culture

Od „kultury wojny” do „wojny kultur”? Rozważania o naturze wojny w XXI wieku

Author: Jacek Reginia-Zacharski
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 95-115
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.69.06
PDF: apsp/69/apsp6906.pdf

Wojna jako ekstremalne zjawisko o naturze społecznej przez stulecia charakteryzowała się swoistą hermetycznością wobec niemilitarnych domen rzeczywistości. Zarówno w wymiarze etycznym, politycznym, prawnym, obyczajowości, a nawet języka, wojskowość i wojskowi tworzyli ekskluzywną (sub)kulturę. Wpisywały się te procesy w „triadę” Carla von Clauzewitza, który właśnie „armię” wskazywał jako wyodrębniony filar wojny. Pozostając elementem struktury państw, armie pogłębiały swoją specyfikę kulturową i pewną odrębność. Jak wskazuje część badaczy, niejednokrotnie to właściwa organizacja wojskowości w państwie i działania na rzecz wzmocnienia jego potencjału wojennego narzucały szereg rozwiązań ustrojowych, prawnych i finansowych, stając się agregatem ewolucji systemów politycznych. W pierwszej połowie XX wieku doszło do głębokich przewartościowań w dziedzinie relacji między sferą militarną i państwową, które po 1945 roku doprowadziły do przesunięcia „punktu ciężkości” wojny w stronę bieguna społecznego. Konsekwencją była dość szczególna „demokratyzacja” wojskowości i postępujące rozszczelnienie dotychczasowych granic. Towarzyszyły temu procesy zmiany w postrzeganiu i prowadzeniu wojny. Celem stawały się w coraz większym stopniu społeczeństwa, a wobec totalizacji wojny – tradycyjny podział na domeny cywilną i wojskową uległ ostatecznemu zatarciu. Współczesna wojna zatem obliczona jest przede wszystkim na niszczenie społeczeństw, ich fundamentów oraz podstaw trwania i rozwoju. Na znaczeniu zyskują niekinetyczne i hybrydowe metody działań koercyjnych i przyporządkowane im środki. Pogłębieniu tych tendencji sprzyja rozwój kolejnego „teatru działań wojennych” – domeny psychologiczno-informacyjnej.

Catalan Nationalism: between Constructed Cultural Memory and Populist Storytelling

Author: Anna Llanos-Antczak
Institution: University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 7-30
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.71.01
PDF: apsp/71/apsp7101.pdf

Spain is one of the countries which is facing a lot of nationalist sentiments and aspirations of certain autonomous communities seeking if not for sovereignty, then at least for greater autonomy or a federal system. This paper aims at investigating the case of Catalonia by examining the roots of Catalan nationalism, its main determinants and drivers for change. It also explains the reasons for evolution of the accompanying factors and claims that Catalan nationalism is civic and not ethnic in nature. Its main factors are economic and cultural as well as ideological ones, built on the common identity shaped by cultural and religious heritage. Till the crisis of 2007/2008, Catalan nationalism was not violent – neither in actions nor in its claims. Deterioration of the economic situation and social frustration made it easier for politicians to use the nationalist argument to win a political battle. It resulted in the revival of stronger nationalist sentiments and a desire for self-determination.

Traje de luces: The Daub, the Art, or the Cra" ?

Author: Magdalena Ziółkowska-Kuflińska
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 103-114
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2015.04.06
PDF: kie/110/kie11006.pdf

Corrida the toros is considered a symbol of Spain. Corrida as a spectacle similar to a theatre spectacle is subject to rules. All elements of the spectacle, stages as well as tools used during corrida fall under strict rules, the same applies to the costumes worn by “actors” taking part in the corrida. Traje de luces – a lucent costume, which next to the bull itself is regarded as the most recognisable symbol of corrida. Matador’s outfit is considered as a piece of art by ones, others will see it as a ostentatious costume. What is it in reality? The answer to this question is not easy and obvious. The delicate handwork and fivestar materials position the costume of the matador as a work of art; however, garish colouring and exaggerated embellishments seem rather gaudy. Traje de luces should be always considered in a wider context, because only in that case its symbolism and meaning can be actually interpreted. Outside the corrida de toros the bright costume of the matador is only a colourful outfit, however in its natural environment, that is on the arena, it gains a completely different meaning. In this article, I will introduce various points of view on the topic.

The Significance of Cultural Component in Foreign Language Teaching

Author: Małgorzata Łazicka
Institution: University of Warsaw Library
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 204-217
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2014.06.12
PDF: kie/106/kie10612.pdf

My paper deals with the significance of introducing the cultural component in foreign language teaching as well as the necessity of developing young people’s sensitivity to culture, especially to art and literature. In the article, the basic definitions and relevant terms connected with culture are discussed, according to the current status of glottodidactic knowledge. The question of how and to what extent should the cultural component be introduced in the school is also raised. Moreover, the aims of teaching cultural elements as well as their role and importance in foreign language learning are presented. In the final part of the text I describe an example of a practical pedagogical application of the cultural component, which can be used during English classes. This crosscultural studies project consists of three lessons, focused on a chosen aspect of British culture, namely the creation of two representatives of the 18thcentury art and literature. The presentation of this project supports the thesis that the combination of teaching language together with cultural elements is possible. It also serves as an example of how to achieve this aim and, simultaneously, how to make lessons both educational and untypical, which means more entertaining for the students. All in all, the aim of the article is to emphasise the need for aesthetic education as well as to raise teachers’ and educators’ awareness of the aforementioned problem.

Muzyka, edukacja, społeczeństwo – w stronę jakiego uczestnictwa w kulturze muzycznej?

Author: Barbara Jabłońska
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 184-205
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2014.03.10
PDF: kie/103/kie10310.pdf

The purpose of this article is to examine the role and importance of music in society. In particular, attention is paid on the educational value of art sound and musical skills of Poles and their participation in the musical culture. The main question is the question of the quality of these skills and socialization processes of individuals to music. The aim of the paper is also to discuss the institutional problems and obstacles of music education as well as to focus on the problem of the reproduction of the non-sensitive to music generations. The text is composed of four main parts. In the first of them there are discussed the general issues related to the role of music in society, including the process of acquiring musical skills and aesthetic dispositions (in the sense of Pierre Bourdieu), allowing individuals to take an active part in the musical life of the community. The focal point of the discussion also concentrates on such topics, as integration and communication power of music in society within the meaning of Alfred Schütz. The second part of the text contains the reflections on the educational role of music, including its ability to connect people, and shaping them socially desirable traits. The third part of the article refers to the issue of the musical competences of Poles, based on available quantitative data. The latter are useful to discuss the problem of intergenerational inheritance of weak music competences, and therefore the phenomenon of the reproduction of musical “illiteracy”. The fourth section provides some reflection on the specific consequences of music education system in Poland. In particular, the attention is paid to the issues such as the low level of participation in musical culture, and the regression of listening in the sense of Theodor W. Adorno.

Cultural Model of Disability – Origins, Assumptions, Advantages

Author: Andrzej Twardowski
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7980-2935
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 48-61
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2022.02.03
PDF: kie/136/kie13603.pdf

This article aims to describe the cultural model of disability. In contrast to the social model of disability, which is strongly coherent, the cultural model of disability has not yet been specified, despite ongoing discussions on cultural determinants of understanding disability. In the first part of the article, the origins and essence of the cultural model are presented. Next, the four main assumptions underlying the model are characterised: 1) people perceive reality through the prism of their culture and experience acquired with it, 2) disability can have different meanings depending on what kind of discourse constitutes its meaning, 3) disability does not mean a feature of an individual, but a category of human differentiation, which can be embodied and thus materialised, 4) instead of just “looking” at people with disabilities and asking what problems they are struggling with, and what support from the society they need, the current perspective should be broadened and include the entire society and its culture. The final part of the article highlights the most important advantages of the cultural model of disability.

Didacticism and Morality in Azerbaijan Children’s Literature

Author: Samangul Husu Gafarova
Institution: Baku Slavic University, Azerbaijan
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1783-4899
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 67-76
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2022305
PDF: so/23/so2305.pdf

Didacticism and Morality in Azerbaijan Children’s Literature

The development of children’s literature dates back to the 18th century in England. The distinctive feature of children’s literature is that it benefits from the folklore of nations. Children’s literature is diverse in content and how to properly express different concepts. Regarding this, writing and criticising children’s literature appear challenging as they have a distinctive nature. The purpose of writing children’s literature is to educate them early and nurture good values since all of them shape their characters. Although there are many significant factors to evaluate in children’s literature, age and plot are always the centres of discussion. Age is considered essential in children’s literature, meaning that it determines the way of transmitting information, the word choice, and the theme for the suitable age. When it comes to the plot, different nuances, ranging from the writer’s insight and approach and the period in the written material is produced, affect topics in children’s literature. Considering that poetic feeling in children is higher and can be compared with writers’ and poets’ creativity, reading children’s books contributes to creativity, cognitive ability, and critical thinking. Therefore, children’s literature is rich in diverse topics and genres. However, as time changes, culture and morals also shift gradually, and because of this, children are believed to lose interest in the previous children’s literature. Environmental issues, technological innovations, etc., attract their attention. The emergence and development of Azerbaijan children’s literature are directly linked to the occurrence of a national enlightenment ideology. Preserving the mother tongue and the nation’s spiritual need for education conditioned this literature’s necessity. Azerbaijan children’s literature is also rich and diverse in terms of the mentioned factors. The triggering factor which encouraged enlightened writers to write children’s books in the second half of the twentieth century was the need for national poetry books and native language textbooks. Azerbaijan children’s literature has distinctive features because Azerbaijan is a multicultural and multireligious country, leading to cultural diversity and tolerance development. In Azerbaijan children’s literature, the importance of cultural and moral values such as kindness, honesty, sincerity, etc., is depicted uniquely. In terms of this, folklore, as an integral part of children’s literature, plays a crucial role in teaching moral values and preserving cultural and artistic treasures. Different genres in children’s literature instil humane characteristics in human beings, such as generosity, kindness, etc.

Chinese Soft Power

Author: Robert Edmund Łoś
Institution: University of Łódź, (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0211-2415
Published online: 31 January 2023
Final submission: 14 December 2022
Printed issue: 2023
Source: Show
Page no: 15
Pages: 135-149
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202305
PDF: ppsy/52/ppsy202305.pdf

China’s modern power is based on traditional sources: territory size, demographics, economy, and army. An important factor of power is soft power, which is based on culture, foreign policy (including economics), and values. Chinese soft power resources have an old tradition and the possibility of using them is large, and most importantly, in the current international environment, they can use them to gain and maintain an advantage over competitors. The article presents the elements of China’s soft power that determine its advantage over other countries and the weaknesses that may limit its influence. It largely determines the research methods used: statistics and system analysis. The latter method makes it possible to determine the scale of China’s influence and the chances of using them in the 21st century.

Azerbejdżan jako państwo azjatyckie i europejskie

Author: Julia Krajcarz
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński Biblioteka Jagiellońska
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 15-27
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2015201
PDF: so/8/so801.pdf

Azerbaijan as European and Asian state

The aim of the paper is to present today aspirations of Azerbaijan, a state situated in the South Caucasus, to be the part of European culture. The basic materials taken under analysis are current press texts, sites of the official political and economical institutions published in Azerbaijani language and also paper-printed sources related to the politics and culture of Azerbaijan. The cultural, historical and political bounds allow to Azerbaijani government to establish relationships both with European and Asian partners. The membership of cultural and sport organisations entitles to locate Azerbaijan between European states. But the Islam religion – a part of Azerbaijani culture, in spite of presence of many centuries in Europe, is traditionally associated with Asia.

eTwinning – narzędzie do budowania społeczeństwa transkulturowego

Author: Joanna Alicja Augustyniak
Institution: Akademia Pomorska w Słupsku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1148-1412
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 156-167
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2023.01.11
PDF: em/20/em2011.pdf

eTwinning – a tool for creating a transcultural society

Significant changes in education that occurred as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in terms of organization, in the form of the transition to distance learning, significantly increased the interest of teachers and schools to use the international eTwinning platform. The main task of the eTwinning program is to encourage international exchange by building a network of cooperation and interaction between students and teachers from various European countries. This, in turn, according to the author, is a way to build a transcultural society. Going beyond the current understanding of culture as a homogeneous creation, the author uses W. Welsch’s concept of transculturalism and Wittgenstein’s understanding of culture as a way of being and the result of intercultural interactions. Therefore, the article is devoted to the using of the eTwinnig tool in the process of shaping a transcultural society. There are also some presented examples of international eTwinning projects that have already been completed and are in the process of being implemented with the direct goal of acquiring intercultural competences by all its participants and those for whom this is an indirect goal, carried out while performing other tasks.

Kultura dziedziczona, nabywana i indywidualnie kształtowana w wybranych twórczych biografiach

Author: Jerzy Nikitorowicz
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4371-8322
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 15-27
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2023.02.01
PDF: em/21/em2101.pdf

Inherited, acquired and individually shaped culture in selected creative biographies

The problem of identity forming is presented in the article on selected examples of creative biographies. The author points out how important in this process is the inherited culture, shaped in the family home and in the local environment. He also indicates how difficult the process of integration with the culture is when this culture is acquired in state educational institutions, conducting an internal dialogue to create an individual culture of being, achieving goals and values in positive freedom and civil disobedience. In the presented creative biographies, the author draws attention to the awareness of experiences and experiences in each of the cultures, to the ability and skill to resolve conflicts, negotiate, reconcile values, patterns, norms in the constant process of identity forming. The author draws attention to the development of a reflective identity project, conscious and responsible choices of content from each culture, the existential theme of the joy of living, being in harmony with oneself, which is particularly important in intercultural education.

Feministyczna dekonstrukcja tradycyjnego obrazu kobiety w utworach Qiu Jin

Author: Michalina Koniuk
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0001-5374-5968
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 157-172
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20230108
PDF: ksm/37/ksm3708.pdf

Feminist deconstruction of the traditional image of women in Qiu Jin’s works

Women’s issues are a significant subject of study in the realm of Chinese literature. In many works, it can be seen to oppose stereotypes or norms imposed on the female gender and to take measures leading to the emancipation of the individual. Such literature is symptomatic of a desire for change in society, that is, the overthrow of the patriarchal system and the introduction of equal rights between the sexes. An example of such prose is the works of China’s first feminist, Qiu Jin, who decided to fight for women’s rights. She was sentenced to death for her revolutionary activities. However, her texts introduced a completely new image of women into the public sphere - different from the one that had been reproduced for hundreds of years in ancient China. The poet chose to endow her heroines with charisma, courage, intelligence and the will to fight for a better life. Her aim was to make women aware of their situation in life, their social role, and to encourage them to leave the male-dominated world. Michalina Koniuk, in the chapter “Feminist Deconstruction of the Traditional Image of Woman in Qiu Jin’s Works”, proposes to analyse Qiu Jin’s works and present that the characters created by the writer oppose and destroy the image of the obedient and uneducated woman that existed in ancient China. First, the social role imposed on women in Chinese society has been described, namely that of obedient daughter, wife and daughter-in-law. The requirements and rules expected of Chinese women have been presented, and how Confucian norms contributed to the belittling of women’s role and position in Chinese society. As the poet was inspired by her own life experiences, Qiu Jin’s life were briefly introduced. Her childhood, during which the first signs of dissatisfaction with the obligations and social norms imposed on girls could be observed. An unsuccessful marriage mobilised the feminist to fight for women’s rights, to oppose the doctrines of Confucius and to leave home and go abroad. This was a great act of courage and at the same time a struggle for freedom and independence in the life of a feminist. That part was followed by an analysis of Qiu Jin’s works, whose female characters exemplify the kind of norms and behaviours that Qiu Jin rebelled against. At the same time, these characters deconstruct the traditional image of a woman and introduce a new one of a strong and independent individual. In this chapter, all poems and quotations have been translated by the author from Chinese into Polish.

Unifikacja i dywersyfikacja życia kulturowego

Author: Tomasz Lenkiewicz
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 71-78
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201506
PDF: cip/13/cip1306.pdf

Unification and diversification of cultural life

Nowadays, one can observe signs of world’s unification and, at the same time, its diversification. These interdependences relate primarily to the economic, social, political and cultural spheres. It is assumed that in the postwar period, Western civilization has shifted from the industrial to the post-industrial phase, which is called information, consumer or a business civilization. There are many factors and phenomena that imply the unification and diversification of cultural life in modern conditions, closely related to uniformity and standardization. The most important of these are: scientific and technological progress and development, legal solutions and media. The modern socio-political and economic image of Europe reveals a characteristic discrepancy between declarations and reality visible especially in the creation and functioning processes of the European Union. The process of unification and disintegration of Europe raises issues such as: a crisis of values, of humanism, depreciation of moral principles.

Regional Education on the Cultural Borderland. Do Students Need Knowledge about Their Region Today?

Author: Alina Szwarc
Institution: University of Bialystok
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3075-5872
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 64-77
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2023.02.04
PDF: kie/140/kie14004.pdf

The article addresses the implementation of regional education, a crucial component of socio-cultural identity. Its goal is to initiate a discussion on the essence of regional education in contemporary schools and present a pilot study on students’ knowledge about their region. The research shows that the role of schools in acquiring knowledge about the region is significantly smaller than that of the family environment, the Internet, or learning through social observation. The research indicates the need for broader studies on schools’ current curricula and educational offers in regional education. Its results also reveal the urgent need to restore the methodological foundations of regional education in Poland. It will help remind young people of the importance of local cultural heritage values and their own roots in their lives. A modern school also needs to restore the idea of regional education as civic education, which is necessary to shape competencies conducive to integration and openness to others. It is extremely important, especially in the current social situation related to the ongoing war in Ukraine.

Culture: Meanings and Values or a Multisensory Orgy?

Author: Izabella Bukraba-Rylska
Institution: Polish Academy of Sciences
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 32-53
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2013.06.02
PDF: kie/99/kie9902.pdf

The article presents a unusual take on the subject of culture not from the point of view its internal, abstract, immeasurable, yet accessible to cognition content, but from the point of view of its vehicles, or artifacts. The author of the text placed language among the most important external manifestations of culture and focused on how the relationship between language and culture works in practice. The article is divided into three parts, each focused on a different aspect of this relationship. The first one presents a series of theories on meaning and the material and immaterial manifestations of culture as discussed in the humanities. The second one is devoted to physical and corporeal meanings of language. The author presents observations in the field of semiotics which were initiated in the classical era and experimentally confirmed in twentieth-century studies. The third part of the article focuses on the issue of meaning as a biological phenomenon. The author deliberates on the meanings in language that stem from the sounds of words, articulation, and their psychological dimension.

Edukacja jako lustro kultury

Author: Mirosława Nowak-Dziemianowicz
Institution: Dolnośląska Szkoła Wyższa we Wrocławiu
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 7-23
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2013.04.01
PDF: kie/97/kie9701.pdf

Education as the Mirror of Culture

This article is an attempt to answer the question of relationships between culture and education, not only on the level of assumptions and declarations but also in various dimensions of social life and social science. The first issue is the question of the place of education in our country’s development strategies. The author compares two such strategies: one based on the notion of development dependent on financial markets, European Union policies, labour efficiency and Gross Domestic Product (the notion of continuity of the current development path as presented in official documents) and another notion, i.e. that of mental-cultural change. The author analyses the place and role of education in each of these notions of development. The second issue is axiology of education. The major task in this part of the paper is to present tensions and divergences between declared description of educational practices and theories that legitimise them on the one hand and the actually realised axio-normative orientation or other value-based human actions and choices on the other. The third problem is an attempt to show education and school in the process of cultural change. The subject of critical analysis is a dominant educational policy and practice, which is linked to the practically realised notion of the country’s development, and based on requirements of usefulness, effectiveness and applicability. As an illustration of this, the author examines opposition between humanities and technical sciences, which is constructed and maintained in public debate. Plenary speeches from the 2nd Congress of Education that took place in Warsaw in June 2013, are also subject to analysis in relation to this opposition. In conclusions, the author poses the question whether education remains perceived as a cultural practice or it has become yet another tool of production submitted to requirements of the market, economic development and GDP growth.

Rola płci kulturowej w badaniach muzykologicznych – zarys pola badawczego muzykologii feministycznej

Author: Karolina Kizińska
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 22-41
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2013.01.02
PDF: kie/94/kie9402.pdf

The Role of Cultural Gender in Musicological Research – Outline of the Research Field of Feminist Musicology

This article’s aim is to follow new directions in musicology research, that aspire to be interdisciplinary in character and to focus on cultural, analitical and critical approach to music. Almost entirely unknown to Polish readers, this research, defined as “new” musicology, refers to ethnomusicology and sociology of music’s outputs, and tries to apply some of the methods used in those disciplines to analyze classical Western music. Feminist musicology, on which I focus the most, is a still evolving, very popular in the US and at the same time very wide field of study. It’s analyses, although they are sometimes ideological, are one of the most interesting examples of widening the frames of traditional musicology, that are worth knowing. Not assuming to exhaust the topic, I find it crucial to outline the fields of research for this discipline.

Reproduction of cultural and religious life in Ukraine during 1917–1921 in memoir literature

Author: Anastasiia Hridina
Institution: Vasyl Stus Donetsk National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5718-9885
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 37-45
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/PPUSI.2023.02.04
PDF: pomi/9/pomi904.pdf

The article examines the role of memoirs in depicting the cultural and religious life of Ukraine during the revolutionary years of 1917-1921. The analysis focuses on memoirs written by contemporaries and participants of the Ukrainian Revolution. Memoirists drew attention to the issues of Ukrainian language, literature, art, and education. They depicted the efforts of cultural figures in supporting and developing Ukrainian culture, changes in the cultural environment, and society’s reaction to these changes. The authors of memoirs discuss churches and religious organizations during the revolutionary period, describing the shifts in attitudes toward religion under the influence of political changes, the interaction between the church and political structures, and the persecution of priests and monks by the Bolsheviks. They share their thoughts on the impact of revolutionary events on their personal lives, perception of culture, and religion. The article analyzes the memoirists’ accounts of meetings, communication, and collaboration with other prominent cultural and religious figures, as well as the exchange of ideas, discussions, and joint projects that contributed to the development of cultural and religious life. It is revealed that the memoirs contain information about the state of societal culture and spirituality, including beliefs, customs, traditions, and moral values of that period. In the memoirs of many Ukrainian writers, artists, and other cultural figures, moments of Bolshevik presence are described as a time of creative alienation and pressure on artistic expression. With their rise to power, Ukrainian culture became dependent on the ideology and policies of the new regime, leading to a decline in artistic quality and loss of authenticity. These cultural figures also depict the challenging living and working conditions during the revolutionary period in their memoirs. Many of them were forced to leave Ukraine or go into hiding due to political persecution. This led to a decrease in activity on the Ukrainian cultural scene and a reduction in the number of book publications. Despite the difficult circumstances, Ukrainian cultural figures continued to create and preserve cultural heritage. Many of them actively engaged in collecting and preserving Ukrainian cultural heritage, which suffered significant losses during the revolution. A common tendency in the memoirs of contemporaries of the Ukrainian Revolution of 1917-1921 is the personal perspective on events and their impacts on the culture and religion of Ukraine during the periods of the Central Rada, the Hetmanate of P. Skoropadsky, and the Directorate. They provide a historical context and offer readers a unique insight into that period, helping to better understand its significance and consequences for the cultural and religious development of Ukraine.

University and the changes of contemporary culture

Author: Zbyszko Melosik
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University Poznań
Year of publication: 2003
Source: Show
Pages: 9-18
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.03.1.1.01
PDF: tner/200301/tner101.pdf

The article is devoted to problem of the relationship between university and contemporary culture. There are following main areas of the analysis: equality and inequality of educational opportunity at the higher education level, a role of general and specialist training in the students' teaching, academic freedom, hierarchical structure of university and pluralism of academic discourse. All these subjects are analysed against the background of a broader social and cultural condition

The Risks of the Present Youth Subcultures in the View of Social Pedagogy and Social Work

Author: Peter Jusko
Institution: Matej Bel University
Year of publication: 2005
Source: Show
Pages: 35-43
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.05.5.1.03
PDF: tner/200501/tner503.pdf

The contribution analyzes the most important risks of the present youth subcultures and the opportunities for social work and social pedagogy with regard to the problems of youth subcultures. The basic characteristics of youth subcultures is described as well as their social development, types and forms. The central meaning is inscribed to the possibilities of interdisciplinary coaction of social pedagogy and social work when solving specific problems of youth subcultures in the process of socialization during free time or at the penetration of social deviations. A specific attention is paid to the definition of the professional roles of social workers and social pedagogues in relation to the risky youth subcultures.

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