geopolitics

  • From Geopolitical Chance to Security Threat: Polish Public Political Discourse on the One Belt One Road Initiative

    Author: Michał Lubina
    E-mail: michal.lubina@uj.edu.pl
    Institution: Jagiellonian University (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 221-238
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017114
    PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017114.pdf

    This article deals with public, political discourse over One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative in Poland. OBOR has recently become very popular in Poland as it encapsulates the noticeable fascination on China and on geopolitics among parts of Polish society. This article describes this phenomenon and delaminates the mainstream political discourse over OBOR into two main strands: great geopolitical and/or geoeconomic chance (pro-OBOR discourse) and security threat (anti-OBOR). The advocates of the former see the project as a great geopolitical and economic opportunity for Poland; the supporters of the latter find it a threat to Polish security and/or economic interests. This discourse echoes internal divisions within current Polish government on its China policy and can be observed against the background of China’s dynamic enter to Central and Eastern Europe, particularly to Czech Republic, Hungary and Serbia. 

  • Ukraina i Federacja Rosyjska – przyczyny i konsekwencje kryzysu ukraińskiego

    Author: Jakub Potulski
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 42-66
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015103
    PDF: npw/08/npw2015103.pdf

    2014 was a breakthrough year. Ukraine’s crisis of 2013–2014, February 2014 revolution which removed Viktor Yanukovych and his government, annexation of Crimea by Russia, war in Donbas caused changes in the geopolitical map of the world. The crisis had many effects both domestic and international. Author argues that the crisis is a part of the wider changes on the geopolitical map of the world. The main effect of the crisis is that Ukraine was transformed into shatterbelt – regions that are both deeply divided internally and caught up in the competition between Great Powers.

  • Konflikt zbrojny na Ukrainie i jego odzwierciedlenie we współczesnej literaturze ukraińskiej.

    Author: Aniela Radecka
    E-mail: aniela.radecka@gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski (Polska)
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 51-62
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/PPUSN.2017.03.04
    PDF: pomi/03/pomi201704.pdf

    The Armed Confl ict in Ukraine and its Representation in Contemporary Ukrainian Literature. Margaryta Surzhenko’s АТО. Історії зі Сходу на Захід. The essay examines Margaryta Surzhenko’s novel АТО. Історії зі Сходу на Захід (2015). In the context of the ongoing fi ghting in the Donbass area, this type of narrative brings refl ection to the national identity of the inhabitants of Eastern Ukraine and their escape from the war zone. Th e author focuses not only on the migration but also on the information space (pro-Russian) under the infl uence of which the inhabitants of Donbass lived their whole lives. Ordinary people suddenly found themselves in the center of a dangerous armed confl ict. Such a course of the situation needs to be analyzed in the context of the long-term coexistence of Russians and Ukrainians, as well as the infl uence of power in those areas. Changing the balance of power in the region aff ected ordinary residents, oft en forcing them to escape.

  • GEOPOLITICS, POLITICAL TOPOLOGY AND HYBRID WARFARE

    Author: Benon Zb. Szałek
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 86-97
    DOI Address: -
    PDF: rop/2015/rop201507.pdf

    This paper deals with the concept of political topology in the light of geopolitics and hybrid warfare. Traditional geopolitics can be regarded as a point of departure for the search for better tools for political decision making. Comparison and confrontation of different, theoretical and practical, concepts of hybrid warfare can be heuristically inspiring and lead to a compact system of politically relevant knowledge – to political topology.

  • POLISH AND GERMAN VISIONS ON THE FUTURE OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC ALLIANCE

    Author: Krzysztof Malinowski
    Institution: Szczecin University
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 20-34
    DOI Address: -
    PDF: rop/2014/rop201402.pdf

    The transformations of the North Atlantic Alliance in the wake of the 9/11 attacks and its mission in Afghanistan have proceeded hand in hand with the redefining of security interests in individual member states. Poland and Germany have also been affected by a polarization of views, particularly on the nature, place and role of NATO in today’s world. The countries’ geopolitics and their varying visions of European security have significantly affected their positions.

  • POLAND IN NATO - SOME GEOPOLITICAL AND PRAXIOLOGICAL REMARKS

    Author: Benon Zbigniew Szałek
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 95-121
    DOI Address: -
    PDF: rop/2014/rop201407.pdf

    This paper presents some remarks on the situation of Poland in NATO. The problem of ‘predictability’ is analysed on the basis of a simple scheme (system, its environment, their interactions). The geopolitical analysis of this dynamic model leads to the conclusion that the future cannot be described as highly predictable, although some long-term scenarios seem to be relatively plausible and may be used in the construction of more realistic global and national/ regional strategies. The results of this analysis suggest global cooperation and regional integration.

  • Polish Geopolitical Codes Illustrated with the Example of the Electoral Programs of the Major Political Parties in 1991 – 2011

    Author: Jarosław Macała
    Institution: University of Zielona Góra
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-20
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2017.56.01
    PDF: apsp/56/apsp5601.pdf

    This article is concerned with the research on Polish geopolitical codes following 1989. The problem has not yet been the subject of broader scientific studies or publications. In this aspect, the research is of particular importance for the analysis of foreign policy of Poland, which had to redefine its place in Europe and to fundamentally rebuild external relations, that is also to define the new geopolitical codes. The code system used in this text is based on Colin Flint’s definition, with the key division into allies and enemies. Based on the analysis of discourse, it can be stated that the most important allies of Poland in these codes are the USA, the European Union, Germany, and the enemy is Russia. In general, the fundamental change of Poland’s geopolitical codes following 1989 – from the east side to the west – can quite easily be seen in the electoral programs: the enemies of the People’s Republic of Poland’s period became allies, and the forced ally became an enemy. However, their concretization is generally not original and rather schematic. The Polish geopolitical codes have been exerted with strong influences of the hegemonic geopolitical codes of the West, mainly those of the United States. On the other hand, the last geopolitical code, the attempt to explain to the public the geopolitical imaginations of our elites, has been the weakest. This largely confirms the authoritarian dimension of Polish top-down transformation as well as the dominance of the elites over the society.

  • Russia’s Strategic Culture: Prisoner of Imperial History?

    Author: Anna Antczak
    Institution: University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2342-1521
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 223-242
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.60.13
    PDF: apsp/60/apsp6013.pdf

    The article aims at identifying key elements of Russia’s strategic culture and drivers for its change. It starts with a short theoretical overview of the strategic culture concept and different approaches within various theoretical frameworks (liberal, constructive, and post-modern). It focuses on most important determinants of Russian strategic culture, namely history, ideology, geopolitics, systemic issues, and religion. It examines the extent to which Russian policy reflects these determinants.

  • Geopolitical Imagination of the Political Elites of the Third Polish Republic: An Outline of the Problem

    Author: Jarosław Macała
    Institution: University of Zielona Góra
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 62-79
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.64.04
    PDF: apsp/64/apsp6404.pdf

    The article deals with the issue of the development of geopolitical imagination of Polish political elites following 1989. The source database of the text are the most important official documents regarding the foreign policy of the Third Polish Republic: the policy statements of subsequent prime ministers and the so-called small policy statements of the ministers of foreign affairs. Discourse analysis and system analysis were used to analyse them, treating them as a social construct. Geopolitical imagination placed Poland in Europe, in the dangerous zone between Germany and Russia and on the border of the two civilizations. The escape from this “fatalism of geography” was the main goal of the elites of the Third Polish Republic. Hence the orientation towards the West, to ensure the exit from peripherality, security and development. To justify such a remodelling of their representations, the elites put forward an idealized image of the West. It facilitated the acceptance of the geopolitical choice made by the society and the associated severe limitation of Poland’s geopolitical and economic autonomy. The vehicles on the way to the West were bandwagoning towards the USA and Germany, which justified clientelism towards them. In various combinations, the representations about Poland’s key role in the post-communist region re-emerged following 1989 to strengthen its position in relation to the West and the East. As for the eastern direction, Poland’s goal was to move the imaginary borders of the West towards our eastern neighbours, mainly Belarus and Ukraine. This must have led to the negative reaction from Russia, which considered this area its sphere of influence. Russia was imagined by us to be an alien and enemy, and the change of this state of affairs would be a consequence of the Westernisation of Russia so desired by the Polish elites. It seems that in the years 1989–2015, one could speak of a certain interpretative community, which the LaJ (Law and Justice/Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) governments broke down following 2015. The LaJ foreign policy has become a hostage of those undermining the liberal democracy of internal political system changes. Their criticism in the EU states isolates and pushes towards servility to Washington. In turn, the Three Seas Initiative is too divided and weak to leverage Poland’s position. It seems that re-approaching the EU’s core may give us some freedom and better protection in external policy.

  • Geopolitical Determinants in the Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation

    Author: Michał Romańczuk
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 80-96
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.64.05
    PDF: apsp/64/apsp6405.pdf

    International identity consists mainly of geographical, demographic, historical, political, military, economic, ideological, cultural and psychological factors. After the collapse of the USSR, Russia returned to tradition, not only in the sphere of political, social and philosophical ideas and ideologies, but also in the sphere of culture and religion. In the 1990s, the geopolitics revived. It became the basis for the development of the concept of foreign policy, the National Security Strategy and the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation. The aim of the research is to analyze geopolitical perspectives in the identity of the Russian Federation and its impact on foreign policy concepts and sources of development of geopolitical concepts in Russia. The post-Soviet area is important for the security of the Russian Federation. Russia perceives armed conflicts in this area as an element of political ‘game’ in its strategic area.

  • Rynki, państwa i polityka. Wybrane problemy polityczne i ekonomiczne Bliskiego Wschodu we współczesnym świecie

    Author: Michał Zaremba
    E-mail: michal.zaremba@uni.lodz.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9525-9100
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 74-90
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202404
    PDF: npw/24/npw2404.pdf

    Markets, countries and politics. Selected political and economic problems of the Middle East in the modern world

    Control and access to resources and trade routes have always conditioned and determined the position of a given country on the world stage and its wealth. For many centuries, the Middle East region has been one of the most important regions in the world, both due to its geographical location, as a link between East and West, and natural resources available to individual countries. Despite the enormous diversity of Middle Eastern countries and the danger of over-generalization, it is worth looking at the whole area, which in the future may become an important center in the global economy and an important point of world politics.

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