• The Borderland and Its Cultural Separateness

    In the reality of the creation of the new civilizational face of the world, caused primarily by scientifi c and technical progress, international legal and formal solutions, education oriented on shaping the understanding of directions of cultural changes, one can observe trends both to uni- fication and diversifi cation of the image of human life, and in that the blurring of the boundaries between the core values of cultural life. In this image the strength of tradition is confronted with a modernity. Political divisions of the world are an example of this reality, and in that the blurring of the boundaries between the states. In the formation of the new spatial-political division borderlands are becoming a specifi c stage. For them important tasks are appointed in close-up among states, nations and ethnic groups, which are directly adjacent, and in that remains in the tradition of mythologized relationship, usually about the negative colouring. Borderlands are diff erently comprehended in the global and local space.

  • A Borderland and the Local Authority

    In the era of globalization, unifi cation and the disappearance of borders, paradoxically, increasingly important is their determination, stressing the diversity, regionalization eff orts to achieve autonomy. Th is is evident in the ongoing scientific discussion at the junction of many areas where there is the issue of the border is quite clearly marked. Th ese considerations place them in the context of politics, and therefore power, but located locally. This authority, its scope, instruments are determined by the nature of the border, which is analyzed in relation to the center. Th us, they are seen as places where all processes are either specific or autonomous in relation to those occurring in the centers, or (as they are parts of a greater whole) underlying causes of phenomena are searched beyond their borders1. In literature, the frontier is treated not as the periphery, located far away from the border territories, but diff erent in many ways, integral components of an organization, equipped with a certain degree of independence regarding the implementation of their own needs.

  • The Theory-cognitive Significance of Janusz Reykowski’s Concept of the Development of Evaluative Standards in Intercultural Studies

    In the presented work, an attempt is made to specify the theory-cognitive significance of J. Reykowski’s concept of multidimensional moral development for intercultural studies. This proposal seems to be particularly useful in pedagogical analyses dealing with moral reasoning of children. The presented research results and their interpretation confirm the presence of intercultural differentiation in the development of evaluation standards of learners in late childhood. Therefore, this concept may have broader application in intercultural studies in education.

  • Planned Future, Exciting Present, and Positive Memories – Attitudes to Time Among Students from Polish-Belarusian Borderland

    The paper presents the results of quantitative research using the diagnostic poll method, carried out as part of an international project which involved 440 teacher students from the Polish-Belarusian borderland. The research focused on self-assessed level of information management, team work skills, and recognition of one’s own time perspective. The text only refers to one aspect of the competence, i.e., attitude to time. The findings show that the participants function in three temporal dimensions. The majority of the respondents are future-oriented. More than half of them sometimes waste time doing something meaningless. The vast majority of the students act upon the belief that what will happen to them in the future only depends on their effort, but many also declare a fatalistic attitude to life and the belief they have made wrong decisions in the past. In the article, we suggest the need to equip young people with instruments allowing them to create themselves, their lives and the world around them in the context of the foresight concept.

  • From Conflict to Reconciliation. Creating the National Identity on the Polish-Lithuanian Borderland

    The authors are discussing the shaping of the national identity of Polish-Lithuanian frontier denizens, regarding the historical events of the 20th century. In the first part of the article, they present a brief historical sketch of Polish-Lithuanian relations, putting significant emphasis on the moment of the Sejny uprising beginning, that is August 22nd, 1919. Reclamation of independence after World War I put both countries in a challenging position of building own nationality image. Defining own territorial affiliation of the Sejny region spawned an exceptionally harsh conflict between Poles and Lithuanians, leading to the uprising. The results of these events echo in Polish-Lithuanian relations in the Sejny region to this day. The second part of the article is devoted to the presentation of the multidimensional and constantly created identity concept by Jerzy Nikitorowicz, as an introduction to considering the shaping process of identity among youth of the cultural borderland. The authors point to the fact how important it is to find a platform of dialogue for both parties. They explain selected activities regarding intercultural education, accomplished in local environments by the “Borderland of arts, cultures and nations” center animators in Sejny.

  • Globalne pogranicza społeczno-kulturowe jako przestrzenie socjalizacji i wychowania

    Globalization processes stimulate the emerging of new cultural borderlands including, among many others, cyberspace and global cites. They create complex socio-cultural spaces of participation which can be described in the categories of diversity, instability, hybridity and creolization as well as multiple forms, ways, contents and institutions of socialization. The aforementioned changes impact the perception of the “place” category, the contemporary meaning, includes not only the physical space but also its history and cultural traditions. They also create new challenges and conditions for the processes of identity forming. Identification with the culturally diverse milieu can support development of the culture borderland identity. In certain conditions there can also be created a culturally uprooted protean identity or be neo-tribal identity of a bulwark defender. The above – mentioned processes and phenomena challenge contemporary education by creating new chances as well as jeopardizing socialization of youth.

  • Edukacja wspierająca rozwój młodzieży i jej uwarunkowania – raport z badań na pograniczu południowym

    The undertaken study is aimed at presenting the knowledge and research experiences concerning developmental tasks and the borderland, as well as stimulating the discussion which might result in a more conscious approach and application of these categories in the context of pedagogy. The author presents a report from some studies conducted in the Southern borderland. The text becomes a part of the debate on the tasks of pedagogy – the education aimed at supporting the development of youth. The research into fulfilling developmental tasks, shaping youth’s identity and its many determinants constitute an important field of pedagogy. These studies enable the recognition of the real barriers for individual development in the social and cultural dimension, as well as the efficient or inefficient strategies of overcoming them.

  • Od zaangażowanego uczestnictwa do biernego krytykanctwa. Aktywność, oceny i opinie nauczycieli z pogranicza polsko-czeskiego

    The cyclic survey, carried out on a representative group of Poles, indicate some changes taking place in the Polish society – what has changed is Poles’ attitude to their own activity which brings no profit but is of general social significance. With no doubt, growing social engagement is a positive phenomenon. The issue which the author has explored for years is the activity and engagement of teachers – especially those inhabiting the Polish-Czech borderland. Borderland is a space which enhances intensive activity and engagement. Transfrontier activities are largely addressed to schools and teachers and the cooperation in the examined area of the southern borderland is very intensive. The research was inspired by earlier projects addressed to teachers on both sides of the border. Its aim was to find out whether the views of teachers engaged in projects are close to the views shared by a broader, representative group of school workers. The obtained empirical data were processed with the use of statistical methods: for testing the statistical significance of differences between variables the chi-square test (χ2) was used, and for measuring the intensity of the relation between variables – Cramer’s V coefficient (0 ≤ V ≤ 1). The research focus was on the surveyed teachers’ activeness concerning both the participation in transfrontier projects and the search for knowledge of the neighbours. The research was also aimed at finding out how the teachers evaluate the activeness, in the field of establishing closer contacts between Poles and Czechs, of other subjects – politicians of all levels and educational institutions or associations. The analyses of the research results concerning this issue reveal the respondents’ strong criticism. It seems worth mentioning, that the respondents themselves present little interest in the activities aimed at establishing closer Polish-Czech contacts.

  • Two Cultures of Inclusive Education of Learners with Disabilities as Two Borderland Cultures

    Two currents of educational inclusion have been discussed in this study. The first one is built on the transformations of special education and constitutes the evolution of its basic assumptions. The second is viewed as the deconstruction of special education, it cuts off its traditions and its elaborated concepts. The thesis is put forward here that both currents can be described and explained with the use of the concept of cultural borderlands. The assumption is made that the space of inclusive school constitutes a certain borderland territory, where cultures get in touch. In the discussed case, this pertains to the dominating culture of full ability and the dominated culture of disability, as well as to the traditions of special education and mainstream (open access) education. Depending on the applied and fulfilled assumptions, these cultures differentiate the foundations of the discussed currents in inclusion. The hidden or explicit dimensions of the clashing, coexistence and integration of these cultures can be noticed, interpreted and understood by placing them in basic (due to the limited framework of this study – here: simplified) concepts of borderlands, elaborated within sociology and multicultural education. What is also assumed here is that no awareness of differences in understanding the cultures of inclusion leads to incommensurable methodological assumptions, which substantially undermines the organization of inclusive education in practice. The study is aimed not only at describing the assumptions of two currents of educational inclusion of learners with disability, but also at generating the awareness of the consequences of their theoretical assumptions in the daily routine at school.
    In the first part of the text, the basic assumptions of school culture are characterized, with special regard to the culture of inclusive school. Then, the two currents of educational inclusion are described and confronted with the basic premises of borderland cultures. The whole is completed with the final conclusion concerning educational practice.

  • Teachers and their Habitus -a few Reflections on Educational Activity

    In the study, the author refers to R. Kwaśnica’s concept of two rationalities and to P. Bourdieu’s constructivist structuralism. She assumes that the teacher’s activity takes place within the limits of two (adaptive and emancipatory) rationalities in a specific “field”, with a particular social, cultural and human capital, and with a developed habitus which determines educational practice. A research report is presented. This is done in the form of a record of the current state and socio-civilizational changes which have influenced teachers working in the southern part of the Polish-Czech borderland. Research results show both the continuity and change of the teacher’s behavior and activity from the perspective of social time and social change. They allow for a closer insight into the structure of pedagogical activities and their effects. The strategy of lon- gitudinal comparisons was applied. Diagnostic polling and the interview were used along with the (repeatable) panel method. The studies were conducted in time spans (1998, 2008, 2016) and they concerned the measurement of the teacher’s perception of the “other” learner in class, self-reflection upon the role applied by the teacher, and the teacher’s competences. The obtained research results allow for discovering the characteristics of the teacher’s habitus, for understanding the mechanisms of its functioning and for the effective design of educational activity.

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