Germany

The Prospects of the Grand Coalition in Germany

Author: Hiltrud Nassmacher
Year of publication: 2006
Source: Show
Pages: 65-83
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2006005
PDF: ppsy/35/ppsy2006005.pdf

The pressure for reforms is similar in all established democracies, including Germany. This is true for all policies. Lower income caused by economic development and ageing societies is a burden on all budgets. ! is increases the pressure on political actors to speed up the decision-making process. In 2005 the grand coalition of CDU/CSU and SPD was welcomed by the German people. Many commentators assumed that the political deadlock would be overcome by the government of the two major parties. Because the second chamber (Bundesrat) is the major veto-player in the German federal system, the current CDU/CSU majority in the Bundesrat was a high hurdle for the former red-green government (1998 to 2005), as until 2006 about 80 percent of all laws had to pass the second chamber. This led to early elections. People hope that the grand coalition under Chancellor Angela Merkel will overcome this restriction, which the SPD-led government could not evade. 

Pamięć o 1945 roku z perspektywy 70. Lat w historiografii i publicystyce niemieckiej

Author: Dariusz Matelski
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 29-60
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201602
PDF: ksm/21/ksm201602.pdf

After World War Two, German historiography focused its attention on a few aspects:

1) the resistance movement in Nazi Germany; 2) losses that Germans suffered from the Allies in the years 1943-45 (air raids, contributions, plunder, rapes and robbing);

3) the occupation and 45-year long division of Germany. Only if the events were shown in this way, could Germans play the role of the victims instead of initiators of the war.

The end of every decade after the fall of the Third Reich brought a discussion on the year 1945. A question was asked: Was it the end of German statehood or was it rather the beginning of a new stage on the way to a democratic state of free German countries?

At the same time, East German historians argued with West German ones on the continuity of the German Reich after 1945. From 1951, it was the German Federal Republic that identified itself with the German Reich.

Since the reunion of both German countries, the historiography of the new, joint German state has tried to show that the Third Reich was not rooted in German tra ditions, but was – as Ernst Nolte claimed – a „false link in the history of Germany”, and that the feeling of defeatism prevailed among Germans in 1945. It was social democrats and communists that were first to shake off that feeling. The contemporary German Federal Republic, does not feel responsible for the Third Reich, even though it is its legal heir.

Summing up the positions of German historiography (in the years 1949-1990 of two German states – the German Federal Republic and the German Democratic Republic), I believe that the escape from the Eastern Front, expelling Germans, unconditional surrender, and hardships of the post-war period were the direct result of the war started in 1939 by the German nation led by Adolf Hitler. The sooner Germans universally accept it, the more respected European nation they will become. They must also recognise the fact that after 700 years, history came full circle – both Polish and German peoples have returned to their roots – the times when their predecessors came as settlers and conquerors…

Nacionalnoe samosoznanie i integracionnye processy luzhickikh serbov v Germanskojj imperii Chast II: Ot pervojj mirov vojjny do nashikh dnejj (ot 1914 goda do nachala XXI v.)

Author: Dariush Matelski
Year of publication: 2014
Pages: 182-209
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014210
PDF: npw/07/npw2014210.pdf

The First World War (1914–1918) was inextricably connected with regular conscription. Undoubtedly it had a huge impact on reducing the population of Sorbs in Germany. Their number decreased from 102 801 to 70 998 people between the censuses in 1910 and 1925. After World War I, Lusatia failed to become a country independent of the German Empire. On 7 October 1925 the national organizations of Sorbs united (Maćica Serbska, Domowina, Lusatian Alliance) and established the Wendish People’s Party, which on 26 January 1924 accessed the Association of National Minorities in Germany. The Association’s publication was the monthly “Kulturwille” (since January 1926 “Kulturwehr”), which was issued until 1938. Its editor was a Sorb – Jan Skala (1889–1945). The censuses of 1925 and 1933 claimed that nearly 73,000 Sorbs lived in Germany. Under Hitler all Sorbian associations were dissolved and in both parts of Lusatia more than 60 Sorb ian place names were removed and replaced by German ones. The years of World War II (1939–1945) is the most tragic period in the history of the Sorbs – a period of even worse persecutions, arrests, taking the Sorbs to the concentration camps, the destruction of their properties, the suppression of all forms of autonomy and selforganization. Freedom from Fascism was given to the Sorbs on 6 April 1945 by troops of First Ukrainian Front and the Polish Second Army. On 23 March 1948 – under pressure from the Soviet occupation authorities – the National Parliament of Saxony (Landtag) passed a law guaranteeing the rights of the Sorbs. GDR authorities sought to reduce the population of the Sorbs and the use of Sorbian language. Only after the absorption of the GDR by the FRG – called the second unification of Germany – on 3 October 1990, the Sorbian population began to use civil rights emerging from the Basic Law of the FRG. Currently about 60,000 Sorbs live in Germany, out of which 20,000 in Brandenburg (Protestants) speaking Lower Sorbian (similar to Polish), and 40,000 in Saxony (Catholics) speaking Upper Sorbian (similar to Czech). The majority are elderly people (60 and over). Younger generation speaks almost exclusively German.

Political, social and legal transformation of human rights relating to non-heteronormative men in Germany

Author: Janusz Jartyś
Institution: University of Szczecin
Author: Jakub Zamana
Institution: University of Warsaw
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 176-190
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201711
PDF: rop/2017/rop201711.pdf

In the article below the authors analyse the political, social and legal revaluations of human rights relating to non-heteronormative men in Germany, from the rise of the German Empire (Zweites Reich) till contemporary times. What is important is not only a change in the mentality of the German society throughout the last hundred years, but also the fact that the legal system of the Federal Republic of Germany (Deutsche Bundesrepublik, BRD) was using a provision that had been created during the Nazi dictatorship and applied it to its own citizens. The authors of this article demonstrate that the social changes in the BRD in the second half of the 20th century were much faster than the amendment of the legal system; what is more, the BRD has not faced its Nazi past, failing to atone to homosexual men who had been persecuted on the basis of a Nazi legal provision, inherited and applied by a democratic state.

„Otwartość” państwa w warunkach kryzysu migracyjnego – przykład Polski, Czech i Niemiec. Ujęcie teoriopoznawcze

Author: Robert Wiszniowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Author: Kamil Glinka
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 216-234
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.58.13
PDF: apsp/58/apsp5813.pdf

Celem artykułu jest analiza zależności pomiędzy procesami migracyjnymi zachodzącymi na obszarze państwa a jego „otwartością”. Poziom „otwartości” zostaje zdeterminowany, w zaproponowanym ujęciu, ściśle określonym układem relacji zachodzących na linii religia – społeczeństwo – państwo, które prowadzą do ukształtowania jednego z trzech porządków: asymetrycznego (Polska), pozasymetrycznego (Czechy) i symetrycznego (Niemcy). Zestawienie oraz porównanie trzech sąsiadujących ze sobą krajów członkowskich Unii Europejskiej (metoda komparatystyczna i systemowa) pozwala na uchwycenie i potwierdzenie obustronnych zależności. Pokazuje, że skala i dynamika procesów migracyjnych staje się predyktorem „otwartości” współczesnych systemów demokratycznych. Zdecydowanie najwyższym poziomem tak definiowanej „otwartości” cechują się Niemcy, będące, z jednej strony, przykładem symetrycznego układu relacji religia – społeczeństwo –państwo, a z drugiej, architektem europejskiej polityki wobec masowych ruchów ludności z Bliskiego Wschodu i Afryki Północnej.

The Formation of Local Self-government During the System Transformation Period in Poland and the Former GDR: A Comparative Study

Author: Adam Jarosz
Institution: University of Zielona Góra
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 679-693
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018407
PDF: ppsy/47-4/ppsy2018407.pdf

This paper presents changes that have occurred at the local level in Poland and new German federal states during the process of the post-communist system transformation. The stages of rebuilding the local self-government and its structures are analyzed. The experiences of Poland and Eastern Germany – two states where the system transformation took different courses – were compared. At the same time, both countries have different constitutional orders of the unitary state and federal state, and this context are interesting fields for a comparative analysis. This paper also confronts the two methods of institution building – the importing of well-established institutions and developing them in the evolutionary way, where in both cases path a dependency can be well observed. In Germany this is considered a special case (Sonderfall) of institutional transformation, in which the key role was played by the transference of institutions, personnel and financial means. This was also done much quicker and in a more structured and comprehensive way than in Poland. In the case of Poland, the creation of local self-government structures or shaping the political actors was a grassroots and evolutionary process. This article points out the most important factors that had a crucial significance in the course and results of the transformation and explains different ways of developing the system of democratic local self-government.

Kryzys demokracji na wschodzie? Frekwencja wyborcza w nowych krajach związkowych RFN 25 lat po zjednoczeniu

Author: Krzysztof Koźbiał
Institution: Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa im. rtm. W. Pileckiego w Oświęcimiu
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 138–153
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2016.49.08
PDF: apsp/49/apsp4908.pdf

Zarówno w wyborach do Bundestagu, jak i parlamentów krajów związkowych, frekwencja na wschodzie Niemiec jest niższa niż na zachodzie. Jest to jedna z pochodnych innego rozwoju tej części państwa (obszar byłej NRD), a zarazem dowód na „niedokończone zjednoczenie”. W artykule porównano frekwencję wyborczą w obu częściach RFN, próbując nakreślić przyczyny rozbieżności.
Mimo upływu lat różnice w poziomie frekwencji są widoczne. Należy to wiązać z innym wzorem zachowań politycznych na obszarze byłej NRD, innym postrzeganiem roli państwa w demokracji, demograficznymi następstwami zjednoczenia, jak i wyższym poziomem bezrobocia. Z kolei rozbieżności nie są zauważalne w wyborach do Parlamentu Europejskiego, co należy tłumaczyć mniejszym zainteresowaniem wyborców dla tego rodzaju elekcji.

Germany’s Arctic Policy – Between Economy and Ecology

Author: Joanna Grzela
Institution: Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 119–132
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2015.48.09
PDF: apsp/48/apsp4809.pdf

In the last years, as a result of climate changes, plenty of transformations have taken place in the High North. Consequently, ice cap of the Arctic is melting at a very fast pace, and that means significant rise of sea levels as well as decreasing animals’ habitats. On the other hand, disappearing Arctic ice is opening new areas of exploitation for humans. The Arctic might also soon become the world’s most important reservoir of clean water and food. The warming is leading to changes in ecosystems, arousing a number of enquiries about territorial division of the region, its preservation and utilisation. The changes taking place in the Arctic pose a challenge on many levels: economic, social, security, and environmental protection. First of all, economic (access to probably the biggest deposits of oil, gas and precious metals in the world) and ecological (environmental protection) interests are clashing there. The North Pole, although with varying intensity, is becoming present in foreign policies of many countries. On the Old Continent, it has been noticed by the whole European Union as well as particular countries. One of them is Germany. Germany is interested in the region from the economic and ecological perspective.

Zabór pruski wobec Aktu 5 listopada

Author: Rafał Łysoń
Institution: Polska Akademia Nauk
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 42-56
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso170203
PDF: hso/13/hso1303.pdf
License: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

The Prussian Partition in the face of the Act of 5th November

This article is an attempt at presenting the reception of the so-called Act of 5th November 1916 in the Prussian Partition. The author has focused primarily on how this political declaration was perceived by the Polish political elites in the Poznań province.

Konsekwentne działania czy improwizacja? Niemieckie plany wojenne wobec Polski w okresie I wojny światowej

Author: Rafał Łysoń
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 150-167
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso150208
PDF: hso/9/hso908.pdf
License: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Consistent actions or improvisation? German war plans against Poland during the First World War

The article discusses the issue of German war plans for Poland during the First World War. The author analyses the role and activities of various political centres in Germany pertaining to the Polish cause. The article seeks to assess whether German plans for Poland were as coherent and consistent as they were presented in earlier historiography.

Zarys polsko-niemieckich stosunków politycznych w latach 1990-2019

Author: Robert Jakimowicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 71-116
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20200105
PDF: ksm/25/ksm2505.pdf

The article is focused on the political relations between Poland and Germany in last three decades. In first part of the article it was introduced the evolution of the most important political events before the entry of Poland to the European Union. Underlined a major part of the German partner stayed in achieving the membership of Poland of this organization. In second part of the article it was described a new level relationship between them after the accession of Poland to the EU. Apart from many postivie aspects of the development of mutual relations quoted problems which influence for worsening them remaind. A few principal conclusions were introduced in the end of the article.

The policy of the People’s Republic of China towards Central and Eastern Europe in 2012-2020

Author: Adam Kuź
Institution: Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5022-7137
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 66-84
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20212804
PDF: npw/28/npw2804.pdf

The policy of the People’s Republic of China towards Central and Eastern Europe in 2012-2020

In the second decade of the 21st century, the Middle Kingdom, which had huge financial surpluses, became the world’s largest exporter of money capital, which meant that investment policy became the main element of China’s foreign policy. In the case of Central and Eastern Europe, the 16+1 (17+1) format, containing both investment policy and soft power elements, has become the basic tool of the general policy of Middle Kingdom. This article aims to define the basic principles of China’s policy towards Central and Eastern Europe. For this purpose, the following general hypothesis was formulated: Chinese policy in Central and Eastern Europe consists of presenting the countries of this region with initiatives that do not go beyond the sphere of declarations and serve as a bargaining chip in relations with Germany, the country with the greatest potential in the European Union. The general hypothesis gives rise to detailed hypotheses that were verified in individual parts of the article with the use of the comparative method. The reasons most often mentioned in the literature on the subject, such as economic, cultural, social, and political differentiation of Central and Eastern European countries, legal barriers resulting from EU legislation, insufficient recognition of the region’s needs by the Chinese side and asymmetry of expectations of both parties, undoubtedly largely contribute to the lack of effective Sino-CEE cooperation. However, they cannot be considered decisive because similar problems occur wherever Chinese companies appear. However, in many regions of the world, despite these obstacles, mutual economic relations are more dynamic than in CEE. The reasons why the potential of the 16+1 (17+1) format has not been properly used can be found primarily in the context of German-Chinese relations.

Klucz do sukcesu dwustronnych komisji podręcznikowych

Author: Lucyna Czechowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 152-183
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2014.03.09
PDF: kie/103/kie10309.pdf

The aim of this article is to analyze the efficiency of the three currently working on the Polish side bilateral textbook commissions (Polish-German, Polish-Lithuanian and Polish-Ukrainian). Its added value lies, firstly, in rarely undertaken in the literature comparative research – the author’s ambitions go beyond simple description of several different textbook committees. Secondly, in the formulation of concrete conclusions, which to some extent can be applied in practice. The used research method was studying the documents. Using the technique of critical analysis of the content the author revealed similarities and differences in the functioning of the three institutions in terms of: the history of creation; tasks, procedures and organization of their work; discussed topics and appearing controversies; the effects of undertaken actions. On that basis, she formulated the conviction that a decisive impact on the effectiveness of the mentioned institutions have the following factors: ambitions and chosen by commissions course of action, the framework of states’ educational policies, the political support of the governments, wide debate on commissions’ findings, attitudes of the societies on the both sides of the border and objective factors like: time, stage of nation-building process and partners’ financial capacities.

Aksjologiczne uwarunkowania postaw studentów kierunków pomocowych wobec osób starszych na przykładzie Polski i Niemiec – perspektywa międzykulturowa

Author: Anna Kanios
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4349-7833
Author: Anna Weissbrot-Koziarska
Institution: Uniwersytet Opolski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1076-1957
Author: Anna Bocheńska-Brandt
Institution: Hochschule FOM Hannover
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2851-8990
Author: Łukasz Kwiatkowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9582-9430
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 111-122
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2022.02.08
PDF: em/17/em1708.pdf

Axiological determinants of the attitudes presented by students of aiding courses aimed at the elderly. The case of Poland and Germany – an intercultural perspective

Functioning in a culturally diverse world has become an everyday reality. European integration, globalisation, and migration of people have become contributing factors in this regard. In this context, a key role is played by intercultural education aimed at identifying, understanding, and supporting diversity. This article is empirical in nature. The survey objective was to diagnose and describe the attitudes and system of values of students of the helping professions towards older persons in Poland and Germany. The diagnostic survey was the research method used. Kogan’s Attitudes Towards Older People scale (Kogan OP Scale) and Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) were used in the survey. The survey was conducted from October to December 2018. German students (200 persons) constituted the main group, while Polish students (167 persons) were the comparison group. The survey results revealed statistically significant differences between Polish and German students in their attitudes to older persons.

Przestępczość zorganizowana na terenie Włoch oraz jej wpływ na przestępczość zorganizowaną w niektórych państwach Europy

Author: Ewa Piórecka
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1811-4589
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 118-136
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201806
PDF: siip/17/siip1706.pdf

Organized crime in Italy and its impact on organized crime in some European countries

This article presents some Italian criminal organizations that have expanded their activities outside Italy. The factors influencing the shaping of criminal groups are also presented and the history of selected groups of this type is described. The origins of the word mafia were made. Types of organized crime were presented. The directions of emigration of Italian groups were indicated.

UE – Ukraina: wokół europejskich aspiracji Kijowa. Wybrane aspekty z perspektywy Niemiec

Author: Michał M. Kosman
Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1966-9658
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 47-62
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201903
PDF: siip/18/siip1803.pdf

EU – Ukraine: Around Kiev’s European Aspirations. Selected Aspects from a German Perspective

The goals of the article are to discuss Ukraine’s aspirations for rapprochement with the European Union, especially after the „Orange Revolution” in 2004, and in the context of the conflict with Russia over Crimea and eastern Ukraine that began in 2014. In addition, to outline of Germany’s position toward the conflict and Ukraine’s relations with the EU. The author attempts to resolve the problem of Ukraine’s chances of joining the Union in a predictable perspective. First of all, scientific and press publications, as well as European Union documents were used.

Dobry start, ale nadal daleko do podium, czyli o pierwszych ustawowych regulacjach lobbingu w Niemczech na poziomie federalnym i krajowym

Author: Marcin M. Wiszowaty
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9740-2457
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 87-99
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2022.06.06
PDF: ppk/70/ppk7006.pdf

A Good Start, but Still Far from the Podium. About the First Statutory Lobbying Regulations in Germany at the Federal and National Level

On January 1, 2022, two German laws on the regulation of lobbying entered into force. While the Bavarian law is the third regulation of this type adopted in the Länder, the German-wide statutory lobbying regulation is a novelty. The aim of this article is – apart from presenting the latest German lobbying regulations, which have not been described so far in the Polish scientific literature – to answer the question about their assessment against the background of the standards developed in the legislative and scientific achievements in the world. Do the latest German lobbying regulations meet these standards or, on the contrary, do they duplicate the errors repeatedly described in the literature? Or maybe these regulations also contain innovative solutions that should be copied in the lobbying regulations of other countries? Finally, do Länder laws differ from federal laws and how? The assessment of the German lobbying laws is ambiguous. On the one hand, it looks like their authors got acquainted with the literature on the subject, in which the model of optimal regulation was formulated, and German laws contain even innovative solutions. On the other – the shortcomings of the regulation outweigh its advantages – which was already signaled at the stage of legislative works. The laws deserve revision, but are a good start on the way to effectively regulate and scrutinize lobbying activities in Germany.

Zagraniczne stosunki ekonomiczne pomiędzy Unią Europejską i Iranem a sankcje i bezpieczeństwo energetyczne

Author: Norbert Obara
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 68-82
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2014204
PDF: so/6/so604.pdf

Economic relations between the European Union and Iran versus sanctions and energy security

The article provides an analysis economical and political relationship between Islamic Republic of Iran and European Union and its members countries, particularly Greece, Italy and Spain in the context of politics of energy safety. Prior to the adoption of heavy economic sanctions the EU led a double track politics towards Iran: “carrot and stick method”. The main thesis is that sanction on Iran hurts more this country then EU but in some cases: Greece, Italy, Spain could have problems with new energy partners. Iran before sanctions was one of the main European suppliers of oil and natural gas but not for all EU, only for few countries. There are lists of main exporters and importers Iranians oil and natural gas in EU and the world. Additionally a list of EU sanctions on Iran has been attached. Additionally article presents roots of piece of Middle Eastern enemy history relationships between Great Britain, USA and Iran.

Charakterystyka jednostki o charakterze autorytarnym (Erich Fromm), o osobowości autorytarnej (Theodor Adorno), o osobowości twardej (Hans Eysenck) oraz dogmatycznej (Milton Rokeach) i cechy wspólne dla tych konstruktów teoretycznych

Author: Paweł Przybytek
Institution: Badacz niezależny
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4694-6670
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 322-358
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip202218
PDF: cip/20/cip2018.pdf

Characteristics of an authoritarian unit (Erich Fromm), with authoritarian personality (Theodor Adorno), with hard personality (Hans Eysenck) and dogmatic (Milton Romeach) and common features for these theoretical constructs

This article addresses the subject of Erich Fromm, Theodor Adorno, Hans Eysenck and Milton Rokeache theory characterizing personality particularly susceptible to the influence of authoritarianism, personality that combat democracy. In its first part there is the characteristics of these personalities, specifically authoritarian units (Erich Fromm), with authoritarian personality, hard personality (Hans Eysenck) and dogmatic (Milton Rozeach). The second part of this article is trying to find common features for these theoretical constructs. Mostly, however, it is a criticism of erroneous (in my opinion) thinking when creating these theories. I noticed that the creators of the majority of them not only describe personality types particularly susceptible to the influence of authoritarianism, but above all they condemn them. In practice, this comes down to attacking the extreme right. However, attention should be paid to several important issues that negate this attitude. With authoritarianism, only the right can be identified. The division of the right/left is not very sharp. In turn, authoritarianism does not always mean a lack of humanitarianism, intolerance, and persecution. Most of the above theoretical constructs indicate, in my opinion, it is wrong that the political features of a person acquire under the influence of the environment, the environment. However, they are not somehow inherited, genetically conditioned. In addition, I think that only a certain, smaller part of society has specific political views. And only among them there is a group of people with authoritarian tendencies. This part of a society that has unspecified political views can be a business – related political option, even authoritarian, if this option provides its benefits. The assumption that the political actions of society result from the internal features of individuals is another point with which it is difficult to (me) agree. In fact, the effectiveness of the ruling team decides.

Instytucje i organizacje w Monachium na rzecz uchodźców – wybrane aspekty

Author: Teresa Astramowicz-Leyk
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5881-2325
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 125-140
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20230306
PDF: ksm/39/ksm3906.pdf

Organizations and institutions in Munich for refugees – selected aspects

Russia’s war in Ukraine has been ongoing since 2014, but initially Russian actions took the form of a hybrid war. Ukraine was in peaceful relations with the rest of the world when Russia seized Ukraine’s Crimea without a declaration of war and waged war in Donbass. Its full-scale scope, launched on February 24, 2022, was unprecedented in post-war Europe and caused several million people living in the invaded country to leave Ukrainian territory. The purpose of this article is to show how organizations and institutions in Munich are addressing the influx of refugees into the city, including refugees from Ukraine. As a research hypothesis, it was assumed that in Germany, including Munich, the German experience of 2015 and subsequent years in accepting newcomers from the Middle East played a huge role in solving the problems of refugees from Ukraine after February 24, 2022. The basic research problems are contained in questions such as: what changes in asylum law have been made in Germany by the federal government; who in the city of Munich is entitled to assistance and what benefits does it cover?; what is the assistance to refugees provided by the Office for Housing and Migration in Munich?; what does the Office for the Prevention of Homelessness do?; what are the tasks of the Local Mediation Office?; what are the competencies of the so-called Social Service for the Deaf?; what is the scope of activities of the Office of Return Assistance?; what are the return offices in Bavaria?; what are the activities of the Office for Intercultural Work?; what is the scope of activities of the Foreign Qualification Development Service Center? The leading research method used in the research conducted is institutionallegal analysis.

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