Middle East

  • The AKP in Turkey: Interior Politics and Foreign Issues

    The purpose of this paper is to make a contribution to the understanding of the domestic patterns of the political competition in Turkey. Moreover, the paper will also focus on the new doctrine of Turkish foreign policy implemented after the electoral victory of the pro-Islamic Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi – AKP) in November 2002. In this article the AKP political platform is analyzed as a moderate pro-Islamic party because of its past connections with the Islamic National Outlook Movement of Necmettin Erbakan. In literature on the topic, all the Islamic political parties were connected to the political thought of N. Erbakan and known as the organizations of the National Outlook Movement tradition (Milli Görüş Hareketi). It should be noted that on this point, the first party was the National Order Party (Milli Nizam Partisi), second, the National Salvation Party (Milli Selamet Partisi), third the Welfare Party (Refah Partisi) and fourth the Virtue Party (Fazilet Partisi).

  • The Arab Awakening and Its Political Economy

    Many commentators suggest that the Middle East political turbulence was foreseeable and it cannot be said it had been unexpected. However, the diplomatic and intelligence establishments in the United States and the European Union, which have the most crucial stakes in this region, seemed to have been so preoccupied with focusing on Al Qaeda, Hezbol-lah, Hammas, and the Taliban that in a narrow picture they seem to have lost sight of the revolutionary wave, which has altered the governments in Tunis and Cairo and shaved off some of the most hated and oppressive regimes with the sheer example of Hosni Mubarak and Muammar Qaddafi . The spectacular fall of such dictators as Mubarak, has led to the question, whether the “Arab Awakening” was a  transformation or a revolution. There are also questions concerning the idea of democratisation of the third world and corruption, which change the Arab governments into “bad apples”. According to the western view, democracy is a Janus-faced ideological god, pulling the strings of both politics and economics. One cannot exist without the other, therefore, when we reconsider the political aspect of the Arab uprising, we should not forget about the economy.

  • Tożsamość zbiorowa imigrantów z Bliskiego Wschodu w wybranych państwach Unii Europejskiej

    The collective identity of immigrants from the Middle East in EU countries

    Identity is one of the forms of belonging to specific cultural groups. By that, the individual becomes a member of the larger community. It means that individuals can integrate with each other, act as each other’s specific features. And what is more important to them, all the standards they adopt are the same. In the circumstances, whereas many social groups are forced to leave their countries, their respective objectives are different. Some are leaving for work, some avoiding wars or persecution, and others want to improve their living conditions. This forces us to undertake in-depth analyses of the situation, because the members of other countries are not always favourably disposed to accept foreigners. In the case of people from the Middle East concerns are stronger; the more Europe is struggling with the wave of terrorism. This raises additional concerns. These are strong enough, that it erases the advantages of the influx of foreign labour for an ageing community. Of course Europe undertakes appropriate actions to help the immigrant population. None the less fears are strong enough to block the appreciation of the advantages of this potential.

  • Międzynarodowa socjologia historyczna a studia nad Bliskim Wschodem

    Klasyczne teorie stosunków międzynarodowych cechuje redukcjonizm w procesie wyjaśniania relacji między środowiskiem wewnętrznym państwa a jego otoczeniem międzynarodowym. Jest to szczególnie zauważalne, gdy teorie te aplikowane są do wyjaśniania rzeczywistości pozaeuropejskiej. W odpowiedzi na powyższe wątpliwości teoretyczne artykuł podejmuje próbę rekonstrukcji genezy, podstawowych założeń teoretycznych oraz kierunków badań w międzynarodowej socjologii historycznej. W dalszej kolejności autor prezentuje możliwe kierunki jej aplikacji do badania procesów i zjawisk zachodzących w obrębie tzw. globalnego Południa, na przykładzie regionu bliskowschodniego. Artykuł konkluduje stwierdzeniem, że koncept analityczny socjologii historycznej, ukazujący stosunki międzynarodowe jako trójkąt wzajemnie powiązanych i zanurzonych w kontekście historycznym elementów – państwa, społeczeństwa i wymiaru międzynarodowego – jest odpowiedzią na potrzebę wzmocnienia powiązań dyscypliny stosunków międzynarodowych z innymi dziedzinami nauki.

  • Stosunki egipsko-syryjskie po 2011 roku

    Egyptian-Syrian relations after 2011

    Egypt and Syria have been important actors in the Middle East, a region of considerable geostrategic importance. This article analyses relations between the two countries after 2011 in the context of events related to the so-called Arab Spring. The first part of the study describes the common path Egypt and Syria took over the past millennia, which explains the significance of their mutual relations. In the section that follows, the author shows the destructive impact of processes related to the Arab Spring on relations between these countries, most notably the eruption of the Syrian conflict and the takeover of power in Egypt by the Muslim Brotherhood. Next, the article describes the impact of the fall of Islamists in Egypt in 2013. Although since then relations between the two countries have ceased to be hostile, efforts to repair them remain slow. The author argues that the reasons for this delay could be attributed to the pressures exercised by external actors.

  • Znaczenie rodziny królewskiej w praktyce ustrojowej i politycznej monarchii arabskich: Arabii Saudyjskiej, Jordanii i Maroka

    Constitutional and political role of the royal family in Arab monarchies – Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Morocco

    The article aims to explain the constitutional and political role of the royal family in three Arab monarchies: Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Morocco. The introduction discusses the typology of monarchy, including the division into individual monarchies with the marginal role of the royal family and monarchies where the royal family holds a significant position. Through the use of a comparative method, the article analyses the constitutional position of the royal family according to the normative acts of the studied states. The next part of the article attempts to answer the following questions: what place does the royal family occupy in the political system of their country? do its members have individual competences or share them with other state authorities? The importance of factors such as religion and family history will be emphasized. In addition, the author will indicate areas of social and political life that may be influenced by members of the royal family.

  • The Securitisation of Kurdish Self-Determination as A Challenge for the Sectarian Balance of Power in the Middle East

    The article addresses current questions concerning the Kurdish situation before and after the invasion and expansion of ISIS. It applied the theory of securitisation to study the tangled circumstances and frameworks of Kurdish claims, underlining their attempts at gaining their much-desired independence. This elaboration enables one to recognise the genesis and the local, regional and global context of international actions vis-à-vis Kurdish interests, and the possible supporters and opponents of the Kurdish project of statehood in the Middle East. It portrays also the current perception of Kurdish efforts to establish their own national and legal subjectivity that must be recognised by the majority of state actors in order to meet the indispensable criteria of international law.
    This article is particularly important in the context of recent developments in the Middle East. First of all, it refers to pressures, as well as openly offensive actions targeting the interests and territories controlled by the Kurds in Turkey during the existence of the so-called Islamic State. Secondly, it reflects on actors’ reactions in the international arena, including the countries of the Middle East, towards the independence referendum in Iraqi Kurdistan, as well as on direct actions aimed at shaping a new geopolitical order after the fall of ISIS (attack by Iraqi troops in Kirkuk or the Turkish army in Afrin).

  • Relacje czeczeńsko-saudyjskie (sierpień 1999–luty 2007 r.)

    Relations Chechen-Saudi (august 1997–february 2007)

    In the article, the author presented the most important events relations of Chechen-Saudian from the middle of 1999 to February 2007. The author showed how politics looked like for example during presidency of Aslan Maskhadov’s, Ahmat Kadyrov’s.

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