China

The importance of economic diplomacy in the era of globalization (the case of China)

Author: Maria Ewa Szatlach
Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 208-224
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201512
PDF: siip/14/siip1412.pdf

Together with the acceleration of globalization processes, power in international relations has moved from the political and military space to the economic one. Today, true power means ability and capacity to integrate with the global economy. Therefore, economic diplomacy, which is not a new phenomenon, became one of the most important elements of foreign policy of all countries. The aim of the article is to present the importance of economic diplomacy in foreign policy in the era of globalization with a particular emphasis on the economic activity of China.

Mniejszości muzułmańskie w Chińskiej Republice Ludowej

Author: Jakub Cywiński
Institution: Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny SWPS w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 228-244
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2017.1.12
PDF: tpn/12/TPN2017112.pdf

The article analyzes in the three paragraphs the issue of Muslim minorities in China, focusing on the history of Muslims in China, certain groups who live and cultivate their religion on the Chinese territory and the current situation of main two ethnic groups – Hui and Uygur. In the first paragraph article focuses on the history of the phenomenon of Islam’s development in China. Second paragraph focuses on the actual ethnic groups, concerning Hui, Uygur and other, smaller ethnic Muslim groups in China. The third paragraph shows the political situation of Hui and Uygur groups today.

Chiny – formowanie centrum kulturowo-cywilizacyjnego Dalekiego Wschodu Część I

Author: Marian Tadeusz Mencel
Institution: Naukowiec Niezależny
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 50-87
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip202204
PDF: cip/20/cip2004.pdf

China – forming the cultural and civilization centre of the Far East. Part I

The paper aims at presenting the processes of forming China as the cultural and civilisation centre of the Far East. It is important, which is noticed, in the area of human and social relations towards the environment in which the most important cultural and civilisational transformations occur. In addition, the influence of relations with the outside world and factors influencing the formation of the first cultural formations are observed. The research space of the first part of the paper also involves the analysis of phenomena occurring in the process of the development of Chinese agriculture and the formation of cults, beliefs and religious rituals – important elements of shaping the cultural and civilisation distinctiveness of China.

Potęga współczesnych Chin. Zarys problemu

Author: Robert Łoś
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 79-98
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2023.77.05
PDF: apsp/77/apsp7705.pdf

The power of modern China: an outline of the problem

The modern power of China is based on its traditional sources: the size of the territory and demographics, the scale of the economy, strong army and soft power (culture, values, foreign policy, public diplomacy). China, by building its hegemony, showed that only a state with significant resources is able to be a leader in the modern world. The basic condition is the balanced development of individual power resources, because only then can long-term hegemony in the modern world be achieved and maintained. It is important for the world whether China will gain hegemony by overthrowing the existing world order, or whether it will try to maintain the existing order by building its leadership on its basis.

China – the Philippines relations in the Belt and Road Initiative cooperation framework

Author: Imelda Masni Juniaty Sianipar
Institution: College of Humanities and Social Sciences, National Dong Hwa University, Universitas Kristen Indonesia
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1565-2832
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 68-84
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2023105
PDF: rop/23/rop2304.pdf

This article examines Chinese-Philippine cooperation within the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). This is an intriguing issue because, in 2016, many people predicted that China would exclude the Philippines from the BRI framework due to their dispute over the Scarborough Shoal. Former Philippine President Benigno Aquino III had criticized China’s South China Sea maritime expansion, but Duterte changed the country’s foreign policy in 2016. He followed China’s advice and moved forward, resolving differences between the two countries and developing a healthy bilateral relationship. This article found that the BRI framework is critical in this shift in diplomatic relations. China and the Philippines’ interdependence, as well as the shift in identity from an enemy to a partner, have both contributed to the improvement of China-Philippines relations.

Feministyczna dekonstrukcja tradycyjnego obrazu kobiety w utworach Qiu Jin

Author: Michalina Koniuk
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0001-5374-5968
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 157-172
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20230108
PDF: ksm/37/ksm3708.pdf

Feminist deconstruction of the traditional image of women in Qiu Jin’s works

Women’s issues are a significant subject of study in the realm of Chinese literature. In many works, it can be seen to oppose stereotypes or norms imposed on the female gender and to take measures leading to the emancipation of the individual. Such literature is symptomatic of a desire for change in society, that is, the overthrow of the patriarchal system and the introduction of equal rights between the sexes. An example of such prose is the works of China’s first feminist, Qiu Jin, who decided to fight for women’s rights. She was sentenced to death for her revolutionary activities. However, her texts introduced a completely new image of women into the public sphere - different from the one that had been reproduced for hundreds of years in ancient China. The poet chose to endow her heroines with charisma, courage, intelligence and the will to fight for a better life. Her aim was to make women aware of their situation in life, their social role, and to encourage them to leave the male-dominated world. Michalina Koniuk, in the chapter “Feminist Deconstruction of the Traditional Image of Woman in Qiu Jin’s Works”, proposes to analyse Qiu Jin’s works and present that the characters created by the writer oppose and destroy the image of the obedient and uneducated woman that existed in ancient China. First, the social role imposed on women in Chinese society has been described, namely that of obedient daughter, wife and daughter-in-law. The requirements and rules expected of Chinese women have been presented, and how Confucian norms contributed to the belittling of women’s role and position in Chinese society. As the poet was inspired by her own life experiences, Qiu Jin’s life were briefly introduced. Her childhood, during which the first signs of dissatisfaction with the obligations and social norms imposed on girls could be observed. An unsuccessful marriage mobilised the feminist to fight for women’s rights, to oppose the doctrines of Confucius and to leave home and go abroad. This was a great act of courage and at the same time a struggle for freedom and independence in the life of a feminist. That part was followed by an analysis of Qiu Jin’s works, whose female characters exemplify the kind of norms and behaviours that Qiu Jin rebelled against. At the same time, these characters deconstruct the traditional image of a woman and introduce a new one of a strong and independent individual. In this chapter, all poems and quotations have been translated by the author from Chinese into Polish.

Energy trade relations between Russia and China

Author: Sayaka Yamato
Institution: Jagiellonian University in Cracow
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 62-71
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20230205
PDF: ksm/38/ksm3805.pdf

Economic relations between Russia and China have been growing over the years. Of particular importance in Russia-China economic relations is the gas and oil trade. Russia has the world’s largest natural resources, while China is the world’s largest energy consumer. In 2014, an agreement was reached to build a new gas pipeline and increase gas exports to China. If the planned volume of gas can be exported to China on a stable basis, Russia will be able to supplement some of the economic sanctions imposed by the West. However, there is much uncertainty as to whether China can be a stable export destination for Russia. There is a significant gap in the trade scale between Russia and China and asymmetrical dependence in the relationship between them. In addition, international pipeline projects have substantial financial and time costs, and the two countries; intentions sometimes differ. The purpose of this research is to clarify the current state of trade interdependence between Russia and China and to study whether China can be a stable economic partner for Russia. This paper consists of three main parts, with an introduction and conclusions. The first part explains an overview of trade and asymmetric interdependence between Russia and China. It then analyses the anticipated benefits and vulnerabilities of increased Russian gas exports to China. The third section investigates the uncertainties of China as a gas importer in terms of China’s dependence on Russia.

Oddziaływanie sztuki Dalekiego Wschodu w Polsce od końca XIX do XX wieku

Author: Yue Mingchunxiao
Institution: Uniwersytet Tsinghua, Chińska Republika Ludowa
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0003-3542-6394
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 132-149
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20230209
PDF: ksm/38/ksm3809.pdf

The impact of Far Eastern art in Poland from the late 19th to the 20th century

From the period of geographic discovery to the current era of globalization, Eastern and Western cultures have been in constant communication while being very different from one another. The Polish art scene was profoundly influenced by inspiration from the Far East from the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, or from “Young Poland” to the modern era following World War II. At the turn of the century, interest in Japan and its art expanded from Paris to Poland. The popularity of Japanese art in Poland increased as a result of social, cultural, and even political demands. Numerous ideas in Japanese art, such as ukiyo-e woodcuts, were compatible with the philosophy of the Young Poland era and hence served as the foundation for numerous art schools. Poland and China, another Eastern nation, frequently exchange cultural and artistic works during the aforementioned period, which are evident in sectors such as painting, film, stage design, etc.

Наслідки повномасштабної російсько-української війни для позиціонування Тримор’я в глобальній політиці

Author: Юрій Тишкун
Institution: доцент катедри політології та міжнародних відносин Національного університету «Львівська політехніка» [Lviv Polytechnic National University]
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0683-2855
Author: Мар’ян Лопата
Institution: доцент кафедра політичних наук Українського католицького університету [Ukrainian Catholic University]
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6598-1319
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 18-29
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023102
PDF: cpls/5/cpls502.pdf

Consequences of a full-scale Russian-Ukrainian war for the positioning of the «Three Seas Initiative» in global politics

The article discusses the term “Three Seas Initiative” – a product of the adaptation of the philosophical and geographical category “Intermarium” to the description of Central-Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. The thesis is substantiated that the application of the category “Intermarium” to Central-Eastern and South-Eastern Europe is due not only to the “mental geography” of Polish political thought and the practical needs of Polish geopolitics of the 20th and 21st centuries but also to the objectively existing general characteristics of the region (its buffer status between geopolitical powers of Germany and Russia, the lower level of prosperity of this region compared to Western Europe, its predominantly Slavic character, which repeatedly pushes the implementation of pan-Slavist projects in the Central-Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, the trends in social, in particular, cultural, economic and political, which are observed at least since the late 1980s). It is argued that the project “Three Seas Initiative” by A. Duda is a modern reincarnation of the idea of the Prometheists – “Intermarium”, created between the two world wars on the basis of the Jagiellonian idea of the Early Modern Age. This project arose as an opposition of rightwing conservative, poorer EU members to its left-liberal, rich participants with external support from the Eurosceptic, right-wing populist government of D. Trump in the USA. However, the evolution of the Three Seas Initiative finally led it to institutionalization as one of the cores of integration in the modern European Union at different speeds, with an emphasis on the development of cross-border communication and infrastructure projects in the region with the cooperation of the EU and the USA. It is emphasized that after the start of the Russian- Ukrainian war, the threat of its spread to the territory of the “Three Seas Initiative”, which the EU cannot overcome, forces the members of the initiative to seek direct military support from the United States in exchange for Washington’s support in its opposition to Beijing, an ally of Moscow. “Three Seas Initiative” could be perceived as an activation of the role of the region as one of the outposts of opposition to Chinese influence on the planet. In addition, the Russian- Ukrainian war involuntarily led to the achievement of one of the goals of the Three Seas Initiative - the development of the logistics infrastructure of its participants, due to the need to serve large-scale land and air movements of troops and the functioning of “grain” and humanitarian corridors from the European Union to Ukraine. Also, a full-scale Russian-Ukrainian war caused the resuscitation and development of the military-industrial complex of the Three Seas Initiative countries, its integration within the region and the rest of the EU, as well as with Ukraine, the USA, and South Korea, which gives a chance for high-tech economic growth of the participants of the project.

Quo Vadis, America? U.S. National Security Strategy under President Joe Biden

Author: Ewelina Waśko-Owsiejczuk
Institution: University of Białystok
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 114-140
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2023.79.06
PDF: apsp/79/apsp7906.pdf

The research purpose of the paper is to analyze the key assumptions outlined in the US National Security Strategy 2022. The paper will look for answers to the following questions: What is national security strategy? Is it an important document? What and for whom does it matter? What direction will US policy take under Joe Biden’s administration? What tools and methods will be used? What are the goals and priorities set in the document? Which countries are among the closest allies and biggest adversaries? What impact had the Russian aggression against Ukraine on the shape of the US National Security Strategy 2022? The main research method will be source analysis and criticism, as well as a comparative method to contrast the current NSS with previous ones. The research thesis assumes that the priority of the current US security strategy remains the one initiated during previous White House administrations – the rivalry with China, which in tandem with Russia aims to change the modern international order, threatening the national interests of the United States of America. The conducted analysis, on the one hand, confirms the thesis, and, on the other hand, points to inconsistencies in US strategic thinking (which takes the form of a “wish list”), which can significantly affect the effectiveness of the implementation of the set goals and objectives.

Uyghurs of Syria: Significance for the Syrian Conflict and International Implications

Author: Przemysław Mazur
Institution: University of the National Education Commission in Krakow
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 194-214
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2023.79.10
PDF: apsp/79/apsp7910.pdf

The main objective of the article was to determine whether the Uyghurs were a relevant group in the Syrian conflict, i.e., whether they were numerous, well-organized and determined enough to take the fight to the Syrian army or other non-state actors or cooperate with them. Several levels of analysis were carried out in this article. Firstly, article aimed to show where the Uyghurs in Syria came from. Secondly, the following section assessed their importance to the Syrian conflict, as well as who they worked with and fought against. Thirdly, it analysed whether their military and political involvement could have an impact on the international situation. Last but not least, the fate of Uyghurs, especially those who left for Syria, was discussed. The latter issue is also a question about Syria, its fate and place in the politics of other countries.

Social Credit System: A Discussion about the Utility of Chinese Digital Project in a European Union Settings

Author: Maciej Walkowski
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4293-1084
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Page no: 21
Pages: 151-171
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202395
PDF: ppsy/52/ppsy202395.pdf

The Social Credit System (SCS, 社会信用体系, shèhuì xìnyòng tĭxì), is an extremely interesting, ultimately nationwide pilot project, consisting of establishing the system of social rating, which, based on data collected over decades and stored both analog and with the use of state-of-the-art technologies will create profiles of citizens and businesses in the People’s Republic of China. The system focuses on four main spheres – national enterprises and economy, society, the judiciary, and public administration. It is in them that a higher level of social trust and security will be ensured, law regulations better observed, corruption eliminated, and proper transparency guaranteed. In analyzing the issue of the Western world’s attitude to the mechanism of digital surveillance and control of business and social activity in China, I should seek answers to the following questions, intriguing from the cognitive and practical perspective: Which of the above interpretations seems to be closer to the truth?; can the SCS have, at least partially, a universal character in the European Union, especially in the societies with a different system of values and the countries with a different political system than the one of the PRC?

Rola Inicjatywy Pasa i Szlaku w równoważeniu stosunków handlowych między Polską a Chinami: analiza przepływów międzygałęziowych

Author: Ewa Cieślik
Institution: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Poznaniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7230-8480
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 5-31
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap2023.2.01
PDF: ap/28/ap2801.pdf

The Role of the Belt and Road Initiative in Balancing Trade Relations between Poland and China: An Input-Output Analysis

Trade relations between Poland and China remain asymmetric. The introduction of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and its related formats was intended to balance trade relations between China and its trading partners. The study aims to track the value-added flows between Poland and China. Two research questions were posed: 1) whether Chinese initiatives aimed at balancing trade relations are reflected in more balanced flows of added value between Poland and China; 2) whether the role of Poland as a supplier of added value to China is growing as a result of the introduction of BRI and related initiatives. The study used Inter-Country Input-Output in input-output models. The findings show that Poland’s position in global production links with China has deteriorated in many industries and plays a minor role in the Chinese industry. On the other hand, BRI had a very limited impact on balancing the value-added flows between China and Poland only in a few industries.

Reforma systemu bezpieczeństwa narodowego ChRL

Author: Adam Paweł Olechowski
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Stosunków Międzynarodowych i Amerykanistyki w Warszawie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4331-8428
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 7-19
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2023201
PDF: so/26/so2601.pdf

The Reform of the Chinese State Security System

With Xi Jinping’s assumption of power in China, large-scale reforms of the entire state system have begun in this country, especially those related to broadly understood security. The aim is to improve the functioning of the Chinese state in the 21st century and ensure its position as a world leader. It is also important that in the reform of the national security system, the Chinese state leadership paid attention not only to this system’s basic elements, i.e., the army and the police, but also to the rule of law and social and environmental security. Such a broad approach to the issue of national security proves strategic thinking as well as understanding and considering the processes taking place in the contemporary world.

Green Soft Power? Checking in on China as a Responsible Stakeholder

Author: Agnieszka Nitza-Makowska
Institution: Collegium Civitas (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1677-986X
Author: Kerry Longhurst
Institution: Collegium Civitas (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4710-2640
Author: Katarzyna Skiert-Andrzejuk
Institution: Collegium Civitas (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4451-5092
Year of publication: 2024
Source: Show
Pages: 17-33
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202402
PDF: ppsy/53-1/ppsy2024102.pdf

By assuming a proactive role in international environmental regimes and extending the ‘green’ dimensions of its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), China has been seeking to promote itself as a leader and responsible stakeholder in global environmental governance. This article examines this development concerning the notion of China’s ‘soft power’ and, more specifically, the notion of ‘green soft power’ – which aims to bridge the traditional concept of soft power with a state’s behavior on environmental and climate issues. China presents an interesting case since it has accrued a considerable amount of green soft power through its multilateral environmental diplomacy practiced at the Conferences of the Parties (COPs), the high-profile annual United Nations Climate Change Conferences, but its patchy deployment of environmental standards in the bilateral engagements under the BRI highlights the contradictions in referring to China as a green soft power. With these ideas in mind, this article holds that in the search to understand the evolving nature of China’s responsible stakeholder role, attention should be given to exploring the notion of green soft power.

The Role of Anglo-Saxon Countries in Maintaining the American-led Order in the Indo-Pacific Region

Author: Łukasz Jureńczyk
Institution: Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1149-925X
Author: Adam Kuź
Institution: Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5022-7137
Year of publication: 2024
Source: Show
Pages: 87-105
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202406
PDF: ppsy/53-1/ppsy2024106.pdf

The analysis is based on theoretical assumptions characteristic of the multi-order world by Trine Flockhart concept. The main factor influencing the situation in the Indo-Pacific region is the conflict between two international orders, Chinese-led and American-led, which is economic but may take a military form in the future. The practical limitations of the article result from the complex process of analyzing and forecasting political phenomena in statu nascendi. The analysis contributes to the scientific discussion on the future of international relations in the Indo-Pacific region. The American-led order in the Indo-Pacific region is based on the institutionalized forms of cooperation involving Anglo-Saxon states based on identity factors determining their effectiveness. The US strategy for the Indo-Pacific is mainly based on the network of partnerships with the region’s countries and countries from other parts of the world supporting the American-led order in the region, especially the Anglo-Saxon countries. In addition to identity factors, the positive long-term experience of military cooperation between the Anglo-Saxon countries is significant. The escalation of the global conflict between the US and China will be conducive to further tightening this cooperation.

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