• Democracy at the Service of the Community

    In popular consciousness, the dispute between the communitarians and the liberals focuses on citizens’ individualism and the role and place of the community in contemporary society. However, it is merely a simpli-fied vision of the topic of discussion between supporters of the currents of political thought indicated above. Indeed, a no less essential part of the debate concerns problems associated with the interpretation of the idea and the principles of democracy, their uses and importance in human life. The canon of fundamental values of democratic government includes freedom and equality. These principles are inherently conducive to the emergence of conflicts, as illustrated by the classic dilemma „the more freedom, the less equality, and the more equality, the less freedom.“ This particular problem has determined the emergence of two major theories of democracy: individualistic and collectivist. The main difference between these approaches to democracy concerns the view of the relationship between the state and society, and between the state and it‘s citizens. And thus, the individualistic current (procedural) derived from the traditions of the English Revolution aims to reduce the area of activity and competence of the government to the minimum specified explicitly in the rules of law. Consequently, both Society and citizens are free from the state, the latter becoming only the guardian of the laws.

  • Tożsamość ukraińskiego Lwowa: jak rodził się matecznik kulturowego oporu

    The Identity of Ukrainian Lviv: how the stronghold of cultural resistance has been created. Th e aim of the essay is to present and explain the process of creation of the identity of contemporary Lviv. According to the author, in order to analyze this process, it is necessary to remember about cultural factors which can infl uence political aff airs. Th e essay includes an examination of the main cultural images composing the identity of the city, especially these believed to be attractive for the presented community, as well and these which are treated as the points of repulsion.

  • Kultura szkoły stymulująca kształtowanie uczącej się wspólnoty

    The article presents the concept of community as a sociological category, there are various ways to define it, the importance of sentiment, moral order, identification and contact in its meaning is emphasized. A learning community is identified as a group of people in contact with each other, having a sense of bond, awareness of their own identity and individuality, as well as experiencing mutual support, recognition and belonging. The determinants of the process of shaping such a community in the school are indicated and the focus is on school-related factors. The teacher’s role in creating a school culture conducive to creating a learning community is emphasized. The teacher’s knowledge and skills, his personal characteristics and attitude to life are emphasized, as well as the teacher’s motivation for continuous learning, self-reflection and self-evaluation of everyday practice. As a result of the analysis, it is found that the creation of a learning community at school is fostered by the culture of cooperation, dialogue and creativity, and at the same time this type of organizational culture can be influenced by the learning community.

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