głowa państwa

  • The Specificity of Presidential Systems of Government in Francophone African Countries

    The paper deals with distinguishing features of presidential systems of government adopted in the current or former constitutions of some Francophone African countries, such as Benin, Djibouti, Ivory Coast or the Republic of Congo. Particular attention has been devoted to the internal structure of the executive branch of government (the existence of the prime minister as a separate body) as well as to the reception of diverse mechanisms of rationalised parliamentarianism created previously in the constitution of the French Fifth Republic. The dynamics of constitutional changes leading to the adoption of presidentialism in place of semi-presidentialism and vice versa in such countries as Niger or Senegal has also been taken into account. In the light of the findings, it can be stated that the specific properties of presidentialism in Francophone Africa prove its apparent distinctness from certain typical assumptions of this model.

  • The Proclamation of the Hungarian Republic in 1946

    The paper is dealing with the constitutional and historical importance of Act I. of 1946. In 1946 Hungary has changed its form of government. The passage of Act I of 1946 has defined Hungary’s form of government as a republic. In addition to the creation of a republic, the legislation provided powers for the president of the Hungarian Republic. Moreover, the Preamble of Act I. of 1946 was the first document in the Hungarian constitutional history which summarized and declared the most important natural and inalienable rights of the citizens.

  • The Scope of the Head of State’s Liability Based on the Example of the Principality of Liechtenstein and the Principality of Monaco

    The subject of this article is the character and meaning of the head of state’s liability. The author notices that this institution is an important factor that determines the systemic and legal position of the supreme body in the country, and adopting different solutions in this matter may make the position of heads of state significantly different, even if they seem to have a similar character. This relation has been shown on the example of regulations of liability of the heads of state in Monaco and Liechtenstein. In both countries, there is an almost identical manner of appointing to the office of a head of state and the scope of their authorities. However, the matter of liability has been regulated in a completely different way in these two countries.

  • Geneza republikańskiej głowy państwa w Polsce

    Artykuł przedstawia genezę republikańskiej głowy państwa w Polsce po I wojnie światowej (do uchwalenia Konstytucji marcowej). Był to szczególnie istotny moment, w którym dokonał się wybór formy ustrojowej odbudowywanego państwa polskiego. Autor zwraca uwagę na istotny związek dziejących się w czasie I wojny światowej wydarzeń historycznych, w tym zwłaszcza zmian ustrojowych zachodzących w państwach zaborczych na decyzję o wyborze republikańskiej drogi ustrojowej.

  • Koncepcje głowy państwa w projektach Konstytucji RP z lat 1918–1921

    The article deals with a conception of the head of state while working on the March Constitution. The first part presents motives for adopting a republican form of the future system of Poland and describes draft constitutions drawn up by the Constitutional Bureau of the Presidium of the Council of Ministers. The second part presents characteristics of a political status of the head of state in the draft of the so-called “Survey,” the draft of W. Wakar as well as the governmental “Constitutional Declaration” and the draft of the Popular National Union. Moreover, it describes controversies connected with the titles of “Chief” and “President.” The third part presents a description of views on the head of state revealed during the works of the Constitutional Committee as well as in the second draft drawn up by the Council of Ministers, along with amendments made by the Skulski’s government. The last, 4th part discusses causes which influenced the final shape of the office of President in the March Constitution.

  • Pozycja ustrojowa prezydenta Republiki Czeskiej w świetle najnowszych poprawek do Konstytucji z dnia 8 lutego 2012 r.

    The subject of the article below is the appearance of Czech Republic President’s political position under the newest amendments to the Constitution from February 8, 2012. At the beginning, reasons for the Constitution to be corrected were pointed out, which among all, had a political background. Later, the article focused on the presentation of detailed analysis of each change. With the historical support, a comparison was made between the current basic law and its previous version, as well as the comparison between the traditions of Czech and Czechoslovakian constitutionalism. The most important change was the introduction, common for the presidential or semi-presidential system method of choosing the head of the state in common elections, which occurred by limiting president’s prerogatives and normalization of the range of president’s responsibilities, stepping out of the rules of law and the constitutional irresponsibility of the head of the state.

  • Oryginalne rozwiązania systemów rządów na przykładzie Sułtanatu Omanu

    The article provides a snapshot of Oman’s leading political institutions. It also contains description of Oman’s political power structure. At the beginning author presents a historical background of the events that led to the taking of power by the current ruling sultan. Subsequently, the legislature, the executive, the judiciary and suffrage are discussed. In conclusion, the author makes a brief assessment of a functioning system of government in Oman.

  • Prezydent a ustawodawstwo konstytucyjne w polskiej tradycji ustrojowej

    The article discusses prerogatives and activity of the President of the Republic of Poland with respect to constitutional legislation. The first part of the paper deals with regulations which refer to the head of state’s participation in the constitutional legislation during the inter-war period. The second part of the article analyses legal provisions concerning that issue, which were enforced in 1947–1952 and 1989–1997. The third part contains a description of the President’s role in the procedure of amending the Constitution stipulated in art. 235, para. 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997 and the application of that procedure in practice so far. The fourth part is the summary of this paper.

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