The study comprises the presentation of an authorial approach to cultural identity, viewed from the perspective of the communities (consisting of children, parents and teachers) of schools with Polish as the teaching language in Australia and some selected European countries (Austria, France, the Czech Republic). In reference to the culturalistic model of identity, the characteristics of the most frequent identity behaviours of these communities were provided in the ethnic, national, integrative and mixed dimension. The author also indicates the contemporary contexts of identity shaping, which are determined by migration processes and multiculturalism. By formulating the most important conclusions resulting from the research, the need is indicated for implementing intercultural education in schools with Polish as the teaching language. Among other things, this will enhance the shaping of a multidimensional feeling of identity.