foreign policy

  • Nordic States: Towards Unity or Diversity?

    The aim of the article is to examine whether Nordic area can be regarded as a homogenous and successfully cooperating region, which is providing one unified political front. Considering many similarities between Nordic states, as for example shared values (equality, women rights, common love of democracy, peace and welfare state), one could say that Nordic states constitute a single and unitary area. What is more, the linguistic, cultural and historical closeness of those states is a fact, but at the same time many differences can be pointed, especially considering their security and foreign policies. Those aspects seem to be the main obstacle in introducing full cooperation in the region. Nevertheless, it is worth noticing that current international developments and appearance of new threats to security are influencing the Nordic states which, as a result, are changing their attitudes towards security policy. Those factors could lead to introducing new dimensions of their cooperation. 

  • Zwrot ku Azji – wizja i strategia polityki Federacji Rosyjskiej

    The author addresses an important question of transformation in the field of foreign policy priorities made by Russian Federation, indicating both the causes, assumptions and ad hoc and prospective objectives of the newly announced strategy, which is a retreat from the West and the intensification of relations with the countries of Asia. This was largely a consequence of the crisis in the relations with the West, due to the annexation of the Crimea and the conflict in the east of Ukraine. However, explaining the motives of this policy, the Russian side tried to ignore the true impact of the Ukrainian crisis. As a whole, this new national strategy has been dubbed PovorotnaVostok. This strategy should boost economic growth, and above all play the role of the one of key instruments restoring Russia’s lost position as a global power. More broadly, the Russian shift towards Asia is based on the assumption that the long-term factor affecting the international situation will be strategic competition between China and United States, and that Asia in the near future will not be able to create of a coherent system of security. With this in mind, the Kremlin is trying to find a place for the realization of its vision of a new multipolar world order and actually is trying to play one state against another one. The leaders of Kremlin are of course aware of the shifting of the global economic balance of power towards Asia – Pacific, and they understand that Russia’s economic integration with the region has an essential importance for successful longterm development.

  • Instruments of Polish Foreign Policy towards the Post–Yugoslav States

    The realization of Polish foreign policy after 1989 was carried out in the dynamically changing international situation. Political transformation in Poland and the redefi nition of its foreign policy was parallel to farreaching events occurring in Europe. These were brought about by political transformation in Central and Eastern Europe, that is the collapse of the Easter block, reunifi cation of the German states, break-up of the USSR and the independence of former Soviet republics.

  • Retrospections and Perspectives of Russian Diplomacy Actions in 2006

    According to he author of this article, Prof. Miao Huashou – from the Euro-Asian Social Development Research Institute and from the Development Research Center of the PRCh State Council, Russian diplomacy may boast of many great successes in 2006. Russia once again creates its image of a great empire by demonstrating its geopolitical and economic inuences. €e country underlines this way its position of an empire equal to the USA. It will continue to strengthen its inuences in the Commonwealth of Independent States and undertake all the eorts aiming to development of strategic partnership with the EU on equal rules. It will also develop its contacts with the USA, as well as it will continue political dialogue and economic cooperation with other, great world powers.

  • Parisian Culture's Views on Eastern Europe as a Factor in Contemporary Polish Foreign Policy

    When analyzing events which unfolded in the Ukraine during the final months of 2004 and the involvement of Polish politicians and public opinion in the struggle for the preservation of the democratic character of presidential elections, a question arises regarding the connection of their actions with the political projects of Jerzy Giedroyć, the founder and sole editor of an influential magazine and a centre of political thought, which was Culture, published in Maisons-Laffitte, near Paris, in the years 1947–2000. Historians and political scientists rightly emphasize the fact that the „Eastern doctrine”, also known as the ULB doctrine (from the abbreviation of „Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus”), has been a constant element of Polish foreign policy since 1989. Generally speaking, Giedroyć was convinced that nationalist impulses would eventually destroy the Russian empire from within, and a sovereign Poland would gain three new neighbours in the East: Ukraine, Lithuania and Belarus. This process was expected to take place in the near future, as foreseen by Culture contributors who called on the émigrés from Eastern Europe to work together in laying solid foundations for the future partnership.

  • Presidential Power in Foreign Policyand Military Interventions. Case Study of the Selected Examples, 1958–Present

    A common knowledge shapes our perception of the world and forms our understanding of political phenomena. And almost everyone could agree with the argument that circumstances influence politics. The ebbs and flows in influence, power, prerogatives, performance, and activity of many political actors are an effect of changes in the world outside of them. But one may reasonably argue: what is the cause and what is the result? Is it really true the circumstances evidently, clearly have an effect on e.g. US presidential prerogatives? Or, quite contrary, is the actual, current politics as active as the presidents used their power? The article is about how the two worlds infl uence each other, what are the mutual connections between politics and political actors’ powers.

  • Foreign Affairs in Democratic and Republican Policies: a Comparative Study

    According to a nationwide survey conducted in July 2004 by the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press in association with the Council on Foreign Affairs 41% of those surveyed cited war, foreign policy and terrorism as the most important problems facing the United States of America. For the first time since the Vietnam era American voters are more concerned about international and defense issues than the economy or other domestic issues in the upcoming presidential election; thus the importance of foreign affairs in Democratic and Republican Parties’ platforms.

  • Polish Fin de Siecle in foreign policy after 1956

  • Polityka wschodnia RP Uwarunkowania i efekty

    In analyzing the mode in which Poland was settling its relations with Russia a deduction comes to mind that Poland remains under the spell of the syndromes which were either disposed of or dealt with by other European nations. Remaining is the challenge to solidify Poland’s position within the safety vault of heaven that is vouched by the West while establishing a pragmatic and rational and conflict free relationships with the East-Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic countries, particularly Latvia. Thus, required is the ability to comprehend the Polish national interests, that is the Polish raison d’état, in a realistic and rational manner within the limits of the existing geopolitical situation of the competition, securing sustained competitive advantages, entering into alliances or compromises and making a long-term option.

  • Od koncepcji do Strategii Bezpieczeństwa Narodowego Ukrainy Ewolucja polityki bezpieczeństwa narodowego Ukrainy w latach 1991–2012

    The geopolitical situation of Ukraine and the threats of the modern world, such as international terrorism, organized crime, illegal emigration, as well as international and internal conflicts necessitate conducting an effective foreign policy and national security policy. Choosing the vector of its foreign policy, Ukraine also made a choice of the concept of its national security. The analysis of the concept of national security of Ukraine in the years 1991–2012 allows to verify the thesis put forward in the introduction of the paper that the evolution of the concept of the national security policy in a significant way mirrors the evolution of the foreign policy of Ukraine. Both the security policy and the foreign policy can be described as having multiple polarity, balancing between the Euro-Atlantic and the Euro-Asian spheres of influence.

  • The Role of Trauma in Romania’s Ontological Security

    This paper analyses Romania’s foreign policy during the first post-communist years, by employing a theoretical viewpoint based on ontological security and trauma. It uncovers the elite efforts to secure the post-totalitarian state’s identity and international course. Romania’s search for ontological security featured the articulation of narratives of victimhood, which were linked with its proclaimed western European identity. The Romanian identity narrative has long struggled between “the West” and “the East”, trying to cope with traumatic historical events. These discursive themes and ontological insecurities were crystallized in the controversy surrounding the Romanian-Soviet “Friendship Treaty” (1991). Key Romanian officials displayed different typical responses to cultural trauma and debated the state’s path to ontological security, which was reflected in the foreign policy positions. 


  • Polityka Rosji a bezpieczeństwo państw Europy Wschodniej po 1991 roku

    The paper Politics of Russia and security of Eastern Europe after 1991 examines the impact of policy on Russia after 1991, the safety of Eastern Europe. The author focused on activities of Russia to Ukraine and the Caucasus at the beginning of the 21st century. In that time is the activation of Western policy in the region. NATO turns out logistical support of the region’s States in the reconstruction and modernization of the armed forces. Russia’s response to the aggressive military action, the effect of which was the war with Georgia in 2008 and annexation of Crimea in 2014. It takes place now hybrid warfare with the Alliance and consolidated at the same countries such as Ukraine. The escalation of the aggressive actions of Russia threatens regional and delay the integration of Eastern European States with the European Union.


      The objective of this article is to analyse the impact of the Spanish democratic transformation on its multilateral relations. It analyses the strategies of Spanish governments in the transformation era and the process of accession to NATO, the Council of Europe and the European Communities. Source analysis and criticism methods (applied mostly to Spanish- -language texts), as well as comparative analysis were employed for the needs of this article.
      Based on her research, the author concludes that changes to Spanish foreign policy were evolutionary in nature. Therefore, it took Spain several years to regain the full confidence of its partners. Before any breakthrough changes could occur in the multilateral dimension, Spain needed to normalise its bilateral relations.
      The democratic elections conducted on the 15th of June 1977 in Spain was the breakthrough without which no accession to any important international organisation could ever happen. As the event clinched the state’s democratisation, it paved the way for Spain to join soon the Council of Europe. The accession process for the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was more complex. The Spanish political scene was divided in that matter. Spain’s accession to the European Communities was the longest process. It was subject not only to the state’s democratisation progress but also to economic issues.


    The aim of this article is to analyze Polish foreign policy, its nature and instruments of implementation under the migration crisis. The migration issue is in this case the determinant of foreign policy, which verified and actuated Polish external policies in the bilateral relations, as well as in the framework of multilateral cooperation. The migration issue has also become a determinant of European policy of Poland prejudging the extent and mechanisms of Polish involvement in the solution of the migration crisis in European institutions. It should be noted that a different approach to EU policies and its activities to prevent and mitigate the effects of the influx of people on its territory is reflected in the relations between Member States, as exemplified by the Polish-German relations. The migration issue is also reflected in the activities of the Visegrad Group. Fear of the consequences of mass migration into the EU and, above all, opposition to the obligation to accept refugees based on the quota system proposed by the European Commission intensified cooperation within the Visegrad Group. From the Polish foreign policy perspective, the Visegrad Group is seen as an important entity influencing its effects.


    The author shows the basic elements and tools for implementing security and defense policy of the European Union. She poses questions about the dependence of the Union’s policy and its impact on the conflict in Ukraine. The analysis of subsequent events enables to make conclusions and show irregularities. Two years after the bloody protests the analysis goes from hybrid war to creeping conflict.


    The involvement of Poland in the activities of the international community for strengthening peace, security and stability in conflict-prone states and regions was one of significant elements of the foreign policy pursued afier 1989. It assumed various forms, from diplomatic initiatives and activities, to the direct participation in international peacekeeping operations and stabilisation missions. The involvement of Poland in the activities of the international community for strengthening peace, security and stability in conflict-prone states and regions was one of significant elements of the foreign policy pursued afier 1989. It assumed various forms, from diplomatic initiatives and activities, to the direct participation in international peacekeeping operations and stabilisation missions.


    On 3rd-5th June, 2013 the 27th Asian-Pacifi c Roundtable was organized in Kuala Lumpur. Th e conference held traditionally in the Malaysian capital provided invited speakers with an occasion for presentations of their views on current problem countries situated in Asia and around the Pacifi c Ocean, as well as the future of relations between them.Th is time, the theme of the Asian-Pacifi c Roundtable was Strategising Change in Asia. USA Ambassador Hill said that reports about the decline of the West seemed to be premature. He proposed not to overestimate successes of Asian countries scored mainly in the fi eld of economy and reminded once again that Europe as well as North America possessed experience in overcoming problems of diff erent nature. Minister Morgulov from Russia tried to convince that Russian politicians are aware that their state possessed too little potential to compete successfully with the United States or China for the regional or global leadership. It seems that Russia has begun to implement some kind of containment strategy aimed at the containment of Russia’s diminishing signifi cance in the world.

  • Priorytety polityki zagranicznej Koreańskiej Republiki Ludowo-Demokratycznej i Republiki Korei

    Foreign policy priorities of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea

    In this article, author want to analyze the priorities of foreign policies of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the Republic of Korea. In order to achieve the above aim of research, author of this work put a few basic research questions: what are the priorities of North Korean foreign policy and what are the priorities of South Korean foreign policy? The author used the analysis method to demonstrate the originality of this paper. The article allows to pay attention to the extent to which national interests and foreign policies of both Korea differ from each other. The subject of this article has not been studied in polish scientific articles. The author has attempted to fill this gap. North Korea’s foreign policy is focused on surviving regime in the international arena. The priority of foreign policy of the Republic of Korea is primarily the pursuit of deepening economic cooperation with China, Japan, Russia and the United States.

  • Relacje białorusko-unijne w latach 2011–2013: od eskalacji konfliktu do polityki krytycznego zaangażowania

    Po wyborach prezydenckich w 2010 r. na Białorusi relacje białorusko-unijne weszły w fazę ostrego konfliktu politycznego. UE przyjęła sankcje wizowe i gospodarcze wobec Białorusi. UE zawiesiła również udział Białorusi w programie Partnerstwa Wschodniego. Do eskalacji konfliktu doszło na początku 2012 r., gdy ambasadorowie UE wyjechali z Białorusi. W kolejnych miesiącach UE przeszła do polityki krytycznego zaangażowania wobec Białorusi, która przejawiała się utrzymywaniem kontaktów z reżimem na poziomie technicznym. W drugiej połowie 2013 r. nastąpiła niewielka poprawa obustronnych relacji. Szczyt Partnerstwa Wschodniego w 2013 r. nie przyniósł wyraźnego przełomu na linii Bruksela–Mińsk.

  • Sankcje wobec Rosji

    W marcu 2014 roku Unia Europejska zdecydowała się nałożyć sankcje na Rosję w związku ze znacznym zaangażowaniem w konflikcie we wschodniej Ukrainie, przyłączeniem Krymu oraz zestrzeleniem samolotu malezyjskich linii lotniczych. Sankcje skierowane były wobec określonych osób fizycznych i prawnych i obejmowały: ograniczenia dyplomatyczne, zamrożenie aktywów i kont bankowych oraz zakazy o charakterze ekonomicznym i finansowym.
    Sankcje wywarły istotny wpływ na sytuację polityczną oraz społeczno-gospodarczą w Rosji. Rosja, która znalazła się w izolacji politycznej, zmuszona została poszukiwać nowych partnerów. Osłabienie jej pozycji na Zachodzie spowodowało wzrost aktywności w Azji i na Dalekim Wschodzie. Rosja wzmacnia także współpracę z państwami Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej, osłabiając tym samym jedność unijną.
    Analiza sytuacji wewnętrznej Rosji po wprowadzeniu sankcji nie daje jasnej odpowiedzi na pytanie o przyszłość wysokiego poziomu popularności Władimira Putina. Istnieje jednak szansa, że wprowadzone sankcje przyczynią się do zmiany polityki Putina wobec Ukrainy oraz w dłuższej perspektywie wpłyną na proces demokratyzacji.

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