COVID-19

  • Hindu-Muslim Relations in Times of Coronavirus

    Author: Natalia Zajączkowska
    E-mail: natalia.zajaczkowska@uni.lodz.pl
    Institution: University of Lodz
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 77-91
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2020206
    PDF: so/18/so1806.pdf

    Hindu-Muslim Relations in Times of Coronavirus

    The history of Hindu-Muslim conflicts in India is century-long. Ever mounting hostility of Hindus has been the primary reason why Muslim minorities in India have fallen victim to the increasing levels of systemic violence. COVID-19 has undergone another dangerous mutation and took Islamophobia to the whole new level. Instead of uniting in the face of danger, we are observing the growing social divisions on the Hindu-Muslim line and the galloping increase in distrust between the two. Are Muslims terrorists who are engaged in jihād using the virus as a weapon? Such superficial judgement is not in the interest of anyone. Nuanced understanding of the novel witch-hunt against Muslims is essential before jumping to any hasty conclusion. The present study aims to explore the consequences of the pandemic for Muslim communities in India, as well as conspiracy theories such as corona jihād, bio jihād, love jihād or population jihād that began to flourish amid the coronavirus crisis.

  • Restrictions on Human Rights and Freedoms During the Time of Epidemic in Poland

    Author: Agnieszka Gajda
    E-mail: agnieszka.gajda@ug.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Gdansk
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1348-174X
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 17-27
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.05.01
    PDF: ppk/57/ppk5701.pdf

    When in 2020 the World Health Organization announced a COVID-19 contagious disease pandemic, it was clear that governments must take actions to limit the consequences of pandemia. Poland was one of the first to introduce far-reaching measures, limiting freedom of movement and closing an increasing number of business and activities. The Polish Constitution contains potential extraordinary measures, including the provision for declaring a “state of natural disaster”, but the Polish government has refrained from enacting it. Instead, it is based on a “state of epidemic”, which is not provided for in the Constitution as the legal ground for limiting human rights. The purpose of this study is to answer the question whether human rights restrictions introduced during the epidemic have a sufficient legal basis from the point of view of the Polish Constitution and the resulting principles.

  • New Challenges for the Right to Privacy During the COVID-19 Pandemic - The Outline of the Problem

    Author: Olga Hałub-Kowalczyk
    E-mail: olga.halub@uwr.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Wrocław
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2747-2625
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 421-430
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.05.31
    PDF: ppk/57/ppk5731.pdf

    At the beginning 2020, the vast majority of countries worldwide were forced to confront and face the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The rapid spread of this new disease resulted in radical changes in the basic principles of the functioning and organization of states and entire societies. The novel circumstances which both nation states and the international community are facing induce reflection on the need of redefining the right to privacy. This paper aims to answer, whether the current situation will lead to lasting changes in the way privacy is now perceived in Europe and what threats may be associated with the possible changes.

  • Possibility of Implementing the Concept of the Intermarium in the Context of Militant Democracy in Poland During and After the Coronavirus Pandemic

    Author: Kamila Rezmer-Płotka
    E-mail: kamila.rezmer@onet.pl
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1458-5076
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 96-110
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020306
    PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020306.pdf

    Intermarium is one of the most important Polish geopolitical concepts. This article considers it within the category of militant democracy. It allows to explore the process of militant democracy, that is, introducing restrictions by legal means. Most restrictions have recently been introduced due to a coronavirus pandemic. Therefore, the article undertakes to examine the potential for implementation of the concept of the Intermarium during the pandemic and shortly after its end. The study uses a qualitative analysis of sources. Indicators relevant to the study of the process of militant democracy were distinguished based on the body of literature. Results: The traditional concept of the Intermarium erodes due to natural causes. Currently, Poland is more inclined to the concept of the Three Seas. In addition, in the face of the analysis that was carried out, it seems that in a pandemic situation we are observing the end of the paradigm of liberal democracy in this case.

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