The submitted article is based on a fragment of a thesis entitled “The Image of the Roma and Artistic Bohemia in the Literature of the Young Poland”. The subject matter of the research is the description of two communities living in the period of the Young Poland: the Roma people, and Bohemians. The adopted research method embraces the range of broadly defined anthropological research, including analysis and interpretation of texts in a cultural context, and, above all, various aspects of life referring to Bohemians and the Roma community in Poland at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The research objective of this article is to show the similarities and differences between Bohemians of the Young Poland and the Roma living in this period, concerning originality of their lifestyle, customs, outfit and other phenomena. The in-depth analysis of the life aspects of the Roma and Bohemians from the Young Poland has demonstrated the similarities and differences between the two groups. They both functioned as “others” who had no relationship with the society. They were accompanied by a sense of loneliness, outsiderness, consciousness of rejection, tragedy of their situation and a sense of incomprehension and injustice.