competition

  • The EU-China Economic Relations: a Harmful Competition or a Strategic Cooperation?

    Author: Maciej Walkowski
    E-mail: maciej.walkowski@amu.edu.pl
    Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 172-189
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017211
    PDF: ppsy/46-2/ppsy2017211.pdf

    The People’s Republic of China currently possesses the second biggest national economy in the world, smaller only to that of the United States. It is also a matter of time for China to become the greatest economic power, at least regarding share in aggregated global GDP and the sphere of international trade. Growing engagement of China in global economic development and its dependence on other participants of trade exchanges have made this country a  more ‘responsible shareholder’ of the international economic system. China has a  great development interest in upholding a  stable world economic situation, and especially in proper economic relations with the United States and the European Union, on whose markets its healthy development largely depends. Whether China will soon become a “mature, responsible and attractive superpower” depends to a significant degree not only on its efforts but also on proper relations with major trade and investment partners around the world. It seems that mutually beneficial economic relations between the PRC and the European Union (founded on mutually beneficial and strategic cooperation and not on serious and opaque competition) constitute one of the key factors determining this scenario’s validity. Unfortunately, for the time being, many problems arise in this relationship. They come from both sides requiring a proper diagnosis, as well as a scientific analysis including both assessment and prognosis. The presented scientific article tries to meet these expectations.

  • Rosyjska polityka integracyjna w Azji Centralnej wobec aktywności Unii Europejskiej na tym obszarze Część II

    Author: Sylwester Gardocki
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 37-55
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015202
    PDF: npw/09/npw2015202.pdf

    The competition of Western states and Russia for influence in the area of Central Asia has a long history. Located in the centre of the continent, the Central Asian region is a kind of link between China and the countries of Southeast Asia, Afghanistan, the Middle East and a number of Islamic countries in the south, the Caucasus, Turkey, Europe and Russia – to the west and north. The beginning of the current development of the geopolitical situation in Central Asia falls on time of disintegration of the Soviet Union and emergence of independent republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The presented article describes the geopolitical situation of the region.

  • Rossijjskaja integracionnaja politika v Centralnojj Azii po otnosheniju k aktivnosti Evropejjskogo Sojuza na ehtojj territorii Chast 1

    Author: Sylwester Gardocki
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski, Poland
    Year of publication: 2015
    Pages: 13-27
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015101
    PDF: npw/08/npw2015101.pdf

    The competition of Western states and Russia for influence in the area of Central Asia has a long history. Located in the centre of the continent, the Central Asian region is a kind of link between China and the countries of Southeast Asia, Afghanistan, the Middle East and a number of Islamic countries in the south, the Caucasus, Turkey, Europe and Russia – to the west and north. The beginning of the current development of the geopolitical situation in Central Asia falls on time of disintegration of the Soviet Union and emergence of independent republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The presented article describes the geopolitical situation of the region.

  • Public Reforms of Swedish Upper Secondary Education, 1991–2017

    Author: Staffan Kling
    E-mail: staffan.kling@spa.gu.se
    Institution: University of Gothenburg, Sweden
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0557-2027
    Author: Iwona Sobis
    E-mail: iwona.sobis@spa.gu.se
    Institution: University of Gothenburg, Sweden
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0196-8454
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 9-39
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2018.04.01
    PDF: kie/122/kie12201.pdf

    This article focuses on the Swedish reforms of upper secondary schools and their effects during the period of 1991–2017. The reforms were conducted in the spirit of New Public Management (NPM) and generated many more problems than solutions. The purpose of this article is to prepare a foundation for further research by mapping: What do we know about the NPM reforms within the Swedish upper secondary schools? What kind of knowledge is still missing and should it be developed? With the assistance of Roland Almqvist’s (2006) understanding for the NPM movement divided into three theoretical perspectives (marketization, contract management, and decentralization), we propose a literature study.
    This study showed that the Swedish reforms of the upper secondary schools contributed to growing social segregation among students, students’ decreasing performance in science, reading and mathematics that proved to be under the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average, and teachers experienced a lack of autonomy and de-professionalization. The political promises about “school for all” and “social inclusion” either were not fulfilled or the reform effects were not investigated well enough. Despite all research being done, we do not know what kind of Swedish upper secondary school represents a good practice for the future.

  • China in the South China Sea. Can China’s presence in the South China Sea lead to war?

    Author: Karol Kościelniak
    E-mail: kkos@amu.edu.pl
    Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8240-5858
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 15-29
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201801
    PDF: rop/2018/rop201801.pdf

    China has been expanding its presence on the South China Sea, which causes tensions in the region. However, when different aspects of the situation are analysed, an open armed conflict seems hardly possible. Looking at China’s activity in this body of water, it appears the Chinese state strives to safeguard its interests, primarily the economic ones, nonetheless it should be emphasized that it pursues its superpower ambitions at the same time.

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