illegal migration

Challenges of Fight Against Terrorism with Reference to the Last Amendment of the New Hungarian Criminal Code

Author: Robert Bartko
Institution: University of Győr (Hungary)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 315-327
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017120
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017120.pdf

During the codification of the new Hungarian Criminal Code, the Hungarian Legislator passed amendment of several criminal offences. Among other criminal offences, this rethinking concerned the regulation of acts of terrorism. The number of terrorist offences relating to illegal migration has increased in the past few years in the territory of the European Union, therefore the attitude of the Member States – including Hungary, as well – has changed with reference to the statutory definition of the acts of terrorism. The connection between irregular border crossings and terrorism was recognized by the European Union. Terrorist offences have proved the vulnerability of the European Union and the democratic, rule-of-law States. Furthermore, the last few years have also clearly proved that Europe cannot cope with the influx of refugees set out for the Western Europe from various parts of the world. In this respect, illegal migration cannot be only a tool, but also a catalyst for terrorist offences. It means that case conflicts and violent affairs are caused by the migration, and the illegal entry and the integration of terrorists are supported by migratory networks at the same time. In 2015 and 2016, the European Union experienced a massive number of casualties caused by terrorist attacks. The most affected Member State was France. It had to cope with attacks which caused 148 citizens’ death and more than 350 people injured only in January and November 2015 (TE-SAT 2016, p. 5.). For the abovementioned recognition, many regulations (included but not limited to the Fundamental Law of Hungary, the Hungarian Criminal Code and the Act on Criminal Procedure) were passed in 2016 by the Hungarian legislator in order to stop illegal migration and to strengthen the fight against the new forms of terrorism. In the context of the present paper, the Act LXIX of 2016, which came into force on 17 July 2016, is of importance. Not only the General Part, but also the Special Part of the Hungarian Criminal Code was amended by the above Act. However, many new rules may be challenged from the perspective of the rule of law and the European commitments of Hungary. The aim of the paper is to describe the new regulations regarding the Hungarian statutory definition of acts of terrorism, and to analyse them within the Hungarian criminal legal frame and the abovementioned European requirements. Therefore, the characteristic of the paper will be the analytical method with the aim of creating de lege ferenda proposals for the Hungarian legislator, as well. In our paper, we are going to deal with the new European directive, as well, which will replace the Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA and will amend the Council Decision 2005/671/JHA from 20 April 2017. 

Przeciwdziałanie nielegalnej imigracji do Polski na granicy polsko-ukraińskiej w latach 2009-2019

Author: Grzegorz Tutak
Institution: Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4705-0446
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 128-148
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20212807
PDF: npw/28/npw2807.pdf

Counteracting Illegal Immigration to Poland on the Polish-Ukrainian Border in 2009-2019

Illegal migration is one of the most frequently committed border crimes. The cooperation of states and specialized services in the field of combating and counteracting illegal migration is an expression of the implementation of the overriding goal, which is the security of the state and its citizens. As shown by the statistics of the Border Guard, the Polish-Ukrainian border is characterized by the greatest personal traffic. In 2009-2019, most illegal immigration was recorded on this section of the border. The article discusses the scale and scope of the phenomenon of illegal immigration on the Polish-Ukrainian border, and highlights the cooperation of services and organizations competent in this field.

Kryzys migracyjny na granicy polsko-białoruskiej i jego wpływ na bezpieczeństwo Polski

Author: Andrzej Wawrzusiszyn
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7587-136X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 45-65
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223303
PDF: npw/33/npw3303.pdf

The migration crisis on the Polish-Belarusian border and its influence on the safety of Poland

Poland is under controlled migratory pressure on the border with Belarus. The influx of third-country nationals is supported by Belarusian state services. These activities are hybrid in their nature, and their aim is to destabilize the situation in Poland and the European Union. Although Poland has taken adequate measures to protect and defend its border, these events are a test of the effectiveness and efficiency of the functioning of the state security system. The purpose of this considerations is to present the events taking place on the PolishBelarusian border and their impact on the security of our state. In the methodological aspect, media and press reports, analysis of source materials and observation of the development of the situation were used. The result of the above is the fact that the migration crisis has not ended and continues to generate serious threats to Poland.

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