Georgia

Generational Specificity of Socio-Political Transformation in Georgia: Between Tradition and Modernity

Author: Katarzyna Skiert-Andrzejuk
Institution: Collegium Civitas, Polska
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4451-5092;
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 53-66
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2022304
PDF: so/23/so2304.pdf

Generational Specificity of Socio-Political Transformation in Georgia: Between Tradition and Modernity

The article’s purpose is to analyse the generational transformation and outline the characteristics of individual generations. Moreover, the concept of V. Papava indicating generational trends was juxtaposed. The analysis characterises the young generation of Georgians in relation to other generations. I used research methods to solve this research problem based partly on secondary sources. The basic research methods used in the article are the method of analysing existing data and the comparative method, which allowed for juxtaposing the division into generations proposed by V. Papava with the general characteristics of global generation trends. Secondary statistical data studies from the Caucasus Research Resource Center completed the other methods, allowing for a more in-depth analysis of the generations. This article is a snapshot of studies on the generational transformation of Georgian society and is part of a series of articles on the young generation of Georgians and their opinions about democracy and democratisation.

Gruzińskie starania o zbliżenie z Zachodem po 1991 r.

Author: Andrzej Furier
Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3745-3578
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 9-31
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223501
PDF: npw/35/npw3501.pdf

Georgian efforts for rapprochement with the West after 1991

The paper presents the changes in Georgian foreign policy after the collapse of the USSR. The historical context of Georgian ties with the West and attempts to build their own security policy after 1991, which required resignation from the traditional support for Germany. The analysis covers the period from the proclamation of independence and the first free parliamentary elections in 1990 to the 2013. For the politicians of the Second Republic, relations with Russia and the support shown to the Georgian state by the United States were of key importance. The August war in 2008 inhibited Georgian activity in the international arena and restored Russian influence in that country

Islam na obszarze postradzieckim – Kaukaz

Author: Maja Lepieszka
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 53-67
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2014203
PDF: so/6/so603.pdf

Islam in the Post-Soviet area – Caucasus

Islam is seen as a homogeneous religion. It is a common belief that the synonymous of Muslim is Arab. Meanwhile, according to statistics of 2013, Muslims constitute over a 28% of the world population. The followers are spread all over the globe and can be found in every country. Thus, speaking about homogeneity and identification of all believers with the Arab world is a serious mistake. Islam in the post-Soviet area, has a characteristic dimension. Caucasian republics, initially conquered by Muslim Empires in the majority submitted to Islamisation. The Soviet reign and atheistic propaganda weakened religion, but after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Caucasus and Central Asia experienced the revival of Islam. Today Georgia is a Christian country with a Muslim minority, Dagestan is the most Islamized Caucasian republic with Sunni majority while in Azerbaijan Sunnis are a minority compared with Shiites. Therefore, how much similar and how much different is Islam in Azerbaijan, Dagestan and Georgia?

Gruzińskie elity wobec stanowiska RFN w stosunku do Gruzji z 2023 roku

Author: Jan Brodowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8798-6391
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 78-94
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20230406
PDF: ksm/40/ksm4006.pdf

The main purpose of the article is to examine the opinions expressed by Georgian elites regarding the position of the Federal Republic of Germany towards Georgia in 2023. The text discusses the question to what extent the image created for the needs of the internal political game in Georgia corresponds to bilateral relations between the two countries. The re-evaluation of German Eastern policy in connection with the Russian-Ukrainian conflict influences Germany’s attitude towards Georgia. Georgia is at a special historical moment. The receding prospect of Georgia’s EU membership due to the rule of law and respect for civil liberties shortcomings affects also the perception of Germany in Caucasus. The future of Georgia and the shape of relations with the West, including Germany, will depend primarily on the behavior of Georgian elites, some of whom treat accession to the EU as an element of a political game.

Issues of national minorities in the policy of the Eastern Partnership

Author: Halyna Lutsyshyn
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8434-071X
Author: Oleksandr Sokolovsky
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0515-2367
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 137-150
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233807
PDF: npw/38/npw3807.pdf

The peculiarities of implementing the policy of the EU’s Eastern Partnership Initiative in regards to protecting the rights of national minorities have been studied. The issue of national minorities in the EU is considered from the perspectives of security, democracy, and regional integration. Despite contemporary criticism of the EU’s Eastern Partnership Initiative, many initiatives aimed at protecting the rights of national minorities in the region have been implemented, thereby fostering intergovernmental cooperation. It is evident that Ukraine and Moldova are the most proactive in protecting the rights of national minorities amongst the Eastern Partnership countries. These countries have been granted the status of candidate for EU accession. Despite the Russian-Ukrainian war, Ukraine actively works on improving legislation in the field of ethno-policy. Particular emphasis is placed on analysis of the institutional structure of national minorities, communication pathways, and non-discriminatory policies in Eastern Partnership countries. Member states of the Eastern Partnership actively utilize “soft power” techniques through a network of minority organizations. It has been suggested that European integration of Ukraine and Moldova has generated considerable opportunities for the development of national minorities. Loosening of state borders has enabled national minorities to connect more deeply with their ethnic homelands, thereby transforming them into engaged participants of transborder cooperation and significant figures of regional policy. The Eastern Partnership furnishes a platform for minorities to assert themselves in decisions which pertain to their lives, execute grant initiatives, and take part in regional associations of minorities. Nevertheless, certain risks are highlighted, such as particular nations exploiting EU enlargement to tackle minority matters or manipulate minority rights. The EU has analyzed programs supporting national minorities, especially those implemented in the Eastern Partnership countries. While Eastern Partnership countries have developed their policies regarding national minorities, there are common problems faced by minorities in the region. Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, Azerbaijan, and Armenia are involved in conflicts, being former Soviet Union countries, and face numerous challenges concerning the functioning of the Russian minority, which is numerically significant in this region. It is stated that the EU cooperates with the Eastern Partnership countries on matters regarding national minorities, and it is crucial to develop innovative models for managing ethnic diversity, promoting the involvement of national minorities in making socio-political decisions and integrating them into society.

Niemieckie kontakty z Kaukazem w XVIII i XIX w.

Author: Andrzej Furier
Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3745-3578
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 41-63
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233903
PDF: npw/39/npw3903.pdf

German contacts with the Caucasus in the 18th and 19th centuries

The paper presents the initial period of German-Caucasian contacts, which includes the activity of German travelers, scientists and settlers in the 18th and 19th centuries. These activities were carried out during the period of Russian rule over Caucasus. The influence of the unification of Germany in 1871 on the intensification of German-Caucasian relations and a change in their character was noted. From then on, they were an element of the foreign policy of the Second Reich, which increased German-Caucasian economic exchange and led to political cooperation in the 20th century.

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