Quality of Democratic Election Process during the COVID-19 Pandemic : The Schedler’s Chain of Democratic Choice Perspective

Author: Maciej Onasz
Institution: University of Łódź
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4062-1253
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 188-210
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.72.11
PDF: apsp/72/apsp7211.pdf

This paper provides an assessment of the possibility of maintaining the democratic quality of the electoral process held under extraordinary conditions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. This is part of the considerations on the quality of democracy and its resistance to crisis conditions. The study was conducted using Andreas Schedler’s Chain of Democratic Choice. It covers both a general perspective and a case study of the election of the President of Poland, lasting from March to May 2020 and finally and effectively interrupted only on May 6 – 4 days before the vote. The adopted perspective makes it possible to identify and assess the potential and actual threats to maintaining the democratic nature of the election process at all its stages. Possible technical solutions that may counteract the reduction of the democratic level of the election process at individual stages have also been indicated.

Controlled Parliamentarism. Political and Constitutional Transformations in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in 1989-1999

Author: Bartosz Wróblewski
Institution: University of Rzeszów
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4436-8221
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 211-221
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.06.17
PDF: ppk/64/ppk6417.pdf

Under the pressure of social protests in 1989 in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, King Hussein I announced free elections. There was a revival of the system of constitutional monarchy, with a theoretically strong position of the Chamber of Deputies. Then, in 1989-1999 there was a struggle between the opposition and the monarch, who strived to maintain all real power. After 1989 the opposition was represented mainly by Islamic fundamentalists from the Muslim Brotherhood. King Hussein I managed to win the political struggle by using the tribal character of the society. The monarch maintained complete control over political processes, and the ideological opposition, both Islamic and leftist, was marginalized. However, thanks to that, the monarchy recognized real opposition, the multi-party system, and the freedom of speech. Thus, on the one hand, Jordan after 1989 has become one of the most liberal Arab states, but on the other hand, the monarch controls the parliament and the government.

Reserch into the Conditions of Political Attitudes within the Project “Political Preferences: Attitude – Identification – Behavior”

Author: Danuta Plecka
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
Author: Agnieszka Turska-Kawa
Institution: University of Silesiain Katowice
Author: Magdalena Musiał-Karg
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
Author: Karolina Tybuchowska-Hartlińska
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Author: Agnieszka Łukasik-Turecka
Institution: Th e John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
Author: Robert Alberski
Institution: University of Wrocław
Author: Waldemar Wojtasik
Institution: University of Silesia in Katowice
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 177-182
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2014.44.11
PDF: apsp/44/apsp4411.pdf

Research on electoral identifications and attitudes and voting behavior is among the most popular planes of analysis of the citizens’ political participation. The presented article is a report from research carried out in the framework of the project “Political Preferences: Attitude – Identification – Behavior” in 2009 – 2014. It discusses the main assumptions and research directions, the tools used and, finally, the results obtained in the project. The presented research project is of a nationwide character, and is conducted on a representative sample of voters.

Filozoficzno-teoretyczne spojrzenie na znaczenie kadencyjności

Author: Artur Ławniczak
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0611-7176
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 119-131
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2022.03.09
PDF: ppk/67/ppk6709.pdf

Philosophical and Theoretical View on the Meaning of Tenure

The author analyzes two approaches to the terms of office of the authorities. The study discusses the evolution of thinking about terms of office, which took place not only in doctrine, law, religion, but also in the understanding of people in power.

The Institution of Election Silence in Political Preferences

Author: Joanna Marszałek-Kawa
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4201-8028
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 331-348
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2022.03.25
PDF: ppk/67/ppk6725.pdf

Instytucja ciszy wyborczej w preferencjach politycznych

Cisza wyborcza to czas, w którym zakazana jest jakakolwiek forma agitacji politycznej. Jest to czas, który ma służyć spokojnej refleksji, zastanowieniu, pozwalający na podjęcie świadomej i przemyślanej decyzji wyborczej. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest próba udzielenia odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy zdaniem polskich wyborców w dobie rozwoju nowoczesnych technologii informacyjnych i komunikacyjnych racjonalne jest utrzymanie takiego elementu systemu wyborczego jak instytucja ciszy wyborczej. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badania przeprowadzonego w ramach ogólnopolskiego projektu Political Preferences. Badanie przeprowadzono jesienią 2019 r. w wykorzystaniem metody ankietowej na liczącej 1072 osób reprezentatywnej próbie losowej dorosłych mieszkańców Polski.

Data Journalism and Politics: Election DataBot, European Data Journalism Network and Media 3.0 Foundation

Author: Paulina Kosobucka
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8587-1280
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 393-408
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201921
PDF: siip/18/siip1821.pdf

The purpose of this article is to explain what a digital form of journalism, called data journalism, is and how it is applied in practice related to politics. Definitions and various aspects of data journalism (i.a. exemplary variables, most common in data journalism in general, ways of presenting data, factors that data journalists focus on in their work etc.) appear in the first part of article. Politics, as the title of this work indicates, is one of the areas in which this type of journalism is used. In this article, three projects related to data journalism are described. The first example of a tool, based on American politics, used to visualize and obtain data on congressmen and elections in general, is Election DataBot. This paper provides a description of this tool, as well as information about organizations that launched it. The next two initiatives related to data journalism are: European Data Journalism Network (as the name suggests, it refers to European politics) and Media 3.0 Foundation (related to Polish politics). They offer many practical options to observe, analyze and show political data. The research method used in the study is the analysis of thematic online sources. The hypothesis is that data journalism is still a growing branch of journalism that has its adhibition in politics, thus supporting journalists, researchers and others interested in obtaining and visualizing data.

Zasada równości w wyborach do organów samorządów zawodów zaufania publicznego

Author: Tomasz Jaroszyński
Institution: Politechnika Warszawska
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9654-7964
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 81-92
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2022.05.06
PDF: ppk/69/ppk6906.pdf

The Principle of Equality in Elections to Bodies of Self- Governments of Public Trust Professions

The aim of this article is to demonstrate that the constitutional principles relating to elections to public authorities should mutatis mutandis be the benchmark for elections to the bodies of self-government of public trust professions. The principle of equality of the electoral law is of particular importance in this area. The analysis has been carried out on the basis of the Polish Constitution, the case law of the Constitutional Tribunal and the laws and internal acts regarding professional self-governments. It follows that a breach of the principle of equality in the internal acts of a professional self-government may be grounds for declaring them unlawful. Whereas, laws concerning these self-governments should enable the scrutiny of elections. The considerations lead to the conclusion that topics combining the position of professional self-governments and democratic standards of the election law can be a field of interesting research in the domain of constitutional law.

Wyniki wyborów do parlamentu regionalnego i Kortezów Generalnych w Kraju Basków jako odzwierciedlenie panujących tam tendencji nacjonalistycznych

Author: Anna Llanos-Antczak
Institution: Akademia Ekonomiczno-Humanistyczna w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 7-26
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2022.73.01
PDF: apsp/73/apsp7301.pdf

Results of the elections to the Regional Parliament and the Cortes Generales in the Basque country as a reflection of the nationalist tendencies

Basque nationalism is a multifaceted and complex issue in which many aspects overlap, but much can be deduced from the political sympathies expressed by the inhabitants of the Basque Country during the elections to both the regional parliament and the Cortes Generales. The political parties’ programs are also a good source of knowledge. The aim of the article is to outline the programs of the Basque main political parties and the results of parliamentary elections as two important determinants for the analysis of nationalist tendencies in this autonomous community. The article provides an analysis of the political origins of Basque nationalism and also focuses on the PNV party as the leading political force for moderate nationalism. The last part concerns the socio-political moods at the end of the second decade of the 21st century in the Basque Country.

Alternatywne procedury głosowania w polskim i litewskim prawie wyborczym

Author: Martinas Malużinas
Institution: Politechnika Koszalińska
Author: Maciej Górny
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 45-61
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2022.73.03
PDF: apsp/73/apsp7303.pdf

Alternative voting procedures in Polish and Lithuanian election law

Organizing voting in general elections only in the traditional way (i.e., at the ballot boxes) may make it difficult for more and more voters to participate. This is due to the increasing mobility of society and the fact that citizens are away from home on election day, the aging population and much more difficult access of the old and the sick to polling stations, and – as shown in the years 2020–2021 – unexpected epidemic crises that affect public health, which in turn translates into the election process. This article focuses on alternative voting methods in Poland and Lithuania. The main intention of the authors is to analyze the legal basis and compare the functioning of alternative voting procedures in the electoral systems of both countries, as well as to answer the question about the possibility of introducing new forms of voting that could increase the health safety of voters and ensure the democratic nature of elections in emergency situations. The motivation to take up this topic were: the wprowapresidential elections in Poland in 2020 and the parliamentary elections in Lithuania in 2021, during which not only alternative voting methods were used (e.g., correspondence voting), but also the possibility of implementing completely new solutions – safe in the event of spreading coronavirus pandemic.

Kandydaci w wyborach na prezydenta Rzeszowa w czerwcu 2021 r. na łamach dzienników regionalnych na Podkarpaciu

Author: Jakub Czopek
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 175-191
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2022.73.11
PDF: apsp/73/apsp7311.pdf

Candidates in the elections for the President of Rzeszów in June 2021 in regional daily newspapers of the Subcarpathian province

The article presents the results of research devoted to the presentation of candidates for the presidential election in Rzeszów in June 2021 by two of the largest regional dailies published in the Subcarpathian region – “Gazeta Codzienna Nowiny”, and “Super Nowości”. The concept of mediatization of politics provided an adequate theoretical framework to describe the involvement of the media in the political process. The research was quantitative and qualitative. In the first case, issues such as the number of texts devoted to candidates, their area and mutual proportions were examined. The qualitative approach was aimed at analyzing the emotional overtones of the examined units – paragraphs – and determining the candidate’s image of a positive, negative or neutral character presented in them. The results of the research made it possible to indicate certain likes and dislikes of both analyzed titles.

Tryb zgłaszania kandydatów w wyborach na urząd Prezydenta RP

Author: Konrad Składowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3199-7440
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 115-123
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2022.06.08
PDF: ppk/70/ppk7008.pdf

Procedure of Nominating Candidates in Elections for the Office of the President of the Republic of Poland

The article analyzes the procedure of nominating candidates for the office of the President of the Republic of Poland. The provisions of the Constitution and the Electoral Code were assessed. The analysis of the elections to the office of the President in Poland indicates that the requirement to collect 100,000 signatures of citizens who have the right to vote for the Sejm is not difficult to reach. As a result, candidates with low public support, who receive less than 100,000 votes, participate in the election of the President. At the same time, election practice shows that there is a lot of irregularities during collecting the signatures. This problem was repeatedly pointed out by the National Electoral Commission The article ends with proposals to amend the Electoral Code aimed at clarifying the rules for collecting signatures of support and introducing an election deposit.

Postulaty Państwowej Komisji Wyborczej dotyczące pożądanego kierunku zmian kodeksu wyborczego

Author: Piotr Uziębło
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2473-9240
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 91-104
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2023.02.07
PDF: ppk/72/ppk7207.pdf

Postulates of the National Electoral Commission Regarding the Desired Direction of Changes to the Electoral Code

The aim of this article is to make a critical analysis of the postulates for amending the Electoral Code, proposed by the National Electoral Commission. We can agree with a large part of the above postulates, although their final normative shape will be of key importance in this case. However, there are also some proposals that can be considered at least debatable. First of all, this concerns the postulate to abandon the judicial composition of district electoral commissions, because even despite doubts as to the legality of the appointment of judges with the participation of the unconstitutional composition of the National Council of the Judiciary, guarantees of judicial independence are also a safeguard against politicization of the composition of subsequent election administration bodies. Anyway, it is worth emphasizing that the NEC’s proposals were in practice intended to constitute a form of justification for introducing changes contrary to the fundamental principles of electoral law, which took place in the winter of 2023.

Wiedza wyborcza pokolenia „Z” w perspektywie badania ilościowego nad warszawskimi licealistami

Author: Arleta Hrehorowicz
Institution: Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1656-5252
Author: Tomasz Kowalczyk
Institution: Kujawsko-Pomorska Szkoła Wyższa w Bydgoszczy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7251-5431
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 119-139
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2023.02.09
PDF: ppk/72/ppk7209.pdf

Electoral Knowledge of Generation “Z” in the Perspective of a Quantitative Study on Secondary School Students in Warsaw

The research problem of the described study was the electoral knowledge of representatives of generation Z. The aim of the content of the article is to clarify the extent to which today’s secondary school students are familiar with the principles of electoral law and to determine the significance of gender on their level of knowledge in this area; obtaining information on the self-assessment of knowledge regarding electoral law and elections, as well as the importance of the length of learning for the level of self-assessment, as well as learning about the most convenient form of voting in the opinion of secondary school students. Research to date in this area has mainly focused on the millennial generation, not on today’s youth. This text therefore seeks to fill this gap. The study was carried out by means of a diagnostic survey using a survey technique and an online survey questionnaire research tool.

Permissibility of the involvement of the Polish armed forces to secure the electoral process in Poland

Author: Radosław Zych
Institution: University of Szczecin, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1221-9136
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 151-170
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2023207
PDF: rop/24/rop2407.pdf

The purpose of this research is to establish whether it is permissible for the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland to be involved in the electoral process when none of the states of emergency provided for by the Polish Constitution cannot be introduced. So, my aim is to answer the question whether the Polish Armed Forces can ensure the security of the electoral process in Poland. To this end, one must examine the Polish legal system, composed of not only provisions of Polish law, but also of binding supranational law and soft law. It is beyond the scope of this study to explore possible measures to be taken based on the provisions of Section 20, “Militarization and Protection of Objects of Special Importance for the Security or Defence of the State” of the Act of 11 March 2022 on Homeland Defence (consolidated text: Journal of Laws of 2022, item 2305), since, as Article 600(1) provides, “in the event that a state of emergency is declared in the entire territory of the Republic of Poland, a state of war, mobilization, and in time of war, the Council of Ministers may extend militarization to the units eligible for militarization and under the obligation to perform tasks vitally important for the security or defence of the state”.

The electoral situation as a chronotope

Author: Pavlo Hnatenko
Institution: V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8904-870X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 74-80
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023108
PDF: cpls/5/cpls508.pdf

This article explores the phenomenon of elections as a political chronotope, a spatio-temporal realm where the mechanisms of democracy unfold. Its aim is to elucidate the unique socio-political nature of elections. The author establishes that the spatial and temporal characteristics define the format and regulations governing electoral interactions. The term «chronotope» is understood as an interdisciplinary concept that captures the essential connections between temporal and spatial features within a specific order of phenomena. Although extensive research has focused on the social, technical, and psychological aspects of expressing one›s will, the ontology of elections, which encompasses the comprehension of the «unity of time and place of action» and the involvement of political actors in the electoral scenario, has been largely overlooked. Additionally, this study concentrates on the concept of the electoral situation, which delineates the synchronous and diachronic connections wherein citizens’ political choices are positioned, realized, and interpreted. The notion of the electoral situation can be correlated with the term «political landscape», which is only partially related to actual geography but predominantly pertains to the comprehensive conditions of an electoral competition (the coordinate system) and the participants involved in this process. The article’s author illustrates how the electoral situation constructs synchronous and diachronic connections at various levels of political interaction. Notably, these connections are facilitated by political mythologems, which serve as unifying and integrative factors within the electoral chronotope. By examining these mythologems, the author highlights their role in shaping the narrative and symbolism surrounding elections, ultimately influencing the dynamics and outcomes of the electoral process. Overall, this article delves into the intricate relationship between elections and the spatio-temporal framework in which they occur. By emphasizing the significance of the electoral situation and its connection to the broader political landscape, the author sheds light on the multifaceted nature of electoral processes, enriching our understanding of democracy’s fundamental mechanisms.

Organization of General Elections during a Pandemic. A Comparative Analysis of Poland and the Czech Republic

Author: Rafał Miszczuk
Institution: University of Szczecin (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7519-6640
Author: Joanna Martyniuk-Placha
Institution: University of Szczecin (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2202-1534
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 197-212
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202380
PDF: ppsy/52/ppsy202380.pdf

The aim of this paper is a comparative analysis of the new methods used to organise the 2020 general elections in Poland and the Czech Republic, which were held in the state of the SARS-19 virus pandemic. This paper analyses the voting methods introduced in connection with sanitary regulations in both countries and the scale of votes cast in this way in relation to the total. It discusses and compares the requirements introduced that voters and electoral commission members had to meet on voting day to minimise the risk of infection with the virus. The text shows a number of similarities in both countries in terms of the measures applied to prevent the spread of the virus associated with a personal visit to a polling station. An additional aspect of the comparative analysis of the covid-voting methods in the two countries was a discussion of voting rules for those infected or in quarantine on voting day. Analysis of the data showed that in both countries the alternative voting method, was not very popular.

Prawa wyborcze nierezydentów

Author: Ryszard Balicki
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9192-908X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 31-44
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2023.05.02
PDF: ppk/75/ppk7502.pdf

The Right to Vote for Non-Residents

The article deals with the possibility for country’s non-citizen residents to participate in elections, in the political life they wish to participate in. This issue remains outside the mainstream of jurisprudence and doctrine, but it is important due to the increased social mobility. The article presents the practice of selected countries and documents of international law relating to the title issue. Theoretical and comparative issues were confronted with Polish solutions regulating voting issues of Polish citizens residing abroad. The article also contains proposals for necessary legislative changes, the introduction of which to the electoral code will guarantee respect for the universality of electoral law. The article uses the legal-dogmatic method, supplemented to the necessary extent by the legal-comparative method.

Zmiana statusu i uprawnień mężów zaufania po uchwaleniu nowelizacji Kodeksu wyborczego z 26 stycznia 2023 r.

Author: Krzysztof Skotnicki
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9428-2103
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 45-57
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2023.05.03
PDF: ppk/75/ppk7503.pdf

Change in the Status and Powers of the Pool Watchers after the Enactment of the January 26, 2023 Amendments to the Election Code

The amendment to the Election Code made on 2023 significantly changed the status and powers of the pool watchers. If they observe the voting for at least 5 hours and observe the entire process of determining the results of voting until the signing of the voting protocol, they will receive 40% of the flat-rate allowance of members of ward electoral commissions. The chairmen of ward electoral commissions are obliged to keep records of the working time of the pool watchers. The most controversial issue is granting them the possibility of registering all activities of ward electoral commissions on election day using their own devices recording all activities of the ward electoral commission also during voting. This solution violates the principle of secrecy of voting, the right to privacy, and may be treated as an unacceptable form of pressure on the voter regarding the content of his vote.

Centralny Rejestr Wyborców jako przejaw wpływu rozwoju technologii na prawo wyborcze. Uwagi na tle nowelizacji Kodeksu wyborczego z 26 stycznia 2023 r.

Author: Andrzej Jackiewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6957-3139
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 59-73
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2023.05.04
PDF: ppk/75/ppk7504.pdf

Central Register of Voters as a Sign of the Impact of Technological Developments on Electoral Law. Remarks in the Context of the Amendment of the Electoral Code of 26 January 2023

Author verifies the thesis that changes in electoral law in Poland take into account the progress of technology. The subject of the research is the amendment of the Electoral Code of 26 January 2023 in regard to the introduced Central Register of Voters. The conducted analysis shows that the Polish legislator follows the development of technology. This deserves approval, improving the functioning of the electoral bodies, but above all making it easier for voters to participate in the elections. However, as pointed out in the article, the amendment to the Electoral Code has been done in a way that raises a number of questions that need to be kept in mind when assessing it. In addition, the changes to electoral law in the field of technology use raise a certain shortcoming from the point of view of the omission of normative changes regarding alternative voting methods, including e-voting.

Rola federalnej komisji wyborczej w procesie wyborczym – uwagi na tle wyborów do Bundestagu w 2021 r.

Author: Kamila Bezubik
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2572-334X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 113-124
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2023.05.08
PDF: ppk/75/ppk7508.pdf

The Role of the Federal Election Commission in the Electoral Process – Remarks Based on the Background of the 2021 Bundestag Elections

During the preparation and conduct of elections to the Bundestag, up to the determination and confirmation of the election result and the allocation of seats, electoral and administrative bodies and other institutions make a number of decisions and actions related to the elections. The procedure for verifying the correctness of the elections takes place after the elections, so it comes too late. The Federal Elections Act provides for legal remedies that can be taken before the elections, i.e. a complaint against the decision of the Federal Election Commission not to grant party status and a complaint against the decision of the State Election Commission not to admit the national list to the elections. The article is a synthetic analysis of the competence of the federal election commission in the field of applying legal measures to prevent irregularities during elections.

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