not more capable of trusting the authorities and seeking support from them. His being increasingly assumes an existential character. The policy of the federal government in modern Russia gives rise to serious gaps between the center and the province, which can forms affect the specific perception of power itself, and also affects the formation of anarchic attitudes.

Idee dżadidyzmu we współczesnej Rosji

Author: Andrzej Stopczyński
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9795-725X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 84-99
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2022206
PDF: so/22/so2206.pdf

The Ideas of Jadidism in Contemporary Russia

The development of the Muslim religion in the Russian Federation is undoubtedly a very important and, at the same time, interesting element influencing the contemporary socio-political situation in Russia. One of the most important components of religious revival in this country was the change in the Russian Muslims’ attitude to issues related to religiosity. In the conditions of religious pluralism, Muslims in Russia, scientists, thinkers, and publicists often refer to the intellectual output of Russian Muslim socio-political activists whose activity took place at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The article aims to show how the jadidism movement is being received in contemporary Russia. Nowadays, the ideas of jadidism are also the pretext for discussing the nature of Russian Islam and its future.

Wpływ zamkniętych jednostek administracyjno-terytorialnych na rozwój gospodarczy Rosji

Author: Natasza Duraj
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0796-6620
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 100-116
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2022207
PDF: so/22/so2207.pdf

The Impact of Closed Administrative-Territorial Units on the Economic Development of Russia

The main goal of this article is to present the impact of closed administrative- territorial units on the economic development of Russia. Moreover, the paper contains information on the functioning of science cities in the Russian Federation and presents information on the financial results of the company Norylski Nikiel.

Bliscy sojusznicy? Perspektywy pogłębienia integracji rosyjsko-białoruskiej po 2018 roku

Author: Arkadiusz Czwołek
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2273-5345
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 27-62
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223402
PDF: npw/34/npw3402.pdf

Close allies? Prospects for deepening Russian-Belarusian integration after 2018

The aim of the article is to analyze Russian-Belarusian relations after 2018 and to determine the degree of advancement of the unification process of both countries within the formally existing since 1999 Union State of Russia and Belarus. In 2018, Russia took steps to accelerate the integration process. At that time, the Russian Federation presented two models for its future integration with Belarus. In order to force Belarus to tighten its cooperation, Russia used a whole spectrum of political and economic tools. The article diagnoses the main problems of the integration process to date and sets out the main goals of Russian policy towards Belarus. The subsequent stages of negotiations on deepening Russian-Belarusian integration were also characterized. The prospects for further integration of Russia and Belarus were also presented.

The Russia-Ukraine Conflict: Economic Consequences on Europe and the World

Author: Philip Fwaldin Kasuwa
Institution: Pope John Paul II Catholic University in Lublin
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7118-6461
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 63-82
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223403
PDF: npw/34/npw3403.pdf

A number of international sanctions have been placed on Russia since it launched an attack on Ukraine on February 24, 2022, in order to persuade the country to de-escalate the conflict. The sanctions imposed on Russia, while designed to harm the Russian economy, had unintended consequences on the world economy, primarily through the disruption of global supply chains. Energy supply shocks, commodities and trade supply shocks were all caused by the conflict. In many nations, this resulted in an increase in worldwide inflation. Despite the fact that Israel and Turkey were instrumental in mediating a peaceful end of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the economic fallout from the crisis continued to reverberate throughout Europe and beyond.

Rola panturkizmu w relacjach rosyjsko-tureckich

Author: Jakub Potulski
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 28-58
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2016102
PDF: so/9/so902.pdf

The role of Pan-Turkism in Russian-Turkish relations

The term Pan-Turkism refers to an intellectual and political movement advocating the union of all Turkic people. Pan-Turkism emerged among Tatars intellectuals in Tsarist Russia. In Tsarist Russia Pan-Turkism was in a part response to the development Pan-Slavism. At the beginning of twenty-first century Pan-Turkism became popular among the members of Committee of Union and Progress in the Ottoman Empire. After the Young Turks Revolution Pan-Turkism become a main political idea in the Ottoman state. The rise of a PAN-TURKISM as political movement is a phenomenon of the 19th and the 20th century. In this article author argues that the Pan-Turkism ideology still can be used by contemporary Turkey authority against Russia. Calling for a political unity and solidarity among Turkic groups can be a serious threat for Russian authority. The collapse of Soviet Union and the emergence of new Turkish states gave fresh hope many Pan-Turkists in Turkey, Caucasus and Central Asia. The annexation of Crimea, war in Syria and shooting down Russian aircraft by the Turkish army made hostile the Turkish-Russian relations.

Historia Czeczenii. Od podbojów mongolskich (1221 r.) po obecność armii rosyjskiej (1918 r.)

Author: Kamil Pietrasik
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Studiów Międzynarodowych, Łódź
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 68-84
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2015205
PDF: so/8/so805.pdf

The history of Chechnya. From the Mongol invasions (1221) the presence of the Russian army (1918)

The article presents the prehistory of the Chechen people. The author tried to present the most important aspects of Chechnya in order to thoroughly understand the origin and cause of the conflict between Russia and Chechnya, which took place in the eighteenth century and early nineteenth century, and already in the twentieth century.

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