Euroazjatycka Wspólnota Gospodarcza i Szanghajska Organizacja Współpracy jako alternatywa dla Turcji wobec braku członkostwa w Unii Europejskiej

Author: Ahmet Burak
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 56-55
DOI Address:
PDF: npw/09/npw2015203.pdf

Turkey formally applied for membership in the European Union (EU) on April 14, 1987, but it took 12 years to get candidate status at the Helsinki summit of 1999. The year 2014 brought no breakthrough in the negotiations between the EU and Turkey. Public opinion polls show that many Turkish citizens have no hope of joining the EU. Waiting too long for membership in the EU is causing a lot of controversy in Turkey and is one of the most frequently raised issues in the political discourse. In the last three years, the Turkish political class and socjety became more and more sympathetic to perceived integration initiatives in the Eastern direction. Turkey has opened a new road in the form of accession to the Eurasian Union and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. What will happen if Turkey will support its way in this direction? How long can Turkey wait for admission to the EU? Where would it be better for Turkey? The Eastern Alliance or the Western?

Two Centuries of Educational Innovation in Spain. Alternative Pedagogies: Are They Neo or Retro?

Author: Miguel Martín-Sánchez
Institution: University of Extremadura
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 49-58
DOI Address:
PDF: tner/202101/tner6304.pdf

During the last 200 years, the school and the educational system in Spain have experienced an explosion of ideas, approaches, trends, models and pedagogical currents which proclaim themselves as alternative or innovative. In this article, we are going to compare the alternative models and practices with the traditional educational model. We are going to start with a conceptualization of traditional pedagogy and the alternative models which have been presented in Spain in recent years. The conclusions of the study are going to show the relevance of the alternative educational practices; a limited relevance, which is more retro than neo; a recovery of the pedagogical memory and an updating more than an innovation.

Wiadomość do:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart