Central Asia

  • Prichiny tragicheskikh sobytijj 1916 goda na territorii Turkestanskogo kraja

    This article reveals the main reasons, stages and consequences of the Central Asian peoples revolt against the Russian authorities during the World War I.

  • Rosyjska polityka integracyjna w Azji Centralnej wobec aktywności Unii Europejskiej na tym obszarze Część II

    The competition of Western states and Russia for influence in the area of Central Asia has a long history. Located in the centre of the continent, the Central Asian region is a kind of link between China and the countries of Southeast Asia, Afghanistan, the Middle East and a number of Islamic countries in the south, the Caucasus, Turkey, Europe and Russia – to the west and north. The beginning of the current development of the geopolitical situation in Central Asia falls on time of disintegration of the Soviet Union and emergence of independent republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The presented article describes the geopolitical situation of the region.

  • Rossijjskaja integracionnaja politika v Centralnojj Azii po otnosheniju k aktivnosti Evropejjskogo Sojuza na ehtojj territorii Chast 1

    The competition of Western states and Russia for influence in the area of Central Asia has a long history. Located in the centre of the continent, the Central Asian region is a kind of link between China and the countries of Southeast Asia, Afghanistan, the Middle East and a number of Islamic countries in the south, the Caucasus, Turkey, Europe and Russia – to the west and north. The beginning of the current development of the geopolitical situation in Central Asia falls on time of disintegration of the Soviet Union and emergence of independent republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The presented article describes the geopolitical situation of the region.

  • Borders of the Central Asian countries under the international law

    In the article the international legal status of the territory, and the territory of the state was ascertained, and the features of the legal status of a state border were identified. The main problem of the thesis is to show the causes of conflicts in determining the borders of the Central Asian states from the perspective of Russian scholars. The main issues of regulating international relations in the sphere of the delimitation of state borders under the international law in Central Asia are outlined.

  • Surowce energetyczne postradzieckiej Azji Centralnej: zasoby, produkcja, polityka energetyczna

    A paper entitled Energy resources of post-soviet Central Asia: reserves, production, energy policy covers topics that refer to production and transport of the petrol and natural gas through the so called “Asian five” states. Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan are over-regional leaders in the production of petroleum and natural gas. New natural resources reserves has been also discovered in Tajikistan and Kirgizstan. The post-soviet states of Central Asia are making an effort to raise their shares in the global petrol market however their abilities are limited by the Russian Federation`s position in the global market, corruption and nepotism. Only the overcoming of this negative tendencies might lead to positive change of the perception, as the region countries will be perceived as a key players in the petroleum and natural gas export.

  • Wymuszone małżeństwo w wyniku porwania w krajach Azji Centralnej

    It would seem that the twenty-first century is a time in which the marriage is concluded only with love, and the woman herself can decide whom she will marry. Author of the paper presents the phenomenon which is the abduction of women for marriage. History proves that kidnapping wives have been practiced all over the world. Today, this tradition has survived primarily in Central Asia. The phenomenon of forced marriages by abduction occurs in Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Bride kidnapping is a violation of basic human rights. This state of Central Asia are signatories to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, which forbid this type of acts It should combat all manifestations of this kind of phenomena in the world. The publication shall define the phenomenon. Central Asian states bound by many treaties, but has not led to the introduction of effective legislation. In the publication the author shall identify the factors that influence the perpetrator. Presented are also criminal law in these countries. It is worth noting that as a result of the occurrence of this kind of inhumane phenomenon occurs very frequently that the injured person is a child.

  • The Water Resources Management in Central Asia – The Political and Economic Contradictions as a Source of Inefficiency

    The issue of access to water in Central Asia has a centuries-old history and it is an exceptionally complex issue. The Central Asian republics, for twenty – six years of their sovereignty, have not been able to create an effective water resource management system. This state of affairs causes constant disputes and controversies, as well as various threats – social, economic and environmental. The article explores the genesis of the problem, especially from the period of Soviet power, when huge irrigation system was created and based on two rivers: the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya. These powerful investments combined with extensive farming are the root causes of today’s problems. The countries of the region tried to regulate the issue of managing the water resources by signing regional agreements in this matter, the most important are these signed in: Almaty, Kyzyl–Orda and Ashgabat. Bilateral or tripartite agreements between states were also concluded. Unfortunately, most of them were ineffective, contractual provisions remained only in writing. One could say that the cooperation between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan on the rivers Chu and Talas is the only positive example. The contradictory economic and political interests of Central Asian countries were recognized as the main source of the water management system inefficiency. Relations between the states are often suspicious and fueled by nationalism. Central Asia is a region that is not internally integrated, in which it is difficult to develop inter-state agreements. The author concludes that the shift in Uzbekistan’s foreign policy may support developing a new regional compromise in the long term perspective.

  • Prawo autorskie w państwach Azji Środkowej

    Copyright law in the countries of Central Asia

    The Berne Convention has not been ratified by the former Soviet Union. Far-reaching work to prepare the USSR for ratification of the Berne Convention was discontinued as a result of the break-up of this state. The Central Asian states acceded to the Berne Convention, independently of each other, after they had formally gained independence. The Commonwealth of Independent States to which the countries of Central Asia belong, has prepared rules for the creation of copyright laws for its members. The Eurasian Economic Union, which was established in 2015, is another international subject that influences the shape of copyright in the countries of Central Asia. The analysis of acts of copyright of the Central Asian states proves, firstly, that the laws of these states were modeled on the guidelines of the Commonwealth of Independent States, and secondly, it proves the high convergence of copyright laws. Differences, sometimes quite significant, reflect the cultural and social specificity of individual Central Asian republics.

  • Rozwój chińskiej soft power w Azji Centralnej – szanse i wyzwania

    The development of Chinese soft power in Central Asia – opportunities and challenges

    The article presents analysis of the development of China’s soft power in Central Asia. Since 2005, China has been trying to promote Chinese language and culture in Central Asia. Institutes of Confucius began to appear in the region. There are currently 13 of them. More and more youth from this region are learning Chinese. They also go to China to study at Chinese universities. Learning Chinese language increases the prospects of professional development and employment for people from the region. However, China still has a long way to achieve a satisfactory level of promoting its culture in the region. There are accusations that Beijing wants to train the Central Asian elites in line with the Chinese model. Central Asian states are, however, particularly sensitive to their cultural heritage. Cultural independence is among the foreign policy priorities of these countries. Beijing should continue to increase efforts to create a positive image in the countries of the region. The new Silk Road is becoming an important element of diplomacy to promote Chinese soft power.

  • Struktura organizacyjna Cerkwi prawosławnej w państwach Azji Środkowej

    Organizational structure of the Orthodox Church in the countries of Central Asia

    In the following article the author aims to track the changes occurring in the structure and functioning of the Orthodox Church in Turkestan (present-day region of Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan), which was a part of the Russian Empire, and later – the Soviet Union. For this purpose, the author uses the geographical and historical background of the events that infl uenced the shape of the local Church, and also presents its most important leaders.

  • Rynek turystyczny w Kazachstanie – wybrane zagadnienia

    Tourist market in Kazakhstan – selected issues

    This article concerns the modern tourist market in Kazakhstan. I focused to a large extent on the indications of the tourist industry’s characteristics in this country as well as the potential chances and threats that may be encountered in this area of the economy. The conclusions contained in the publication were based not only on source materials, but also on the author’s personal observations and memories of friends of the traveler. The aim of the article was to draw attention to the unusual tourism richness that can be observed by traveling through this country of Central Asia, as well as changing the stereotypical view of Kazakhstan.

  • Sekurytyzacja islamu w Azji Centralnej

    Securitization of Islam in Central Asia

    The aim of the article is to analyse mechanisms of constructing Islam in the discourse and practices of undemocratic Central Asian countries. This objective will be accomplished through the references to securitization theory located within the framework of the constructivist paradigm. The major argument of the paper is that the discursive transformation of various dimensions of Islam’s existence into a homogeneous threat to the security was an important securitizing move. Its relevance is related to the national and international level of legitimacy. The strength of the securitizing move results from the amount of resources of the authoritarian Central Asian elites as the dominant securitizing actors. In the first part, the text critically discusses the radicalization of Muslims in Central Asia thesis and the practices of the state structures towards Islam. In the next part it will present various manifestations and dimensions of the securitization of Islam in the discourse and practice of the incumbent elites in Central Asia countries.

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