Perspective of socio-economic development depends on many factors, mainly the the respective structural and systemic changes, and the proper use of resources. System and structural solutions accompanied by the necessary investment and funds along with the institutional support will have an overwhelming influence on this development. This paper presents the problems of environmental protection and the most important economic instruments for the environmental protection in socio-economic development. In this paper first discusses the theoretical environmental protection, then the issue of instruments in this field. The work ends with a brief conclusion.