• Terrorism and Media – an Interactive Modelling of a Message: the Research Framework

    The report presents theoretical framework of relationships between terrorist organisations and media, and it describes them as an interactive modelling of a message. It introduces the concept of mediatisation of terrorism, and it offers a definition of this process. Moreover, the report develops it with six theoretical hypotheses related to: influence of media on selection of terrorists’ targets, adaptation of an act of terror to the ‘logic of media communication’, personalisation of terrorism and celebritisation of terrorists, creation of biased and oversimplified stereotypes, transformation of terrorist objectives into catch-phrases, as well as a role of political violence in agenda-setting of main news broadcasts. The presented concept will be verified in the ongoing comprehensive, quantitative-and-qualitative study on mediatisation of terrorism in American television, that will investigate the process between September 11, 2001 and the Boston Marathon Bombing in 2013. 

  • Commercialization of the Media – TVP Case

    In the process of political, economic and social changes that have taken place in Poland since 1989, state radio and television, so far carefully controlled by the communist government, could not remain unaff ected. The establishment of a new order required several years and involved numerous changes in management and the content of programs. It is often said that this process has not been completed yet. What can be observed a$ er twenty years of transformation is the commercialization of media, whose “public” status is present only in their name. This is particularly apparent in the analysis of Polish television. In fact, the activity of this media is based on certain market mechanisms, including the desire to reach high viewership, attract the attention of advertisers and as a consequence, to maximize profit.

  • The Attributes of the Fourth Estate. In the Area of Medial Theories and Politics

    The term “Fourth Estate” is becoming more and more common and acquires various connotations. It seems that processes of mediatisation of politics and tabloidisation of the media greatly contribute to phenomenon. Numerous examples of that sort are provided by the permanent election campaigns in Poland, mutual relationship between different types of media and political public relations, as well as the relationship between the media and the ruling coalition.

  • Forms of Cyber-bullying from the Aspect of Cyber-victims – Elementary and Secondary School Pupils

    The Internet and cyber-space create a platform where a new form has emerged, i.e., bullying, so far occurring mainly within school premises. The study presents results of empirical research conducted at selected elementary and secondary schools in Slovakia in 2017. The aim of the study was to elucidate the most frequent current cyber-bullying platforms and occurrence of individual forms of cyber-bullying with regard to cyber-victims. The research sample consisted of 1004 respondents, aged 10–20 (AM 14.9). Empirical data were collected using the method of questioning in the form of a written questionnaire. We focused on cyber-bullies, electronic platforms and identification of cyber-bullying forms from the point of view of cyber-victims and pupils’ gender and age. It was found out that 24.50% of pupils reported to have been cyber-victimized, girls more often than boys. The most frequent form of cyber-bullying from the point of view of cyber-victims was abusive or offensive language on the Internet and spreading rumours on the Internet.

  • Media a demokracja w Polsce

    Nowadays, it is more and more often that the decisions of individuals are shaped by the media, and for the permanent dialogue of power and citizens it becomes necessary to apply new information and telecommunications techniques, including the Internet. For a society to be fully called civil society: citizens should be well informed, should be interested in politics, should have equal rights of expression and participation in decision making, all decisions should be subject to public debate. At first glance, it can be seen that virtually none of the points is implemented in practice, but rather are marginalized. And the media has become the leading discussion forum on public and state issues. The author reflects on the influence of democracy and mass media on the course of the election campaign and on the image of the candidate in the election. The media are also presented as so-called the fourth authority (after three forms of power: executive, legislative and judiciary), which controls other authorities and informs the public about possible failures. The role of the fourth power assigned to them seems to be insufficient for the media, more and more often we observe many cases in which the media interfere in the constitutional order. The author notes that it often happens that mass media activities do not serve the good of society and the democratic system. So instead of favorably influencing the development of democracy and social awareness, they limit and deform it.

  • Krajowa Rada Radiofonii i Telewizji jako strażnik wolności słowa w radiofonii i telewizji

    Istotne jest by rozwiązania przyjęte w ramach danego systemu prawnego gwarantowały swobodne korzystanie z wolności słowa. Trzeba jednak mieć na uwadze, że wolność słowa nie ma charakteru absolutnego i dopuszcza się jej ograniczanie, zwłaszcza w zakresie, w jakim wymaga tego ochrona innych praw i wolności. Jak jednak słusznie podkreśla się w doktrynie zwłaszcza w przypadku radia i telewizji limitowanie wolności słowa należy poddać szczególnemu reżimowi. W jego ramach ograniczanie tej wolności powinno następować w wyjątkowo „ostrożny” sposób sprowadzający się do niezwykle drobiazgowej kontroli przyczyn takiego ograniczenia. Organem powołanym do ochrony wolności słowa w radiofonii i telewizji jest Krajowa Rada Radiofonii i Telewizji. Jednocześnie do jej zadań należy stanie na straży interesu publicznego w radiu i telewizji, a więc ochrona również innych praw i wolności. KRRiT nie znajduje się więc w łatwej sytuacji. Nie dość bowiem, że działa w specyficznym sektorze, to jeszcze w jego ramach powinna realizować trudne zadania polegające na ochronie wolności słowa z jednej strony, z drugiej zaś na ochronie innych praw i wolności stanowiących granicę wolności słowa. Ze względu na to, że działania KRRiT mogą prowadzić do ograniczania konstytucyjnych praw i wolności każda z jej decyzji powinna zawierać szczegółową analizę dotyczącą potrzeby wprowadzanego ograniczenia.

  • Świat przedstawiony w emitowanych w Polsce audycjach dla dzieci i młodzieży

    The article is devoted to the content analysis of 19 broadcasts for children and teens in six leading television channels dedicated to minors recipients in Poland. The study has been conducted on the basis of 16 criteria reflecting the positive and negative attributes of the programmes. It has aimed to answer the question of how the world is depicted in these broadcasts, and furthermore what socio-cultural patterns are transmitted to children and adolescents watching their favourite fairy tales and film heroes. The research conducted has proved that it is possible to identify both the best, most valuable from the point of view of the child’s development and socialization channel (it is MiniMini+) and the most harmful, presenting negative values and negative patterns channel (which is Cartoon Network). The text presents the first in Polish media and sociological studies comparative analysis of such a large number of broadcasts for children and youth, and the analysis so widely verifying the content and formal elements of these broadcasts.

  • Edutainment jako przestrzeń edukacji nieformalnej. Edukacyjny potencjał programów telewizyjnych w świetle analizy serialu „Głęboka woda” i wypowiedzi jego odbiorców

    Television is now recognized as a key source of knowledge about the social and cultural reality. TV series is one of the genre with special role on this field. It’s norm-creating properties have been spotted already in the 70’s and used to construct the first, based on narrative, edutainment programs. The article is focused on the series about social workers “Into deep water”. This TV show was creating by Ministry of Labor and Social Policy and it’s first example of education series in Poland. The author analyzes pop culture text based on education-entertainment strategy and educational potential of series. The empirical basis for article are written expression and qualitative research interviews. The aim of the research was verification the educational extent of the “Into deep water” and what it is. The main conclusion that results from the analysis is that the show is more PR tool than educational.

  • The Constitutional Principle of Freedom of press and its Limitations in Journalistic Practice

    In Poland, freedom of press is a systemic principle that protects the rule of law. Relevant regulations regarding this matter are included in the constitution in force since 1997. However, other legal regulations contain solutions that raise objections of the journalistic environment and are described as repressive towards the media. The Article 212 of the Penal Code provides for example a criminal penalty of up to one-year imprisonment for the offense of defamation using mass media. According to journalistic circles, such a provision negatively affects journalistic practice causing the so-called “chilling effect”, i.e. unwillingness to undertake controversial subjects. The discussed issue is analyzed in the light of the provisions of the Constitution, jurisprudence of the Constitutional Tribunal, the Press Law Act, as well as selected articles of the Penal Code.

  • Media Political Bias: In Search of Conceptualization

    The manner in which the media presents its recipients with political content has a strong impact on knowledge, attitudes, opinions and electoral behavior. The content of the media cannot be a full reflection of political reality, but the way in which the reality presents it may be closer or more distant from the idea of objectivity and neutrality. The category describing the scale of deviation from the idea of a balanced presentation of content is the media political bias. The aim of this article is to present this concept and determine the specific features of media political bias, its main determinants, elements of the media which make us deal with biased content, and the relationship between the concept of media political bias and other selected theoretical concepts regarding media.

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