konstytucja

  • The Proclamation of the Hungarian Republic in 1946

    The paper is dealing with the constitutional and historical importance of Act I. of 1946. In 1946 Hungary has changed its form of government. The passage of Act I of 1946 has defined Hungary’s form of government as a republic. In addition to the creation of a republic, the legislation provided powers for the president of the Hungarian Republic. Moreover, the Preamble of Act I. of 1946 was the first document in the Hungarian constitutional history which summarized and declared the most important natural and inalienable rights of the citizens.

  • The Systemic Importance of the Constitutional Establishment of the Capital in the Member States of the European Union

    The practice of placing in the constitution provisions relating to state symbols (emblem, flag, anthem) is satisfactory. Often accompany such regulation standards, the task is to indicate the center of which is the state capital. The desirability of such regulations is questionable, hence the question whether it is a common practice. The analysis covers the EU Member States. It is a inhomogeneous group, which should be considered as an advantage, because it allows to review the solutions. The aim is to answer the question of whether the EU countries there is a widespread practice of the constitutional establishment of the state capital, whether it is the dominant model, is it possible there are different solutions in this area, when such adjustments are redundant, whether such cases allow conclusions that can be application in practice of Polish political system.

  • Informal Constitutional Change. The Case of Poland

    This article describes the theoretical concept of constitutional change. The cases of constitutional changes and amendments since 1989 have been analyzed in the text. The historical approach is used as a background for the current Polish events conceptualization.
    The theories formulated by Y. Raznai, R. Albert, B. Ackermann, S. Griffin, D. Landau are applied for purpose of the analysis. The authors consider the problems of: constitutional change, constitutional amendment and dismemberment, constitutional moment, as well as a kind of constitutionalism, which is connected to an abuse of power by the parliamentary majority (illiberal constitutionalism).
    This paper analyses following issues: the conceptualization of constitutional amendment procedure and constitutional change in formal and informal ways as well as the constitutional moment. Moreover, the Polish academia opinions on the amendment and change are presented. Eventually, the identification of the recent Polish systemic events from a theoretical perspective and the summary of the research are provided.
    The assessment of current events takes into account the historical background – the transformation started in 1989 and ended with the adoption of the 1997 Constitution. The conclusion is connected to identification of the constitutional moments which legitimize or not the transformation of the system.

  • Selected Aspects of the Application of the Constitution’s Provisions by the Sejm of the Republic of Poland

    The direct application of the constitutional provisions gives rise to many problems due to the particularities involved. These problems can be encountered not only in a judicial, but also in a managerial type of law application. Within the framework of the last model, the application of the constitutional provisions has to be considered through the Sejm of the Republic of Poland. The constitutional law focuses on the institutions of the political system.It determines the structure, functions, the competencies and the relationship between them. Taking into consideration the fact that the parliament has an important influence on the functioning of governance, the issue of the direct application of constitutional provisions by that authority is taking on new significance. The issue of the application of the constitutional rules relating to the Sejm internal organisation and its political functions has to be considered as relevant. The order of the direct application of the constitution indicates not only the necessity of application of the regulations, which define its organisation, operation and the subject of activity, but also these, which express so-called principles and values. Their full normative content is generally determined in jurisdiction of Constitutional Tribunal, which in turn obliges the Sejm and its authorities to apply these regulations in a manner which takes into account the judicial acquis of this organ.

  • Prokuratura w nowej ustawie z 2016 roku Eksperyment z podległością władzy wykonawczej

    Artykuł pokazuje, iż prokuratura jako organ pozakonstytucyjny podlega wpływom politycznym. Autorka prezentuje, jak wygląda podporządkowanie prokuratury w Polsce i innych krajach Unii Europejskiej. Wskazuje, iż zapoczątkowana w 2010 r. reforma prokuratury i rozłączenie funkcji prokuratora generalnego i ministra sprawiedliwości nie przyniosło oczekiwanych rezultatów, ponieważ reforma Prokuratury nie została zakończona. Również nie wzmocniła pozycji procesowej proukratora generalnego, ale ją osłabiła. Ustawa przyniosła bowiem wiele przepisów, które z jednej strony były przyczynkiem do niezależności prokuratury, a z drugiej strony narzędziem kontroli nad prokuraturą (art. 10e i 10f), czyniąc tę niezależność iluzoryczną. Dlatego zdaniem autorki, należy dać szanse nowej regulacji, mimo zastrzeżeń. Realizacja w praktyce ustawy z 2016 r. ma doprowadzić do odzyskania przez proukratora generalnego silnej pozycji zarówno wobec podległych prokuratorów, jak i organów zewnętrznych.

  • Mazurek Dąbrowskiego jako polski hymn państwowy – aspekt historyczno-prawny

    Celem autora niniejszego artykułu jest przeanalizowanie, jak kształtowało się uregulowanie w sferze prawnej tematyki hymnu państwowego, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem okresu od 1918 do 1997 r. Zweryfikowana została następująca hipoteza: uregulowanie tej tematyki dokonywało się – mimo zmieniających się realiów politycznych i przestrzeni wielu lat – ewolucyjnie, zaś cały proces można podzielić na odróżniające się etapy. Sprawdzeniu postawionej tezy posłużyła analiza rozwiązań prawnych, dzięki którym konkretne dzieło muzyczne, będące jedną z wielu polskich pieśni hymnicznych – Mazurek Dąbrowskiego – stało się polskim hymnem państwowym. Weryfikacji tej dokonano na tle przebiegu historycznego obejmującego czas od powstania utworu, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem okresów odradzania się państwowości Polski oraz przyjmowania najważniejszych regulacji prawnych dotyczących symboli państwowych. W ramach tego procesu, poza historycznym podziałem na okresy ściśle powiązane z sytuacją geopolityczną Polski, wyodrębniono w treści niniejszego artykułu etapy istotne ze względu na sposób uregulowania problematyki hymnu prawnego w drodze regulacji prawnych. Wskazano przy tym etapy kształtowania się takich regulacji: od stanu indyferencji prawnej, poprzez istnienie zrębów regulacji prawnych, aż do konstytucjonalizacji i pełnej jurydyzacji.

  • Transformacja prawnokonstytucyjna Republiki Chorwacji dokonana w trakcie procedury monitoringowej Rady Europy

    Autor analizuje konstytucyjną transformację, jaka dokonała się w Republice Chorwacji w okresie trwania procedury monitoringowej Rady Europy. Chorwacja, uzyskując członkostwo w Radzie Europy, zobowiązała się do szeregu zmian w swym systemie konstytu-cyjnym, zgodnie z wartościami i standardami reprezentowanymi przez Radę Europy. Dotyczyło to m.in. ochrony mniejszości narodowych, wolności mediów, zmian w systemie amorządu terytorialnego i w prawie wyborczym. Realizacja tych zobowiązań była kontrolowana przez Komisję Monitoringową Zgromadzenia Parlamentarnego Rady Europy. Rada Europy, poprzez Komisję Wenecką, pomagała Chorwacji w realizacji tych zobowiązań.

  • Remarks on The System of State Authorities in the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan of 8 December 1992

    Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przedstawienie systemu organów państwowych w Republice Uzbekistanu, ukształtowanego zgodnie z przepisami obowiązującego prawa gruntownie znowelizowanego w 2014 r. Postaram się również odpowiedzieć na pytanie, czy wdrażane reformy o charakterze instytucjonalnym oznacza wprowadzenie demokratycznej formy rządów.

  • Konstytucyjna zasada rzetelności i sprawności działania instytucji publicznych na tle linii orzeczniczej Trybunału Konstytucyjnego w latach 2006–2016

    The article presents selected line of jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court with regard to judgments referring to the reliability and efficiency of public institutions. The principle indicated in its title was expressed by Polish constitutional lawmaker in the preamble to the Polish Constitution of 1997. In the introduction, there are identified various positions of doctrine regarding the normative character of the preamble. Due to the lack of a legal definition the author defines the concept of “fairness” and “efficiency”, and “the integrity of the state” and “the efficiency of the state”. This article in its essential part takes into account judgements of the Constitutional Tribunal issued in 2006–2016. Adopted timing is determined by the judgement oth the Tribunal passed in 2006, where the principle of fairness and efficiency has been called the “principle” and where the Court recognised its normative charcter. The judgments are discussed in chronological order. The aim of this article is to show the substantial meaning of the principle of fairness and efficiency of the state which was provided in discussed court cases. The idea is also to draw attention to the Introduction to the Constitution as its important part.

  • Konstytucja Węgier jako manifest polityczny parlamentarnej większości

    The Fidesz–KDNP coalition won the Hungary parliamentary elections of 2010, which was held in April and May. Coalition capturing two-thirds of seats in National Assembly. Despite the fact that in the Election manifesto were no declarations to change the Fundamental Law, the process of creating the new constitution was started after two months after the election. The final draft of the Basic Law was voted on in National Assembly after less than 9 month after the Election and it’s called “the Fidesz’ Fundamental Law”. During four years (2012–2016) the Parliament passed six amendment acts to the Fundamental Law. Whose main purpose was to adapt it to Fidesz’ political philosophy. Thanks to two-thirds majority, the Government coalition could freely shape the Fundamental Law and (after reform of the judiciary) voluntary in its interpretation.

  • Prawa i wolności człowieka i obywatela w świetle Konstytucji RP

    This article covers considerations on the issues relating to the rights and freedoms of man and citizen in the light of the Polish Constitution. It is a representation of the commonly accepted democratic values, whose integral part are human rights and their mechanisms.On the basis of the material herein, it can be reasonably assumed that the principle of freedom and of human rights became fundamental in the political system of our state and defined the essence of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997. Its introduction helped regulate issues relating to freedom and human rights in the Polish systemic law.

  • Brytyjskie referenda w sprawie członkostwa w Unii Europejskiej. Kilka uwag na temat historii, polityki i ustroju

    go państwa. Po ponad 40 latach członkostwa w instytucjach integracji europejskiej Brytania rozpoczyna zupełnie nowy rozdział zarówno w relacjach ze swoimi europejskimi partnerami, jak też w kształtowaniu własnego porządku prawnego. Artykuł przedstawia kontekst historyczny oraz uwarunkowania polityczno-prawne, które sprawiły, że drugie referendum unijne przyniosło zupełnie inny wynik niż to pierwsze, z 1975 r. Dynamika procesów integracji europejskiej miała kluczowy wpływ na wydarzenia na scenie politycznej Zjednoczonego Królestwa, a te z kolei generowały określone zmiany w systemie ustrojowo-prawnym. Omówione zostały pokrótce przekształcenia legislacyjne, które warunkowały przeprowadzenie obu referendów, kampanie referendalne i towarzyszące im debaty oraz implikacje konstytucyjne wynikające ze specyfiki brytyjskiego ustroju.

  • Myśl polityczna twórców konstytucji V Republiki Francuskiej

    The article presents the background of the ideological formation of the Constitution of the French Fifth Republic. The starting point is the assumption that the state reform made in 1958 had its origin in the crisis internally and in the international environment of France. The internal crisis was associated with political instability, and above all very strong position of Parliament and the chaotic party system. The external environment, in turn, is the collapse of the international role of France and the problems of decolonization, particularly in Algeria. The article presents the political thought of traditionally perceived as the creators of the Constitution 1958. These include André Tardieu, Raymond Carré de Malberg, Rene Capitanta, Michel Debré and Charles de Gaulle. Article proves that they did not have identical ideas that sometimes their views have evolved. Ultimately, however, they contributed to a coherent political thought, which began gaullism, and in the sense of the political system laid the foundation for the constitution of the Fifth Republic. Keywords for this political thought are the rear of the political system in the background values, among which is crucial idea of a strong state; recognition of the necessity to balance the authorities; visibility of the role of the president is perceived, like the military, as chef of state.

  • A tale of two UK’s European referendums. Some remarks on British history, politics and the constitution

    The aim of this article is to present regulations connected with environmental protection on examples three constitutions: Kingdom of Spain, Republic of India and Republic of the South Africa. The aspect of this research is to analyze abovementioned regulations in the context of duties connecting with environmental protection. It is also significant aspect indicated the possibility of constitute the subjective rights to the use of environment and asserting rights directly from culprit pollution in horizontal activity. In this article, considering derives from editorial construction and taxonomy discussing provisions contained in above basic laws. Furthermore, on selected examples from judicature and doctrine had been presented a stance in order to define, which of these constitutional regulations are obliged to protect rights’ properly in cases of environmental protection.

  • Analiza austriackich regulacji prawnych dotyczących odpowiedzialności konstytucyjnej prezydenta

    The text is an analysis of the Austrian legal regulations concerning the constitutional responsibility of the President. Federal President for committing a constitutional delict is responsible before the Constitutional Court. The proposal in this regard may submit a group of parliamentarians and parliament puts indictment. If the Constitutional Court decides the merits of allegations made in the indictment, the president shall be deposited with the office.

  • Konstytucyjna zasada równości na gruncie ustawy z 4 listopada 2016 r. o wsparciu kobiet w ciąży i rodzin „Za życiem”

    This contribution presents issue connected to implementation of the constitutional principle of equality and prohibition of discrimination within Act of 4 November 2016 on the support of pregnant women and families „For life”. Author brings regulations concluded in the content of the indicated act closer, thereafter he performs a presentation of the principle of equality and prohibition of discrimination, with an aid of jurisdiction and doctrine standpoints. Final part of contribution consists confrontation between mentioned principle and pointed prohibition with this part of the „For Life” Act, which sketch presumptions allowing to apply for one time benefit, in the amount of 4 000 zloty, for giving birth to alive child, who were diagnosed with severe and irreversible impairment or with incurable illness endangering their life, under a condition that woman would stay under medical healthcare no later than from 10th week of pregnancy till labour.

  • Ograniczenia wolności działalności gospodarczej na przykładzie orzecznictwa Trybunału Konstytucyjnego

    Submitted study is an attempt to analyze the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court of the freedom of economic activity and its limitations. Both in literature and in the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Tribunal it is accepted that the constitutional freedom of economic activity is not absolute and must be subject to restrictions. In cases brought before the constitutional court there are cited rules in different configurations. In this text the author wants to expand the subject issue and to discuss various conditions that limit freedom of economic activity (which are: important public interest, statutory form and the requirement of the principle of proportionality).

  • Zasada ochrony własności w Konstytucji Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej

    Ownership protection is one of the rights in the political system of the Republic of Poland. Article 21 of the Constitution safeguards ownership protection in general. Other property rights also seem to be protected on the basis of that general provision such as the ones resulting from Article 64 of the Constitution. Although the obligation of legal ownership protection is vested mainly in the state authorities, other entities, including private ones, are also obliged to comply. The right to property is not absolute and in accordance with Article 64 “may only be limited by means of a statute” but only to the extent not violating its substance. What seems worth considering in this context is the issue of limitations of the procurement of the agricultural real estate as well as liberalization of the provisions concerning tree removal.

  • Semantyka norm kompetencyjnych w wybranych konstytucjach państw Europy Wschodniej

    An article dedicated to semantic methods of defining of competitive norms in selected constitutions of Eastern European countries. The principle of legality requires public authorities to act solely on the basis of the applicable law and within the limits defined by them. This means the state body does only what the law expressly permits, and anything else not explicitly stated in the legal provision is prohibited. Therefore, it is very important the legislator speaks deliberately and precisely the legal language. The legislator must avoid a blurred notion and such, that allow for interpretative freedom in normative acts. Taking into account that all legislative activities we perceive to be non-accidental, each legal regulation should have a meaning that makes it impossible to make “arbitrary” decisions.

  • Recepcja kanclerskiego modelu rządów w Polsce

    The Polish executive governance model assumes the existence of a two-part executive, in which the strength of the government lies in its constitutional competences and the power of the president is legitimized by his being selected in general elections. Such situation creates a space for conflict between the highest authorities. It is therefore worth to consider the desirability of making changes in the Polish governance model in the future and introducing into the system of governance a model based on the German system of chancellery governance.

Wiadomość do:

 

 

© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart

Korzystając z naszej strony, wyrażasz zgodę na wykorzystywanie przez nas plików cookies . Zaktualizowaliśmy naszą politykę przetwarzania danych osobowych (RODO). Więcej o samym RODO dowiesz się tutaj.