elections

Spektakl emocji, czyli kandydaci na ekranie. Kampania wyborcza i debaty prezydenckie 2015

Author: Agnieszka Kamińska
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 120-134
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.07
PDF: kie/113/kie11307.pdf

The field explored in this article refers to politics being used by media. The attention is driven especially to its final outcome, i.e. the presidential debates and the interpretation thereof in the broad context of the latest election campaign. The elections held in May 2015 were regarded as the most interesting over the past twenty years. The term ‘spectacle of emotions’ was very frequent in media commentaries. The subject of this article is based on the analysis of a few factors which composed such spectacle and the process of building up the tension towards the presidential debates. It is interesting to see them from the perspective of discussions held by journalists, currentaffairs commentators and experts in political marketing on the one hand, and the conclusions made by Polish and foreign media experts as well as J. Huizinga on the other hand. The results of the intertextual analysis will confirm, that even if politics itself is not entertaining, the television in 2015 enforces the entertaining style of politics.

Committing a Crime as a Reason to Limit the Ability to Perform Functions in Local Government Administration

Author: Janusz Bojarski
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
Author: Natalia Daśko
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 663-674
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019411
PDF: ppsy/48-4/ppsy2019411.pdf

2018 local self-government elections in Poland were special ones. Brought to light mismatching of provisions of the Electoral Code and Act on Local Self-Government Employees and attempt to use it to obtain an advantage in fight for political power caused political emotions and legal controversies. The aim of this article is presents limits imposed by criminal law on right to be elected in this type of elections and more general, role of criminal law as a tool in politics. The article presents a problem of conflict of legal regulations regarding the right to be elected and perform a public function in a local self-government unit as a problem of conflict between will of voters and attitude of politicians to creation of law and aim they try to obtain.

Aktywność posłów do Parlamentu Europejskiego IX kadencji na portalu społecznościowym Facebook – analiza porównawcza

Author: Dominik Boratyn
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2335-7515
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 160-176
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202507
PDF: npw/25/npw2507.pdf

Activity of Members of the European Parliament of the 9th term on the social platform Facebook - comparative analysis

Social media has changed the social lives of humans. The real-world activities are conducted more often on the Internet; the content posted on such social networking sites as Facebook may serve here as an example. Activity in social media is particularly important for politicians and public figures since such a means of communication allows them to maintain direct contact with voters and citizens. Social media also serves as a platform for creating an image and a personal brand of a politician. Due to the activity on these types of platforms, lesser known people can gain wider recognition and reach a larger group of recipients. However, it should be also noted that as far as public figures are concerned, increased activity does not always denote the achievement of a goal. Politics are simply unpredictable and there are many factors influencing voting preferences.

Partycypacja - interakcja mediów w systemie politycznym

Author: Adriana Frączek
Institution: Gdańska Wyższa Szkoła Humanistyczna
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9380-140X
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 18-26
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201902
PDF: cip/17/cip1702.pdf

Postępująca mediatyzacja polityki i uzależnienie działań politycznych oraz ich efektów od sposobu i zakresu relacjonowania przez media daje dziennikarzom olbrzymią władzę: co prawda to nie oni podejmują decyzję, ale to oni ustalają na jaki temat odbywa się publiczna debata. To media wprowadzają tematy do publicznego obiegu i to mogą skazać na polityczny niebyt niechciane czy niemodne tematy, a wraz z nimi polityków.

Changes in the Electoral Code and Their Impact on the Security of the Election The Origin for Discussion Based on Selected Comments

Author: Karol Pachnik
Institution: Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2311-8522
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 161-170
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020310
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020310.pdf

After the local government elections in Poland in 2018, the adopted solutions aimed at increasing the security of the elections were reviewed. Some of the solutions adopted so far have been abandoned, such as transmissions from the polling station, while others have been minimized (the division of the precinct electoral commissions in the precinct electoral commission for voting in the region and the precinct electoral commission for determining the results of voting in the region). In public opinion polls, the National Electoral Commission achieved record of confidence.

Campaigns and Electioneering: Reflecting on the 2015 General Elections in Nigeria

Author: Emmanuel Osewe Akubor
Institution: Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 72-86
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020405
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020405.pdf

Historically, campaigns are recognized as a vital part of electioneering since it contains the ideas that the candidate wants to share with the voters, especially regarding policy issues and the administration’s focus. It aims to get those who agree with their ideas to support them when running for a political position. The message often consists of several talking points about policy issues. However, a study of Nigeria’s situation, with specific reference to the 2015 Campaigns and Electioneering, revealed that the main content of campaigns was hate speeches. Therefore, this paper seeks to bring out the main issues of campaigns in Nigeria’s electoral system and why it has often led to electoral violence over the years. The qualitative method is used for this particular research. Data obtained from primary and secondary sources were deployed to carry out the study with an analytical and narrative historical approach. It includes historical, descriptive, and analytical approaches based on gathered evidence. This research’s primary source is based on field investigations conducted in the Nigerian area and surrounding territories. Among other things, the data collection process includes semi-structured interviews with selected individuals. The research also uses historical documents from the national archives, relying on previous research conducted on society, administrative development, and documentary data taken from newspaper accounts, diaries, letters, and verbal reports. This research’s position is that campaigns over the years in Nigeria, unlike what is obtainable in some parts of the world where policy issues form the backbone of campaign message have basically on persons, character assassination, violence, and abusive (hate) speeches. The paper argues that this campaign strategy often leads to electoral violence before, during, and after elections. The paper, therefore, concludes that only issue-based campaigns can guarantee peaceful and credible elections in Nigeria.

Changing the Model of the Polish Electoral Administration

Author: Jacek Sobczak
Institution: University of Economics and Humanities in Warsaw
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2231-8824
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 69-82
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.05
PDF: ppk/58/ppk5805.pdf

The conduct of free elections depends to a large extent on the efficient functioning of electoral bodies. The doctrine distinguishes a number of models of functioning of election administration bodies. The standards of functioning of electoral bodies at the European level are defined by the standards of the Venice Commission, and in particular the Code of Good Practice in Electoral Matters. In Poland, after World War II, the adopted model of election administration did not meet democratic standards. It was only after 1990 that the State Election Commission was established as a permanent body consisting exclusively of judges of the Supreme Court, Constitutional Tribunal and Supreme Administrative Court. This concept was abandoned in an atmosphere of massive criticism of the judiciary. Although the model adopted now does not directly violate international standards, it seems to be a step backwards from the regulations existing after 1990.

Postal Voting. Poland and Solutions in Other Countries

Author: Andrzej Stelmach
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3747-0466
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 83-97
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.06
PDF: ppk/58/ppk5806.pdf

The article examines the thesis that the electoral law in Poland is treated instrumentally. Changes of postal voting regulations in Poland have been collated with solutions applied in other countries. The analysis focuses on the motivation politicians had to revise the Election Code and introduce postal voting. The article indicates to the ad hoc nature of solutions adopted and their short-term political benefits for various political groupings. The discussion focuses on the course of political actions related to the presidential election in Poland during the coronavirus pandemic.

Proposal to Repeal the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act 2011 in the UK Constitutional System

Author: Krzysztof Urbaniak
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0735-8924
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 99-111
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.07
PDF: ppk/58/ppk5807.pdf

The Fixed-term Parliaments Act, which entered into force in 2011, introduced completely new regulations on the dissolution of Parliament and the duration of its mandate. It repealed the royal prerogative under which the queen, on the advice of the Prime Minister, had the power to dissolve Parliament at any time, which would ultimately lead to parliamentary elections. Despite the introduction of a fixed parliamentary term, constitutional practice, in particular the precedents of 2017 and 2019, have shown that the fundamental objectives of the new act, i.e. to ensure the stability of governments and to prevent the Prime Minister’s manipulation of the election date for political gain, can be easily undermined. This article attempts to analyze and evaluate the functioning to date of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 in the UK constitutional system and to examine the possible implications of repealing the Act for the functioning of the UK Constitution.

Elections in Hybrid Regimes

Author: Ryszard Balicki
Institution: University of Wrocław
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9192-908X
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 159-166
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.12
PDF: ppk/58/ppk5812.pdf

Elections are nowadays treated as a symbol of a democratic order. However, this view is not true. The institution of elections also occurs in states that are far from being a democracy. However, their course and functions significantly differ from the elections carried out in democratic countries. As it has been shown in the article, the analysis of the title issue becomes particularly important due to the growing group of countries referred to as hybrid regimes.

Selected Pro-Turnout Initiatives of Province Self-Governments on the Example of the Second Round of Presidential Elections in Poland in 2020

Author: Karol Piękoś
Institution: University of Rzeszow
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4545-5909
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 215-223
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.17
PDF: ppk/58/ppk5817.pdf

The presidential election campaign in Poland in 2020 was unique due to the epidemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. A high level of attendance during the presidential election, influenced by the pro-turnout initiatives, was achieved. The article analyzes selected activities aimed at achieving a high level of attendance, the beneficiaries of which were local governments.

The Political Participation of Radical Parties in a Local Democracy

Author: Joanna Marszałek-Kawa
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4201-8028
Author: Adam Hołub
Institution: Police Academy in Szczytno
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8865-6543
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 643-652
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.53
PDF: ppk/58/ppk5853.pdf

When criticizing the principles of liberal democracy, radical parties, both leftand right, take advantage of this particular type of democracy by participating in local and nationwide elections. They take part in each subsequent election under their flag or by putting up candidates on the lists of other electoral committees. The major aim of the parties when participating in elections is to promote their political appeal and reaching the biggest number of local communities possible. Under the mechanisms of local democracy, including local government elections, radical parties can join in the decision-making system by investing relatively little resources.

Głosowanie korespondencyjne podczas pandemii Covid-19. Doświadczenia z polskich wyborów prezydenckich w 2020 r.

Author: Magdalena Musiał-Karg
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6089-1381
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 31-48
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.02.02
PDF: ppk/60/ppk6002.pdf

Postal vote during the Covid-19 pandemic. Experiences from the Polish presidential election in 2020

In order to guarantee a higher level of implementation of the principle of universality of elections, many countries introduce additional (other than voting at a polling station) forms of voting in elections. Postal voting is one of the most popular alternative voting methods – complementary to traditional voting. If this form is the only way to participate in elections – there appear doubts as to the low degree of guarantee of the principle of universality. The aim of this article is to analyze Poland’s rather limited experiences with postal voting, with particular emphasis on the organization of elections during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Przebudzenie młodego pokolenia. Aktywność polityczna młodzieży – studium przypadku

Author: Natasza Lubik-Reczek
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4294-5064
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 65-77
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.02.04
PDF: ppk/60/ppk6004.pdf

Awakening of the young generation. Political activity of youth – a case study

In modern democracies, the fundamental type of political activities of citizens is electoral participation of all eligible groups. The appearance of the youth issue in the political discourse is the result of recognizing the young generation as a significant social group. The young generation is perceived through the prism of innovation, potential and driving force of any changes. In discussions about the future of democracy, the young generation appears very often as a sign of hope for a better world based on mutual understanding, respect, trust, and solidarity. The youngest voters have the potential to bring new values to social life thanks to which we can become a full-scale civil society. Therefore, it is important to mobilize this social group to exercise their full rights.

Problem podstaw i trybu odrzucenia sprawozdania finansowego komitetu wyborczego

Author: Maria Gołda-Sobczak
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3854-7007
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 111-124
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.02.07
PDF: ppk/60/ppk6007.pdf

The problem of the grounds and procedure for rejecting the financial statements of the election committee

Financial statement is an important element in checking the compliant financing of an election campaign. According to the Election Code, the financial representative of the election committee should submit to the election body to which the election committee previously submitted a notification of its establishment, a financial report on the committee’s revenues, expenses and liabilities, including bank loans obtained and loans conditions. In this situation, the financial statement may be submitted to the National Electoral Commission as well as to other election bodies. However, if the report was rejected by the election commissioner, the financial representative may appeal against such decision to the District Court. Judicial practice shows that it was disputed whether a complaint could be brought in a situation where the report was accepted, but at the same time the identified shortcomings were identified. The content of the obligatory statutory grounds for rejecting the report was also questioned.

African Great Lakes Region: Governance and Politics

Author: Wioleta Gierszewska
Institution: University of Gdańsk (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5024-9379
Author: Benjamin Mudaheranwa
Institution: Christian University of Rwanda (Rwanda)
Published online: 21 June 2021
Final submission: 7 July 2020
Printed issue: December 2021
Source: Show
Page no: 10
Pages: 109-118
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202115
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202115.pdf

This article aims to indicate the sources of problems in the field of governance and politics in the African Great Lakes Region. The countries of this region play an essential role in the global socio-political and economic system. Their development is hampered by numerous external and internal conflicts resulting from both the historical and contemporary problems of the countries. Colonialism had a major impact on the development of African countries. It manifested itself, among other things, in the spread of political domination. Adopting state management patterns from European culture and attempt to transplant them on African ground without understanding local cultural conditions contributed too much post-colonial fresh and modern conflict. Examples of this are failures to establish liberal democracy and its crises in the African Great Lakes Region.

Dwukadencyjność wójtów, burmistrzów i prezydentów miast w Polsce w opiniach elektoratów ugrupowań i komitetów wyborczych w wyborach do sejmików województw w 2018 roku

Author: Dominik Szczepański
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 171-185
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.69.10
PDF: apsp/69/apsp6910.pdf

Celem artykułu było przedstawienie zagadnienia związanego z ograniczeniem liczby kadencji włodarzy w Polsce. Analizie poddano dane empiryczne, pochodzące z badań ankietowych, w których zapytano respondentów o to, czy opowiadali się za ograniczeniem możliwości sprawowania funkcji wójta, burmistrza oraz prezydenta miasta do dwóch kadencji. Zmiennymi, które wzięto pod uwagę, były: udział ankietowanych w wyborach samorządowych w 2018 roku, deklarowany udział w wyborach parlamentarnych, deklarowane poglądy, deklarowana religijność oraz wiek respondentów. Badania ankietowe zostały przeprowadzone w okresie od grudnia 2018 r. do lutego 2019 r. w ramach ogólnopolskiego projektu badawczego pt. „Preferencje polityczne. Postawy – identyfikacje – zachowania” realizowanego od 2009 r.

Konsekwencje wprowadzenia większościowego systemu wyborczego w wyborach do j.s.t. na przykładzie wyborów samorządowych z 2018 i 2014 r. w woj. podlaskim

Author: Kewin Konrad Bach
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 186-199
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.69.11
PDF: apsp/69/apsp6911.pdf

Niniejszy artykuł prezentuje konsekwencje polityczne związane z wprowadzeniem w wyborach do organów kolegialnych j.s.t. większościowego systemu wyborczego, z zastosowaniem JOW- -ów i przy użyciu formuły większości zwykłej, zaprezentowane na przykładzie województwa podlaskiego. Symulacji wyników wyborów przy systemie większościowym dokonano na podstawie danych z wyborów samorządowych z 2018 i 2014 r. w woj. podlaskim. Wnioski wyciągnięte z dokonanej analizy zostały zaprezentowane w formie końcowych konkluzji i propozycji modyfikacji aktualnego systemu wyborczego w wyborach do organów kolegialnych j.s.t.

Posłowie debiutanci w Sejmie VII, VIII i IX kadencji. Przyczynek do analizy zjawiska wymiany partyjnych elit

Author: Arkadiusz Lewandowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8161-2257
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 79-99
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip202004
PDF: siip/19/siip1904.pdf

Debut Members of Parliament in the Sejm of 7th, 8th and 9th term. The contribution for the analysis of the phenomenon of the party circulation of elite

Parliamentary representation of political parties is nowadays becoming an important field of activity of every grouping. Members of Parliament, following the standards of party charters, become an element of party elite, holding the official positions in collegiate organs. Personal changes in the parliament then mean changes in the party elite. The goal of the article is defining the scale of the phenomenon of debut Members of Parliament in the years of 2011, 2015 and 2019. The research question which the author was faced with is the question about the scale of the phenomenon of debut Members of Parliament and its consequences for the demographic structure of the Polish Sejm and the particular party representations in the parliament, defined as party elites. Detailed questions concern: the importance of parliamentary representatives in contemporary political groupings; defining whether the scale of the phenomenon in 2015 was significantly different from the election results from 2011 and 2019. The established hypotheses assume that: the important of parliamentary representation in contemporary parties is on a constant growth on the formal level and also within the political praxis, and consequently, Members of Parliament can be called party elites. Another hypothesis assumes that the phenomenon of debut MPs has stood out quantitatively in the analyzed period of time, nevertheless, it has not changed the demographic structure of the parliament dramatically, concerning the other two analyzed terms. The period of the analysis concerns the three parliamentary elections in 2011, 2015 and 2019, which allowed to pick up on the possible tendency of the phenomenon.

Weryfikacja ważności wyborów ogólnokrajowych w Polsce

Author: Ryszard Balicki
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9192-908X
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 249-258
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.14
PDF: ppk/62/ppk6214.pdf

Verification of the validity of nationwide elections in Poland

The article discusses the procedure for verifying the validity of nationwide elections in Poland. The author draws attention to the important role attributed to elections as an essential element of the democratic system and the need to preserve the will expressed by the sovereign in voting. Verification of elections in Poland is carried out by the Supreme Court, in a two-stage procedure involving issuing an opinion on the election protests lodged and then passing a resolution on the validity of the elections. The author draws attention to the narrow and formalistic interpretation of legal norms in the course of issuing a resolution on the validity of elections.

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